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i 



Harvard College 
Library 



By Exchange 





3 2044 102 778 065 



Zbc Xaftc (Berman Scries 



Elements oe Gebman 



A PRAOTIOAI^ COtJRSE FOR 



BY 

HENRIETTA K. BECKER, Ph.D, 

THE UNIVBRSITY OF CHICAGO 



CHICAGO 
SCOTT, FORESMAN AND COMPANY 

1906 



\— o!l<< e^ ^1v<=[.öC?^ \^o 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

BY EXCHANGE fRüM 

OIERUN COLLEGE LIBRARY 

JAN. 30, 1926 



1 




i 


Vy .3f ^''- • ;^(y^ 




Copyright, 190S 


By 


SCOTT, FOUESMAN & CO. 



v 



ROBERT O L.A>V COMPANY, 
PRINTERS AND BINDERS, CHICAGO. 



PEEFACE 

The idea of effecting a compromise between the ^'natural'' 
and the "classical" method in the teaching of modern languages 
is not a new one. It has been tried for some time and often 
with considerable success. The advantages of each method are 
so obvioüs to the thoughtful teacher — and the disadvantages no 
less — that it is but natural for a renewed attempt to be made 
to secure a perfeet amalgamation of the benefits of both 
methods. 

In the book herewith presented a thorough study of the 
essential prineiples of German grammar lies at the foundation 
of the lessons. But the means by which these prineiples are to 
be inculcated are induetive rather than deductive. The student 
is first given a literary unit — a story or poem selected because 
of its fitness to illumine the particular point to be studied. 
From this as a text the grammatical rule is inferred, informal 
exercises based upon the chosen unit foUow, and finally the 
new words thus used are impressed upon the memory by con- 
stant repetition. The use of a story or a poem as illustration, 
instead of disconnected sentences, tends to arouse a real interest 
in the mind of the student, besides presenting language facts 
in their natural relationship and environment. These points 
are so well taken, it is hoped, that their pedagogical importance 
need not be further dwelt upon. 

A Word as to the grammatical arrangement. The value of 

first impressions scarcely requires emphasis. It is safe to say 

that the beginning pagf s of a grammar and the opening lines 

of any one chapter in it impress themselves upon the mental 

Vision of the learner witli far greater incisiveness than do the 

i 



2 PREFACE 

facts which are subsequently brought out. The picture grad- 
ually becomes more and more blurred as the mind grows weary 
and as details increase. Thus it would seem highly advisable 
to begin with the most vital element of the language and to 
give to this preeminently the emphatic position. For this 
reason the Verb has been made the leading motive of the book, 

XJnder this arrangement the various elements of the lan- 
guage are grouped around one central point and the student 
deals not with a large number of isolated facts, butwith a 
totality each part of which with its organic functions becomes 
gradually clear to him. When he has finished the book he 
should feel, it is true, that many details remain to be fiUed in, 
but that no large or important portion of the whole is unf a- 
miliar to him. 

The book is divided into ten chapters each one of which 
contains a number of lessons. Every chapter has as a main 
theme some form of the verb which is to be thoroughly learned. 
This theme is generally the subject of the first lesson. Subse- 
quent lessons treat of the main features of the verb form in 
question, supplemented later by the other f orms of the language 
and by the syntax which the student is required to learn dur- 
ing the first year of his high-school German or the first six 
months of German in College. 

The exercises in the book are of a two-fold nature. In the 
first four chapters they consist mainly of such brief questions 
as will bring into streng relief the words and constructions 
previously studied. But from the fifth chapter on the ques- 
tions become wider in scope and afford a larger freedom of 
originality in treatment. For it is expected that the habit of 
analyzing the connected stories will by this time have so gained 
upon the student that he will experience small diflSculty in 
retaining for individual use the longer phrases which they 
contain. The final lesson of each chapter contains a careful 
review of the grammatical Statements made in the preceding 
lessons of the chapter. By means of these summaries the 



PREFACE 3 

Student may bring up all the points previously dwelt upon, 
and by running through the review exercises he may test his 
ability to apply these facts. 

The lessons are supplemented by an appendiz which seeks 
to giye in succinct form a Synopsis of the elements of grammar. 
It may be used both for ready reference and review. The first 
part of it (§§ 1-89) deals with the inflected words so arranged 
as to bring together those which are alike in form, o.g., the 
definite article and the demonstrative prononn, the indefinite 
article and the possessive adjective, etc. An attempt has been 
made to present each page in a form which will render Classi- 
fication and enumeration graphic, in order that visualization 
may assist memory. The second part of the appendix (§§90-249) 
ennnciates the more important rules of syntax with accompany- 
ing illustrations. In both parts the procedure is: article, 
neun, pronoun, adjective, verb. This appendix, ff so desired, 
may be used as a reference grammar in later courses devoted to 
composition work or to the reading of texts. 

In explanation of a few innovations, chief among which h 
perhaps the inflection of the subjunctive mode, it may be said 
that in every case actual usage as found in modern writers and 
in accepted speech rather than grammatical tradition has served 
as guide. 

The new official orthography sanctioned in the year 1901 
and now in force in the public schools of Germany, Switzer- 
land, and Austria has been adopted without change. The 
seventh edition (1902) of the inexpensive and excellent Duden 's 
Orthographisches Wörterbuch is cordially recommended to all 
who wish a safe guide in vexed matters of spelling. 

The Elements of German endeavors to give to beginning 
students of German an opportnnity to acquire a firm grasp on 
the essential facts of the language. It is hoped at the same 
time to stimulate interest because of the chance which it 
affords for the reading of good German and for the continu- 
ous practice of the spoken language in the classroom. For 



4 PREFACE 

only in this way can a sure f eeling for correct form be devel- 

oped. 

It is a most pleasant duty to acknowledge the unusual debt 

of Obligation which the author owes to Professor S. W. Cutting 

of the University of Chicago. From first to last he has shown 

a tirelesfl interest in the book, has offered many helpful sugges- 

tions and has stinted no effort in his desire to be of constant 

assistance. Professors C. von Klenze and Max Batt have also 

done much to further the progress of tho author's work. The 

editorial connection of Philip S. Allen of the University of 

Chicago with the Lake German series during the early stages 

of the preparation of the book and his continued generoos aid 

to the time of its publication have been an invaluable help to 

the author. 

Henbibtta K. Becker. 

Chicago August, 1903. 



CONTENTS 

CHAP. » PAGB 

L Indicativb Singular Present 9 

1. Verb- Third Person ; NounsandPronouas: Nominative 

and Accusative Singular 9 

2. Continuation of Lesson 1 12 

3. Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns: Nomina- 

tive and Accusative 15 

2)cr Kaufmann unb bcr §unb 

4. Verb: First and Second Person : Possessives 18 

5. Grammar Review 21 

II. iNDicATivE Singular Perpect 25 

6. Tense Auxiliary ^ahen 25 

^ie ^a^e unb bie Ttan^ 

7. Tense Auxiliary fein 29 

3)cr (Sd^netbcr unb bcr ©d^ul^ntad^cr 

8. Genitive 83 

3)cr Wiener beg Äönigg 

9. Dative 88 

^ag @(ett)iffen bed SBoIfS 

10. Prepositions with Accusative 42 

(Sonntagmorgen 

11. Dative and Accusative with Preposition 46 

@in Unterfd^ieb, ^a3 S3äd^lein 

12. Grammar Review 51 

III. Indicativb Preterite. Plurals 65 

13. Weak and Streng Verbs 55 

SBag jeber fal^ ; 

14. Weak and Streng Verbs— Continued 61 ' 

©efunben 

15. Plural of Verbs 64 

S)ie »ögel 

16. Plural of Nouns— Streng Declension — Class 1 68 

3)e3 aRanneg »erbienft. ^ad)tüet> 

17. Pljiral of Nouns—Strong Declension — Class II 73 

S)ie SBölfe 

18. Plural of Nouns—Strong Declension — Class III 77 

$erbfllieb. Slbenblieb 

5 



6 CONTENTS 

19. Weak and Mixed Declensions 80 

20. Grammar Review 84 

IV. Indicative Plupebpbct 87 

21. Pluperfect Tense 87 

(Bx l^atte ©^afeen unfer bem §utc 

22. Personal and Reflexive Pronouns 90 

®cr Sßörber 

23. Possessives . . . .- 93 

(Sein SRicfttgfprud^ 

24. Demonstrative and Indefinite Pronouns 97 

3)er (Sinfall 

25. Relative Pronouns 101 

3)cr $rtnj öon ©omburg 

26. Review 105 

V. FüTÜRE AND FüTÜRE PERPEOT 107 

27. aRutterlicbe 107 

28. Adjective Declensions 111 

29. aRutterliebe (©ci^Iuß).. 115 

30. ®ie gaule unb bie greißige 119 

31. %xe gautc unb bie gieißigc (gortfe^ung) 121 

32. ®ie gaule unb bie gieißige vSd^Iug) 125 

33. Grammar Review 128 

VI. Reflexive Verbs 130 

34. 3)ie SBerirrten 130 

35. Cardinais and Ordinals 133 

2)ie SSerirrten (fjortfefeung) 

36. Fractionals 136 

3)ie SBerirtten (Sortfe|uug) 

37. ®ie SSerirrten (©(^lug) 140 

38. Comparison of Ad jectives 144 

2)eutfd^eg ©rfiulnjefen 

39. 3)eutfd|c§ ©c^urmefen (©d^Iug) 148 

40. Grammar Review 151 

VII. Passive Voice 153 

41. 3)eutfd^lanb 153 

42. Word Order 156 

©rlfönig 

43. Transposed Order 160 

feenn ber grü^ling auf bie S3erge fteigt 

44. Conjunctions 162 

©iegfrieb 

45. Grammar Review 165 



CONTENTS 7 

VIII. Modal Aüxiliaries 167 

46. Present Tense » 167 

Sitte an bie Ttuttex 

4.7, Preterite of Modal Aüxiliaries 170 

(Siegfrieb (gortfcgung) 

48. Perfect and Pluperf eot of Modal Aüxiliaries 173 

(öicgfricb (©d^fug) 

49. Future and Future Perfect of Modal Aüxiliaries and 

Passive Infinitives 174 

Äricml^ilbeS %xaum 

50. Grammar Review 177 

IX. The SuBJüNcnvE 178 

51. Present Third Person Singular 178 

%\t (Sonne unb ber SBinb 

52. Present and Preterite 180 

^te ©onne unb ber SSinb 

53. Perfect and Pluperf ect Subjunctive 184 

^aS treue Sfiog 

54 Future and Future Perfect Subjunctive 187 

2)er (Sd^äfer unb ber ßJolbfd^mieb 

55. Subjunctive Passive 190 

^a§ geftol^Iene ^ferb 

56. Ideal Condition 192 

2)er glug ber Siebe. ®er ^önig unb ber Sanbmann 

57. Wish^Unfulfilled 197 

®ie bier SSünfd^e 

58. Wish— FulfiUed ; Desire and Prayer 199 

®er SJlai ift gefontmen 

59. Subjunctive of Doubt 201 

®er gute Äomerab. 2)u bift wie eine S3lume 

60. Grammar Review 203 

X. Imperative. Compounds. Infinitives. Participles 205 

61. Imperative 205 

^eutfd^er diät ^ie SD^a^nung 

62. Compounds 208 

@in griebl^ofggang 

63. Infinitives 212 

®ie beutfd^en ©tobte 

64. Infinitives 815 

^ie beutfd^en ©tobte (Schlug) 



8 APPENDIX 

65. Participles 216 

2)ic beutfd^c (SJefd^td^te 

66. Participles. ; _ o^s 

S)ie beutfd^e ÖJcfd^i^tc (©d^Iug), ®ic SBaAt am 

67. Grammar Review 222 

APPENDIX 

Alphabet 224 

Pronünciation 227 

accidence 
Article 231 

NoüNS — Gender 232 

Declension 233 

Pronoüns 237 

Adjectives— Declension 239 

Numerais 241 

Comparison 242 

Verbs— Conjugations 245 

Tense Auxiliaries 245 

Modal Auxiliaries 256 

Causatives 259 

Reflexive Verbs 259 

Itnpersonal Verbs 259 

Table of Streng Verbs 260 

SYNTAX 

Word Order 265 

UsE OF Article 266 

NoüNS— Syntax of Gases 268 

Nominative 268 

Genitive 269 

Dative 273 

Accusative 277 

Pronoüns 280 

Verbs— -Mode 289 

Indicative 282 

Subjunctive 284 

Imperative 288 

Infinitive 288 

Participle 290 

Passive Voice 291 

Modal Auxiliaries 292 

Impersonal Verbs 295 



ELEMENTS OF GEEMAI^ 

CHAPTEE I 

DTDICATIVE SINGULAR FEESENT 

LES80N 1 
Verb: 3rd person 

Nouns and Pronouns: Nominative and Accusative Singular 

I Masc. 2)rt ^abid^t fliegt fliegt 

Fem. 2)ie ^enne ift gro§. ift 

Neut. ^a« Süc^Iein^ ift «ein. ift 

M. 2)er^ ^abid^t fliegt, er^ ift ein SßogeL er 

F. 2)ie ^enne fliegt, jle ift au^. ein SSogel fle 

N. 2)a8 Md^Iein fliegt ni^t, eS ift ein SSöglein/ eS 

2 VOCABUL ARY » 

fliei fliegt hen bie ^enne bird ein SSoget 

Is ift large grO§ also aiid) 

chidk ba§ S^üd^Iein not nicfit 

hawk ber ^obxä^i smaii Hein nttie Mrd ein SSöglein 

3 ^ The syllables (eitt and djm tnay be added to any noun to ex- 
press diminutive size or endearment. Such nouns are always neuter 
(see App. 13a). 

^ In German the article and the personal pronoun denote the Varia- 
tion of gender even where no sex designation is feit. 

' In the vocabularies the words that represent the new principle 
will be found first. After these will come the other new words in the 
Order in which they ooour in the story or exercise above them. 

9 



10 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [4-8 

4 SüBjECT Objbct 

^ie ^enne fie{)t ben ^nbiü^t. 
®ie fürchtet i|n. 

2)et ^abid)t fielet bie ^tnnt. 
@t jagt jle. 

^ie ^enne liebt baS ^ni^lein. 
®te rnft e8. 



sees 



fielet chases jogt calls rufl 

fears fütd^tct loves liebt 

6 DEFINITE ARTICLE AND PERSONAL PRONOUN 

Nominative Accusative 

Def. Art. Pers. Pron. Def. Art. Fers. Fron. 



bev 


er 


ben 


i|tt 


bie 


fie 


bie 


fle 


bas 


ti 


bag 


e« 



7 INDEFINITE ARTICLE 

Nominative Accusative 

'^in ^abid^t fliegt. (Sine ^enne fielet einen ^abid^t. 

©ine ^enne rnft. ©in ^abid)t fielet eine ^ennc. 

6in Ätid^Iein fommt ni^t. ©ie ^ai ein ^üd^Iein. 

8 



M. 


jNom. 
(Acc. 


Def. Art. 

ber 
ben 


Indef. Art. 

ein 
einen 


Pers. ProiL 

er 
il|n 


F. 


j Nom. 
1 Acc. 


bie 
bie 


eine 
eine 




N. 


j Nom. 
1 Acc. 


bag 
bas 


ein 
ein 


ti 



9-12J 



INDICaTIVE SINGULAR PRESENT 



11 



9 mnt ®efd|id|te 

Sine ^enne fielet einen ^ahxä)t @r fliegt. S)ie 
^enne i)at ein Md^Iein. Sie rnft e8. 2)ag ßüdjlein 
!omnit nid^t, eg ift ungeI)orfani. 3)a fommt ber |)abid^t 
uub l^olt baS Äüd^Iein. @g fd^reit lant^ aber ber ^abid)t 
fri^t ei unb fliegt fort. 2)ie ^enne ift fel^r traurig. 3)a8 
Äüd^Iein ift nun tot. 3)ie SJlutter t)at fein Md^Iein mel^r.^ 
2)ie ^enne i)a§t ben ^abid^t unb fie fürd^tet il)n aud^. 

10 





VOCABULARY 






has 


^at 


and 


unb 


comes 


fommt 


aloud 


laut • 


fetches 


^olt 


büt 


aber 


yells, squeaks fd^tCtt 


away 


fort 


devoiirs 


frtgt 


very 


fe^r 


hates 


mt 


sad 


traurig 


does 


tut 


now 


nun 






dead 
mother 


tot 

bie SBlutter 


Story 


bic ©efd^id^te 


diso bedient 


ungel^orjam 


no 


fein 


then 


ba 


raore 


me^r 



i i 3fft bie ^enne ein Söget? Sie ift ein Sogel. »ft 
fie groß? @ie ift grojj. 3!ft ber ^abid^t ein SSogel? 
©r ift ein SSogel. Q'ft er flein? ®r ift nid^t flein. 
fjliegt ber ^abid^t? @r fliegt, fliegt bie ^enne? 
bag Äüd^Iein? 9iuft bie ^enne baS Mc^Iein? 8ie 
ruft es. ^ommt e8? @8 fommt ni^t. ^\t eg 
ungefjorfam? ^ott ber ^abid^t hai Äüd^Iein? fjrißt 
er e§? 9ft bie 9Kutter traurig? 

12 'lotfein .... iitr)r = has no .... left. 



12 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [18-16 

13 LESSON 2 

SSer fliegt? 3)er ^abid^t fliegt. SBag tut er? ©r 
fliegt. 2öag tut bie ^enne? ©ie fliegt aud^. Oft ber 
^abid^t fe^r gro§? ©r ift nid^t fel^r gro§. 3Bag ift bie 
^euue? ©ie ift eiu SSogeL SBie fliegt ber ^abid^t? 
@r fliegt fd^nett. iJIiegt bie ^txvxt fd^uett? 9iid^t fo 
fd^nett hjie ber ^abid^t. SSie piegt "bai Süd^Ieiu? @8 
fliegt laugfam^ e8 ift !Iein. ^\i e§ aud^ eiu SSogel? ^a, 
eS ift eiu Sögleiu. 

Answer tlie following questions : 

• 

i4 gser fliegt? 2ßa§ ift bie ^tmt'i SSie fliegt ber 
^abic^t? SaSag ift bag ßüc^Ieiu? ^\i bie ^tmt grofe 
ober fleiu? fjliegt ba8 ^üd^Ieiu? Sft ber ^abid^t eiu 
SBogel? ^\i bie ^euue eiu SSogel ober eiu SSögleiu? 
fliegt ber ^ogel fd^uett? 

15 PRONOÜNS 

333eu fielet bie ^tnm'i Sie fielet "özn ^abid^t. ßiebt 
[ie il^u? 9ieiu^ fie liebt il^u uid^t^ fie I)a§t il^u. SSeu 
fie^t ber ^abid^t? ©r fie^t bie ^tnnt. %x\^i er fie? 
"{^a, er jagt fie uub fri^t fie. ßiebt ber ^abid^t bie ^tnwt? 
9teiu^ er liebt fie m&)t SBeu ruft bie ^tmxt'i Sie ruft 
"bai ^üd^Ieiu. ßiebt fie eS? 9a^ fie liebt eS. fjrifet 
ber ^abid^t "bai ^üd^Ieiu? ^a, er fri^t e8. S93eu liebt 
bie ^tnml ^ürd^tet fie htn ^abid^t? SSeu fri^t 
er? S33a8 fie^t bag tüc^Ieiu? ^ört e8 bie SKutter? 
SSer ruft? SBeu ruft bie ^twxt'f SSer fürd^tet "btxi 
^abid^t? SSeu fürd^tet bie ^tixm'i S^ürd^tet bie ^txmt 



16^17] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PRESENT 13 

hm ^abic^t? SSarum? SSa8 tut er? SBag ift ber 
^abic^t? me i[t ba8 Mc^Iein? SBer liebt c8? ®ag 
Ätnb liebt bie ^enne^ ober baS Äinb ^at bie ^enne gern. 
SSaS liebt ba8 tinb? SSer liebt bie ^eme? ^at 
ba8 ßinb bie ^enne gern? SSa8 l^at e8 gern? 2)er 9Kann 
^t einen ^unb. @r l^at ben ^unb gern* ^at bie ^enne 
ben ^abi^t gern? SBarum nid^t? 2)er ^abid^t fri^t 
ba8 Süid^Iein* S)ie 9Rutter l^at ba8 Sünblein gern* SSer 
liebt ba8 Sinb? SBen liebt \>ai Äinb? 

16 







VOCABULARY 




hears 


l^ört 


» 


slow 


langfant 


llkes 


l^ot . . . 


. gern 


yes 


ober 
• men? 


who? 


mcr? 




whom! 


what? 


mag? 




no 


nein 


bow? 


mie? 




why? 


toavum'? 


quick 


ic^nett 




child 


bag S'inb 


so 


fo 




man 


ber 9)lann 


as 


ttjic 




dog 


ber ^unb 



1 7 GRAMMAR REVIEW 

1. Verbs in third person sing, indicative pres. end in 1. 

2. All nouns are masculine, feminine, or neuter, as shown 
by tbe form of tbe article. 

3. Tbe definite article nominative singular is ber, bte^ ba§. 

4. Tbe definite article accusative singular is bcit^ bte^ baS. 

5. Tbe indefinite article nominative is etti^ eine, ein. 

6. Tbe indefinite article accusative is einen, eine, ein. 

7. Tbe nominative and accusative forms of tbe personal 
pronouns in tbird person aro : er fie eS 

iffn {!e eS 



ELKMESTS OF GEHMAS 



[IS 



EEVIEW ESEHCISES 

. F:'Io;t tM ivrl».- lie&cnne— ein fiü(^l^«- 
Sabictt jdinrlL los Südilciii M««- ^" 

iirant laut laö ÄSdilein ungei)oriant. 

nobiiiit bo4 fiüdilcin unö es. 

/. i^i7/ o.,( ir,;/, „„,11. unJ tifßnilf article : 

— fiot ein Süilein. nie««- ^^^^ 

Sie ©cnne ruft . tommt ntcfjt. 

— lomou unb friBt . ji^tcit. 

tri|t baiSüdiltin. üt tot. Sie SKuttcr 

nidit mrtr. ^aät bei» $obict)t. 

— (liegt langiam. ilieflt idjneU. ^ 

ein. iit ein Soacl. l(t au(^ ei» 

:1. ijt ein 'itöälein. 

'II. Fin o;l iritl, ,„w,i „,)-! imi.'ßnite article: 

— iit traurig, ^et iiabidit iriöt . 

le Ijat . Xie ^lenne nclit . ■ 

itet ben ^abid)t. iit uiii}ef)OTiain. 

l idiiictt. iliegt loniiiaui. tft tlein. 

— iit groii. iriSt . iif)teit 

2ic ■äJiutter l)at metir. 

ri'. F;II ,).,/ iritl, i.,,m,„J prnnouns: S« 

■mt iit ein -liojfl, iit nroB- fliegt \iiwt 

-f enne iit aud) ein ^i!oflel. ilicgt langiam. ®il8 

Hein iit cia -iiäiicldieii. iit ungeliotiam. Ei' 

".""t — imb — tomml uidit. ^cr £iabic^t tommt 

bic ©eiine iiclit — . 2if iHiftt unb fürt^tct — . 

Mutblein ,iti,t — „w,,. jie aRiittet ruit— . 

(»mmt nidit. 2tr .finbidit irifet . 3)aä mif 

9»« nic^t. 2cr j;iabid)t fie^t . 



1Ö-21] 



INDICATIVE SINGULAR PRESENT 



15 



LESSOX S 
Demonstrative and Interrogative Fronouns : Nom. and Acc. 

\ 9 Ser Aaufntann unti her ^wx^ 

©in Kaufmann t)at ein ^ferb* ßr reitet eS. ®tefer 
Siaufmann t)at eine 83örfe* 3)ieje fällt nnb ber Äanf== 
mann fiet)t "bai^ m6)t 2)er ^nnb fiet)t bieg/ er bellt 
nnb jpringt. 2)er tanfmann benft: ,^3)iefer ^nnb ift 
tott!" 3)ann nimmt er^ ba8 ©etoel^r nnb erjd^ie^t ben 
,^unb. 3)er ^nnb ftitbt nnb ber Sanfmann reitet tranrig 
tt)ctter; er ^t biefen ^nnb jel^r gern. 35a öermi^t er 
feine SSörfe nnb ge^t jnrüd nnb finbet fie. Slber e8 ift jn 
fpät, ber ^nnb ift nnn tot. 2)er Äanfmann ift fel^r 
tranrig; ®r l^at ben ^nnb gern, nnb eg tnt' il^m leib/ 
ba§ biefer tot ift.^ 

20 VOCABULARY 

merchant ber Kaufmann 



rides 


reitet 


falls 


faßt 


barks 


beßt 


Jumps 


fpringt 


thlnks 


ben!t 


takes 


nimmt 


sboots 


erjc^ieftt 


dies 


ftirbt 


luisses 

• 


üermi^t' 


goes 

* 


ge^t 


finds 


fittbet 



horse 


ba« ^ferb 


purse 


bie »örfe 


mad 


toU 


then 


bann 


gun 


bo« ©emel^r' 


on 


ttjciter 


back 


jurüi' 


toolate 


au fpät 


sorry 


leib 


that 


bag 



2 I * iHld, biti— neuter demonstratives referrin^ to preceding sentence. 

^Observe Inversion of subject and predicate caused by prece 
dence of the adverb blllttl. 

^r# tut i^m Irill = be is sorry. 

^ Note that the verb comes last in the dependent clause. 



16 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[28-ae 



22 



Nom. 



Dehokstbatiye and Ikteabooative 

toeld^rr Kaufmann? 



Acc. 



23 



ber Kaufmann biefet Kaufmann 

jener Kaufmann 

toel^tn Kaufmann? 
bex Kaufmann biefex i^aufmann 

jenni Kaufmann 

wetd^e »örfc? 
Nom. & Acc. bie a3örfe bicfe BiJrfe 

jene 85örfc 

»el(^« ^ferb? 
Nom. & Acc. ba8 ^ferb biefe« ^ferb 

ieneS ^fcrb 

Mascuunb 

( aSeld^er Kaufmann reitet? 
\ 3)iejer Kaufmann rettet» 

f SBeld^en ^unb fd^ie^t ber Äauftnann? 
( liefen ^unb f^ie^t er* 

Feminine 

i SEBcIc^e »örje fättt? 
t 3fcne »örfc fättt. 

SBc^e Sörfc ftc^t bcr ^unb? 
:3cne S5örfc ftcl^t er. 

Neüteb 

SSelc^e« ^ferb frifet? 
®iefe8 ^ferb frijst 

aa3eld)e8 ^fetb reitet ber Kaufmann? 
3)iefe8 ^ferb reitet er* 

26 The demonstrative and interrogative pronouns biefet, btcfCr 
btefei (this), jener, iene, ieneS (that), toeld^et, n^eld^e, lueld^ei 
(which), are inflected like the definite articlein the nominative 
and accusative cases. 



Nom. 



Acc. 



24 



Nom. 



Acc. 



25 



Nom 



Acc. 



I 
{ 



27-29] mDICATIVE SINGULAR PRESENT ir 

27 SBa* i)at biefer 9Jiann? (£r ^at einen ^nnb* SBie ift 
jener ^unb? Qfener ^unb ift fel^r tren^ SSaS tut biefer 
«anfmann? Cr reitet aSagfättt? ©ie^t ba8 ber Kauf- 
mann? Stein, er fie^t ba* nid^t^ SBer fie^t e8? SBa« 
tut jener ^unb? äWerft e8 ber Kaufmann je^t? 9?ein, 
er nterft eS je|t aud^ nid^t. äßaS benft er? ^^t hai 
ttal^r? SSa8 tut jener SRann bann? ©tirbt ber ^unb? 
9Bie ift ber Kaufmann? SSermiftt er nun jene ^örfe? 
^inbet er fie? 3fft ein ^unb ein Stier? 

^at ber Kaufmann ein ^ferb, einen ^unb, eine $enne 
ober einen ^abid^t? S5Ba8 tut ber ^abid^t? bie ^enne? 
ber ^unb? ba« Küchlein? 35er ^unb bettt^ 2)iefer 
$unb ift groß. Sßeld^er ^unb ift grau? Qfener 
^unb ift grau. <3febe ^enne pidFt hai Korn. äBeld^er 
^unb bellt? Qfeber ^unb bellt. SBeld^en ;^unb f|at ber 
Kaufmann? @r l^at biefen ^unb. 

SBeld^e ^enne ruft i^r Küd^Iein? 2)iefe ^enne ruft 
ed. äBeld^er ^abid^t fliegt? Steuer ^abid^t fliegt, ©iel^t 
ber ^abid^t biefed ober jened Küd^Iein? (£r frißt jebeS 
Küd^IeiU; baS^ er fängt 3fft biefe ^enne traurig? SBeI= 
d^en ^unb erfd^ießt biefer Kaufmann? SSSeld^e S3drfe 
oermißt jener Kaufmann? SBetd^en ^unb l^at biefer 
Kaufmann gern? 

VOCABÜLARY 



notices tnerft 


true toal^r 


picks piit 


animai bad Xier 


cfttches fängt 


gr»7 «tan 




•very lebet, jcbt, iebe« 


faithfui treu 


gram bad Stovn 


now je^t 


wnich bai» 



29 'ktl, ral. pron. sBs wluoh. For word order of. 8I9 4. 



18 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[30-88 



LESSON 4 
Verb : Ist and 2nd person. Possessives . 



30 S&aS i(^ 

^6) Wtht bic 33Iunte, 
^^ liebe bag @piel, 
^6) Hebe bie ©d^ule^ 
i^d^ liebe gar öieL 

^6) liebe ben SSoget, 
@r fingt gar fo jd^ön/ 
^c§ liebe bie SBiefe, 

S4 '^i^'^^ ^i^ ^ö^'ii/ 



31 



iiove id^ liebe 

youlove bU Uebft 
he loves Ct Üebt 

icaii id^ rufe 

youcall \^Vi rUffi 
hecalls tX rUft 



liebe 

2)ie @rbe, ben ^imntel^ 
2)ie ©onne, ben ©tern^ 
^6) liebe baS atteg, 
Sd^ l^ab^ es jo gern*^ 

:3d^ liebe ben 9Kenfd^en^ 
S)a8 ^erj unb ben 9Jlut, 
Sd^ liebe l^eräinnig, 
S93ag fc^ön ift unb gut 

ihave id^ l^abe 

youhave bU l^ttfP 
hehas er f)af 

ising id^ finge 
you sing bu fingfi 
he sings er fingt 



32 



VOCABULARY 

flower bic SluittC heaven 

game böÖ @^)tel sun 

school bie ©d^Ule star 

a great deal gdt bicl all 

exceedingly gQt mau 

beautiful fd^Ölt heart 
meadow bic SBicfc 
heights bic ^Öl^CU 



earth 



bie @rbe 



ber ^imntel 
bie ©onne 
ber ©tern 
aUed 

ber SKenfd^ 
ba§ ^crg 

courage ber 9Rut 

heartiiy j^erjinniß 



good 



gut 



33 ^ ßW fo Wöll — idiom : 80 very charmingly . 

2Cf. 1«. 

'Note Omission of b before f| and t, an example of the wear- 
ing-off procx'ss which words undergo. 



34 3«] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PRESENT 19 

34 9c^ liebe bie Sonne, liebft bu fie? Qa, i^ liebe bte 
8onne unb ben Stern* ßiebft bu bie SSiefe mel)r al8 
ben tßJalb? 9?ein, iä) Hebe ben SBalb ebenjo fel^r me^ 
bie SBieje. <^aft bu bie 83tume gern?^ ^a^ iä) ^abe bie 
Slume, bag @piet unb bie Schule jet^r ßern* äBaS {)aft 
hu lieber,^ ba§ (Spiel ober bie ©d^nle? ^ä) l^abe baS 
©piel gern unb auä) bie Sd^ule, aber id^ glaube bod^/ 
ic^ l^abe baS ©piel ettoaS^ lieber» 

393eld^e S5lume liebe id^? ^ä) liebe bieje 93lume unb 
jene, i^ liebe jebe 33luthe. S93ag l^at biefer SJlenfc^ gern? 
@r l)at aUe8 gern, toai^ j^ön ift SBeld^er SSogel fingt 
fd^ön? ^at biefer SBogel ein ^erj? Qfa, jeber SSogel 
l^at ein ^erj* S93a§ l^at jeber SSogel? 2Beld^eg Md^- 
lein l^at biefe ^enne gern? 3=ene ^enne l^at biefeg 
M^lein gern* 2Beld^en ^unb l^at biefer 9Rann gern? 
@r ]^at biegen ^unb gern* 

35 Possessives 

393en t)at biefer 9)Zann gern? ®r l^at feinen Sßater 
unb feine 9Jiutter gern* ^aft bu beinen SSater unb beine 
aKutter gern? Q'a, gett)i|! ^6) ^ahe meinen SSater unb 
meine 9Kutter fel^r gern* ^aft bu beinen Dnfel lieber aU 
beine 2:ante? ^d^ l^abe fie'' gleid^ lieb*® ^aft bu einen 
©ro^tiater unb eine ©ro^mutter? ßiebft bu fie? 

36 ' eintfo fe^r ttiie = just as much as. 
^ lafl titt . . . . ttcni, cf . itt. 

^tltt (afl liebet = you prefer. 

* ill| glattbe tlOft = I rather think. 
^ ettnad = somewhat. 
« ttÄe§ ttlll§ = aU that. 

7J|e=they, them (see she, her = flc, p. 10). 

® m Jttfit n^ ftl^i* Krt = I love them alike (see ii^ Helle . . . eütttfp 
fe^r tute, note l above). 



20 



ELEMENTS OF OERMAN 



[:):-40 



37 ^aft bu beinen ®rogt)ater ebenfo gern toit beitte 
©roBmuttcr? ^aft bu fie gleich Heb? äßetc^e« Mc^= 
leiu l)at bie ^cune gcru? ®ie l^at il^r Stüäflexn geru* 
©iel^ft bu bic ^enm uub il^r ftüd^teiu? 3fa, id^ fel^e 
\\e. ^aft bu fie Qexn? SSBa* l^aft bu lieber, bie ^enne 
ober baS Md^Ieiu? äßeld^e ^enue l^aft bu lieber, biefe 
ober jeue? äßaS l^at ber ^aufmauu lieber, feiuen ^uub, 
feiu ^ferb ober jeiue SJörfe? ^at ber Äaufmauu nuu 
uoci^ eiue Sörfe? Slein, er l^at feiue 85örfe mel^r uub 
aud^ feiueu ^uub. ^aft bu eiueu ©d^mager? 



38 




NOMIITATITES 




ein 


»«trr 


eine flttttter 


eittINnI 


xä) «ei« $ater 


meine liDbtter 


»leixtinb 


bu iieiii 


n. 


beine „ 


kri» „ 


er fei» 


n 


feine „ 


fei» „ 


fte i|r 


n 


i^re „ 


i|r n 


es fei» 


H 


feine 


fei» „ 


fei» 


n 


feine „ 


!H» „ 


39 




Accus ATI VES 




einnt fßaitt 


eine SIntter 


einftink 


meine» Sßoter 


meine !d9^utter 


«lei» ^inb 


bcine» 




beine „ 


kei» „ 


feine» 




feine 


fei» ,, 


il^re» 




i^re 


\^ n 


feine» 




feine 


fei» „ 


feine» 




feine „ 


tei» „ 



40 Kote that the possessive prononns and the word feill 
(no) are inflected like the indefinite artide in nominative and 
accusative. 



41-48] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PRESENT 21 

4 1 Sa, id^ f)aht einen ©d^mager nnb eine @(i^ttägerin 
unb iä^ l^abe meinen ©d^wager nnb meine ©d^Mägerin 
jel^r gern» äßen l^aft bn lieber, beinen SSetter ober beine 
©onfine? 3fd^ l^abe meinen SSetter ebenfo gern wie meine 
©onfine. ^aft bn feinen SSater nnb feine SKntter? Stein, 
id^ l^abe feinen SSater nnb feine SRntter* ^aS ^inb l^at 
toeber SSater nod^ 9ßntter, e8 ift eine SBaije. 

42 VOCABULARY 

fatber ber SBater suu no($ 

yes, certalnly |a^ 9^h)i§ brother-in-law bet ©d^tuaget 

oncie ber Onfel sister-in-iaw bte ®äjito&qtnn^ 

ftunt bte Xante oousin (maie) bet äJetter 

grandfather ber ^rO^Dttter oousin (fexnale) bte Qiouft'ne 

grandmotlier bte (SxO^tmiitt nelther . . . nor tOeber . . . ttod^ 

orpiuin bie SBaife 

43 Compare ber Sd^toager, bie ^d^toägertn* What is the feminine 
snflSx ? What change in the original word is effected by the 
snffiz ? Form feminines of %n Seigrer (teacher) , ber SdjiUer 
(Student), ker llillig (king). 

LE880N 6 

QRAMMAR REVIEW 

44 1. Present indicative endings are: 

First person e 
Second person (e)fl 
Third person (e)t 

45 2. The definUe article, demonstrative and interrogative 
pronouns are inflected alike in the nominative and accusative. 

46 3. The indefinite artiole, possessive pronouns, and lein 
are inflected alike. 

47 4. Personal pronouns must agree with their antecedents 
in gender whether the neun represents a person, an animal, or 
a thing. 

48 ^ For ezplanation of the umlaut in C4tti(erilt see App. ?• 



22 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [49-56 

49 PARADIGMS 

id^ ^aht xä) rufe 

bu l^ajt bu rufft 

er l^at er ruft 

60 Dbfinite Article 

Masc. Fem. Neut. 

Noni. ber 9Rann bie 9JJutter Hi Stxnh 

Acc. ben SKaun bie SKutter Hi Sinb 

61 Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronoun 

Nom. biefer ^unb jene ©d^ujefter ttjeld^eSÄinb? 
Acc. btefeii ^unb jene ©d^tuefter ttjeld^eSÄinb? 

62 Indefinite Article 

Nom. ein SSogel eine 35Iume ein ^ferb 

Acc. einen SSogcI eine Slume ein ^ferb 

53 Possessive Pronoun and fein 

Nom. mein Dnfel il^re Sel^rerin !ein ©etoel^r' 
Acc. meinen Dnfel i^re ßel^rerin fein ©etoe^r 

64 Personal Pronoun 

Nom. et fie ti 

Acc. ifin fie ti 

66 



1 


IDIOMS 


lUke 


xä) l^abe . . . gern 


l prefer 


xä) ^ait . . . lieber 


I llke equally well , 


xä) l^abe . . . gteid^ lieb 


l rather think 


x6) glaube bod^ 


l have no . . . lef t 


ic^ ^abe fein . . . mel^r 


he is Rorry 


, e^ tut if)m leib 



56] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PRESENT 23 

56 REVIEW EXERCISES (Written) 

/. AnsweVj using as many pronouns as possihle : 

1. SBeld^cr Kaufmann ^t ben ^unb? 2. SSaS l^at bie 
^ennc? 3. SBcIci^en ^unb fd^ic^t bcr Kaufmann? 4. 
SSie fliegt bcr ^abic^t? 5. SBer ft^ie^t ben ^unb? 
6. aaSag tut ber Sßogel? 1. SSa« ^abe ic^ gern? 8. SBen 
l^aft bu lieber, ben ©ro^öater ober bie ©rofemutter? 
9. aäJen liebt ba8 Äinb? 10. SBag liebt e8? 11. Söaö 
liebe ic^? 12. SBag üerüert ber Kaufmann? 13. S33er 
nterft eg? 14. SSag tut ber ^unb? 15. SSelc^en 
^unb erfd^ie^t ber Kaufmann ? 

II. Fill out: 

1. 35ief — 9)?ann liebt fein — ,^unb. 

2. S)ief— 9J?utter ruft i^r ÄHnb. 

3. S)ief— ftinb fie^t fein— 9Jlutter. 

4. ^aft bu aJlutter? 

5. ^at er 9Jlutter? 

6. %u SSaije ^t Sßater 9Kutter. 

7. 35ie SSaife ^t SSater unb 9Jiutter. 

8. 9Kein ©d^ttjager l^at Äinb. 

9. ^ein — ©d^ttjögerin l^at aud^ ein Äinb. 
10* 3fen — S3Iume ift fel^r fd^ön. 

777". Use in sentences: biefen, meine, il^r, fein, 
feine, ben SSater, fd^iefet, fd^iefee, liebt, l^at . . . gern, ^t 
. . . lieber, l^abe . . . ebenfo gern tt)ie, id^ glaube bo^, 
ettüag, feinen» 

IV. Translate: 1. This bird sings beautifuUy. 2. It flies 
qaickly. 3. That hawk catch es the chiek and eats it. 4. The 
mercbant shoots bis dog and be is sorry. 5. A motber loves ber 



24 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [57 

ohild very (much).* 6. Have you a brother-in-law? 7. My 
sister-in-law is an orphan, she has neither father nor mother. 
8. I have no purse« 9. The horse is an animal. 10. The dog 
is also an animal. 11. This hawk chases that chick. 
12. Which man loses his purse? 13. Do you prefer this dog? 
14. Do you love your grandmother and yonr grandfather 
equally well? 15. What do you like better, school or play? 
16. I rather think I prefer play. 

67 ' Words in parentheses are not to be translated; words in brack- 
ets are to be inserted in the translation. 



»8-611 INDICATIVE SINGULAR PEKFECT 25 



CHAPTER II 

nmicATivE snroüLAB peafect 

LE880N 6 

58 Tense Auxiliabt Italien 

S)ic ^cnnc }^tii einen ^aMd^t gefeint. Sie $at x^n 
grfftr^tet unb ^t "ba^^ tüd^Iein grrttfnt. ^i ^at bie 
Butter nid^t gebort. %a l^at.eS ber^abid^t grfrtffrit. 
^aS ^inb |at bie (Sonne gelteit. Qfc^ ^alie ben ^nnb 
geUeit. ^a|l bn ben ^nnb gefeHen? ^at ber ^auf^ 
nyinn \>vx ^nnb gerttfen? 

59 Streng Veybs Waak Verbs 

(W) !^at gcfci^Ctt (türmtet) i^at gcfürd^tet 

(ruft) l^at gcrufe« ffiört) i^at gc^rt 

(frißt) l^ot gefrcffe« (lieW) i^at gcUcbt 

60 Note difference in perfect participle of strong and of 
weak yerbs. Obserye that the perfect tense is nsed in German 
for the simple statement of a faci in past time. (See App. 177.) 

6 1 SBaS ^at ber ^abic^t getan? @r l^at ein ^äc^Iein 
gefreffem ^at bie ^enne baä Äüd^Iein gernfen? ^a, 
fie I)at e8 gernfen, aber e8 l^at nid^t gel^ört Sßer l^at 
bag Äüd^Iein gernfen? $at e8 geprt? ^at bie ^enne 
5a3 Mc^tein gern getjabt? ^at \>Oii Äüc^Iein bie SKntter 



26 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [62-65 

geliebt? ^at bie ^enne ben ^abi^t geliebt? 9Zein^ fie 
^at i^n ni(|t geliebt^ fonbern^ fie ^at xi)n getiaßt SBen 
l^at bag ^inb gern gel^abt? Söen ^at eine ^enne gern 
gehabt? SSen ^at fie gefürchtet? 

62 Present Perfect 

Weak 

\d) fürchte xä) l^abe gcfürd^trt 

/, ^örc „ „ gehört 

n ^offe „ „ gefaßt 

„ \)^\^t gern „ „ gern gehabt 

Strong 

id^ fel^e id^ Iiabc gefc^eti 

iy^^ /, /, getan 

treffe „ „ gefreffctt 

rufe „ „ gerufen 



f/ 



// 



63 PARADIGM 

Perfect Tensb — Singular 
Weak Strong 

id^ l^abe gefürd^tet id^ l^abc gerufen 

bu l^oft „ bu l^aft ,, 

er l^at „ fie ^at „ 

64 ^ie Aat^e itttb bir Staue 

(Sine ^a|e l^at immer eine SKanS gejagt* S)a l^al 
bie 9Kang bie Äa^e fel^r gefürd^tet unb fel^r ge^a^t* 
©nblid^ l^at bie 9Jian8 einen ©infatt gel^abt* @ie l^at 
gebadet: ^,Sd^ gel^e an8 unb faufc eine Stelle, bie^ l^ängc 

öS ^ fottbem = but, used after a negative clause to introduce an 
affirmation, the opposite of what has been denied. Wwi is used for 
bat to introduce an additional thought (after either positive or nega- 
tive Statements). 

ii)l|f = demonstrative fem., masc. bft. neut. |ia9. 



66-68] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 27 

id^ ber Äa^c* an. 2)ann ^öre xä) c8 immer, »enn bie Äa|e 
f ommt." @ic l^at alfo^ bie ©d^eUe gefauft $at fie bieje 
ber Äa|e angel^ängt?' Slein, fie fürd^tet bie Äa^e fo 
fel^r, ba| fie fd^nett f orttäuft,' tüenn jene fommt. @o gel^t 
bie Sa^e nod^ l^eute* ol^ne ©d^ette umljer* 

66 VOCABULARY 

chased gfjagt had gehabt 

feared OefÜrd^tft thonght gebadet 

hated gel^ügl bought gffaufl 

bang gelängt 

cat bie föa|e i bang onto id) l^änge an 

aiways immer i near id^ l^örc 

mouse bie SÄttUlJ when tOeiUt 

then ba so alfo (resumptivo) 

flnally Cltblid^ I run i^ laufe, (bu Wufft, 

idea ber (giufQß ct läuft) 

I go out id^ gel^e au« without o^ne 

ibuy id^ faufe about uml^er' 
bell bie ©d^ette 

67 aSag l^at bie Äa^e immer getan? Sie l^at bie 2Rau8 
Ö^Jöflt» ^at bie 2Rau8 bie Äa^e gern gel^abt? 9iein, fie 
l^at fie nid^t gern gel^abt, fie l^at fie gel^agt unb gefürd^tet. 
aSag ^at bie Wlani gefauft? $at fie ber Äa^e bie 
©d^ette angel^ängt? SBarum nid^t? ^at bie Äa|e nun 
eine ©d^eHe? SBie get)t fie nod^ l^eute uml^er? 

68 ^^tt fta^e = dative form. 

3||if0sso, resumptive; never the English also. 

'attgelillgt. Note that the partiole atl isattached to the parti- 
ciple, making one word. Observe sünilar position of partiole in 
firtlitlft^ where Iftitft is placed last in the dependent clause. See 21, 4. 

^nod| |filtr=s still to-day (a redundanoj of expression common in 
German, nOfl| itf^i, 1tOd| immer « still). 



28 ELEMENTS OF GERM AN [0^-71 

69 GRAMMAR 

1. The perfect tense is composed of the tense aaxiliary ^ai + 
perfecta participle. Note that the perfect participle of all verbs 
begins with the augment ge, but that some verbe add (e)t to 
the Btem, while others add (e)tl and change the stem vowel. 
The former are called weak verbs, the latter strong» The per- 
fect participle of each verb must be learned. The participle 
comes last in the sentence. 

2. The perfect tense is often used in German where in Eng- 
lish the preterite would be employed. See App. 177. 

70 WRITTEN EXERCISES 

/. Write perfect parüciples of: id^ fürd^te, id^ 
treffe^ id^ ^be, id^ \t^t, bu ^x% bu faufft, bu l^afet/ er 
l^at gertt; er pngt^ er tut 

//. Write out the paradigm of the ahove verhs 
in aingular perfect. 

III. Answer: SEBen l^at bie ^enne gel^aftt? SBeld^eS 
Äüd^Iein l^ot fie gern gel^abt? SSaS l^at ber Äaufmann 
oerloren?* SBer l^at eg gefeiten? SSa8 ^at bag Stnb 
geliebt? SBen ^at baS Äinb geliebt? SBer ^t Weber 
SSater nod^ SKutter gel^abt? 

IV. Translate and answer ^ using perfect tense: Whom did 
the hen fear? The chick did not fear its mother. The mer- 
chant had a horse. The mouse hated the cat. Whom did the 
hen like? The merchant did not see the purse. The hawk 
devoured the chick. 

What did the dog do? Who devoured the chick? Whom 
did the hen call? Did yoii call? Ithought: "He did not do 

7 I 1 Sjncopated f rem l|a|feil, cf . i|afl for Ijatp. 
«Perf. part. of fr %tx\\txi, he loses. 



72-76] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 29 

this.'^ Did the moase bny a bell? The cat always^ chased the 
moQse. Why did the moase fear the cat? 

LE880N 7 

72 Tensb Auxiliaby fein 

tiefer ^abid^t i|i fel^r fd^ned gefiogeit* ^ene ^enne 
ifi grtontnteii unb l^at i^r Md^Iein gerufen, ^er Kauf- 
mann ifl fd^nett geritten, ber ^unb ifl gef^ritiige». dienet 
Kaufmann l^at biefen ^unb getötet, ba ifl biefer ge$ 
fiorieii. 3^ened Küd^Ietn ift fd^nett gefunimeii, aber ber 
^abid^t ift nod^ f Queller' gefolgt. 

73 Fabtioiples 

Streng Weak 

(fßeflt) tftgefloge» (foiflt) ift gefolgt 

(fommt) ift gef omme« 
(rettet) ift geritten 
(f»)rin8t) ift gefprungen 
(ftirfit) ift geftorben 

74 Note that all the above verbs are intransitive and express 
a transUion either of eondition (as geflorieit) or of place (as 
gefornmen). Such yerbs are conjugated with ifl instead of ^at 
in the perfect tense. In the same manner is conjugated the 
verb ifl — er ifl getotfett, and mirb — er ifl gemttlieit. 

75 ^er @i$iieiber mib ber ^i^nffmüil^tt 

©in ©d^ul^mad^er ift einmal fel^r franf gewefen. 3)a 
l^at er einen 2)oiEtor gerufen. 3)iefer ift gefommen unb 
l^at t)iel 9Jlebijin öerfd^rieben. SBefonberä I)at er befohlen: 

76 ^ Observe position of aJways in text. 

*liadi filliirBrt = still more quickly (cf. ii0d| |mtr, 68,4). 



30 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[77-78 



„@ie effen nic^t«!"^ 9lnn l^at aber ber ©^u^mac^er fei^r 
gern^ Sauerfraut ßcgeffen unb ba er junger gehabt ^at,^ 
l^at* jeine 5rau einen S^opf ©anerfrant gefod^t, i^r 
SJlann l^at tüd^ttg gegeffen nnb ift balb gefnnb genjorben* 
2llg ber 2)oftor bag gehört ^at,' ^at er in fein Jiotijbnd^ 
gefd^rieben: ^^©anerfrant ift ein SRittel gegen ben 
Xijpt)ng/' Salb ift and^ ein ©d^neiber franf gettjorben. 
2)er 2)oftor ift gefommen nnb l^at fogleid^ ©anerfraut 
üerfd^rieben. Slllein^ ber ©d^neiber ift geftorben* 3)a 
ijat ber 3)oftor in fein Slotijbnd^ gefd^rieben: ,^©aner= 
frant fnriert ben ©d^nl^ma^er® nnb tötet ben ©d^neiber*"^ 



77 


VOCABULARY 








Perfbct Tense 






Strong 




Weak 


was 


ijl gclocfen 


had 


^at gehabt 


came 


ijl gefommen 


cooked 


^ai gefod^t 


prescribed 


f)ai öerfd^rie' ben^ 


heard 


fyii gel^ört 


commanded 


^at befolj'len^ 


eure 


^ot hiriert' 


ate 


i^at gegejfen 


kill 


i)ai getötet 


beeame 


ifl getporbeu 






wrote 


f)at gefd^rieben 







78 1 3if efffit iiiil|(|— an indicative used for a oommand = you must 
eat nothing. 

*^ |at %ttn 0rttffftlt = liked to eat. Observe order of words; of.21,2. 

'Observe oraer of words; cf. 21, 4. 

^Observe order of words; cf. 21, 2. Here the preceding adverb is 
a temporal clause. 

*aftrttt = but. adversative after either positive or negative State- 
ment; see fonbem and ahtt, 65, 1. 

^tltlt ®4lttniail|er = shoemakers— noun with generic article Stands 
for entire class: see App. 100« 

^ Note that where the first syllable of a verb is an unaccented pre- 
fix (er, ae, tier, be. ger, mt) the augment ae is omitted in the parti- 
ciple. The same is true of verbs ending in ie'rtlt (which last are of 
French origin). 



79] 



INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 



31 



taUor 


ber ©d^neiber 


pot 


ber Jo<)f 


shoemaker 


btx Bdi)Vif)mad)tv 


mau, kusband 


ber ajlann 


onoe 


etrtmar 


heartily 


tüd^ttö 


slck 


fron! 


soou 


balb 


doctor 


ber 3)oftor 


well (kealthy) 


gefunb' 


medicine 


bic ajiebijin' 


uotebook 


ba« SRotiä'buc^ 


especially 


bcfon'ber§ 


meaus 


ba§ ajUttel 


nothlng 


ntd^tS 


agaiust 


gegen 


now, well 1 
(expletive) f 


nun 


typhold fever 


ber Xt)|)]^u§ 


Sauerkraut 


ba§ ©auerfraut 


at ouce 


foglei^' 


hunger 


ber junger 


tocure 


furie'ren 


woman, wlf e 


bie grau 


toklll 


töten 



79 SBer ift franf getoefen? SSen l^at er gerufen? SBa8 
]^at er getan? 3fft ber S)oftor fogleid^ gefommen? SBaS 
l^at ber 3)oftor getan? SBaS l^at er befolgten? ^at 
ber ©d^ul^ntad^er bag getan? SBaS l^at er gern getan? 
SBer l^at junger gel^abt? SGBaS l^at bie fjrau gefod^t? 
SBie üiel l^at fte gefod^t? %üx toen l^at fie eg gefod^t? 
^at ber SKann e8 gern gegeffen? SSie ift e8 i^m be!om= 

men? (How did it agree with him?) @8 ift it)m fet)r 

gut befommen. 3?ft er gefunb geworben? SSag t)at ber 

3)oftor gelernt? ^at er e3 be^al'ten (remembered) ? 

SSaS ]^at er gefd^rieben? ^ft fonft jemanb (anybody 

eise) franf geworben? SSeld^eg 9)littel t)at ber S)oftor 

öerfd^rieben? 9=ft eg il^m gut befontmen? SBie ift eg 

it)ni befontmen? SBaS l^at ber S)oftor nun gelernt? 
3Sag l^aft bu gern gehabt? SBen ^ahe iä) geliebt? SSer 
ift gefommen, alg ber ©d^ul^mad^er franf getoefen ift? 
3ft bag Äüd^Iein ungef)orfam gewefen? 



32 ELEMENTS OP GEBMAN [80-88 

80 GRAMMAR 

1. The perfect tense of both strong and weak verbs is 
formed by means of the tense auxiliaries |ai or ift + per- 
fect participle of the verb. 

2. Only intransitive verbs of transition (of place or con- 
dition) take ift; all others take l^at. See App. 68-70. 

81 





PARADIGM 






Streng 




id^ l^abe gefeiten 




id^ bin gehjefen 


bu ^aft 




bu bift ^ 


er ^at 


Weak 


er ift 


id^ \^oibt gefürd^tet 




id^ bin gefolgt 


bu ^aft 




bu bift ^ 


er ^at „ 




er ift 



82 SBag ^ai ber ^abid^t getan? @r ift geflogen* SBie 
ift er geflogen? (Schneit ift er geflogen ♦ SBaS l^at bie 
Äa^e getan? (Sie ift gefprnngem äBaS I)at fie fonft 
noc^^ getan? ©ie l^at bie 2Jian8 gejagt* ^at fie fie 
gefangen? 9tein, fie ^at bie 3Jian8 nid^t gefangen, aber 
bie 9Kan8 l^at bie Ifia^e gefürchtet* SSag i)at bie 9Raug 
getan? @ie t(at eine ©d^ette gefanft* $at fie fie ber 
^a^e angel^ängt? 9tein, fie ^at bog nid^t getan, fie l^at 
feinen aJlnt get)abt* ^ft ber ßanfmann geritten? Qfft 
ber ^\ix(b gefprnngen? ^\i ber SSogel geflogen? SSer 
ift gefommen? S93er t(at ben ^abid^t gefeiten? SSag t)at 
bie ^enne gernfen? 3Ba§ l^at bie ^enne gern gel^abt? 
393er ift geflogen? Oft ber ^abid^t fd^nett geflogen? a33er 
ift gefommen? a93ag l^at ber ^abid^t getan? Q'ft bag 
^üd^Iein ge^orfam gemefen? 

83 Mt'ttft nQ(| = besides; cf. no(^ immer, 68,4; itodi fdüneter« 76.2. 



84-8«] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 33 

84 WRITTEN EXERCISES 

I. Write ihe perfect paradigm of: bu folgft^ bu 

h\\if er ruft, er t)at, er tut, id^ fünfte, fie jagt. 

II. Answer: SSer l^at \^txi ^abid^t gefe^eu? SBaS 
^at ber Saufmauu öerloren? ^ft ber ^unb gefprungeu? 
.^at er gebeut? 393eu ^aft bu gern? SSag ^t baS ßinb 

lieber, ben Serg ober ba8 SSaffer? SBie t[t bag tüc^Ietn 
gefommen? Söie t[t ber SSogel geflogen? SSag l^at bie 
3JJau8 gefauft? ^at bie Äa|e bie ©i^eQe an? 

///. Trmislate: The dog jumped and barked. The merchant 
lost his purse. When did the dog jump ? What did the hen 
See ? What did the mouse fear ? Whom did you love ? What 
did I love ? How did he come ? The doctor prescribed much 
medicine. The Sauerkraut cured the shoemaker, bnt killed the 
tailor. The doctor came quickly. The girl became 111. The 
chick died. The dog died suddenly. 

LESSON 8 

85 Genitive 

3)a§ ift ber ^unb beg 9Kanneg. 
@ie liebt bie Äa^e irer ^xan. 
©r fie^t ben SSogel beS tinbeg. 





NOM. 


Gek. 


M. 


ber SOJann (ein) 


beg aJionneg (eine«) 


F. 


bte %t<m. (eine) 


bet t^rau (einer) 


N. 


bag ßinb (ein) 


beg tinbeg (eine«) 




wer? wag? 


weffen? 



86 Note that the inflection of the genitive masculine and 
neuter is alike (c8) both in the noun and the artiele; that 
the feminine noun is not infiected; and that the artiele in 
feminine genitive ends in er. 



34 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [87 90 

87 Observe that the genitive follows the noun it limits. 

88 3)er Äopf bet ^eutte tft Hein. 
SBejfen topf ift Hein? 

2)er fjlügel beg §atiidjt8 tft ftar!. 
SBeffen IJIügel ift ftar!? 

35er Äörper beg Ättdjlelttg ift Hein. 
Steffen Körper ift «ein? 

2)ie fjarbe einer ^tmt ift gran ober weife. 
SSeffen ^arbe ift gran? 

S)eri5Ing eine« §riWd)t« ift l^od^. 
SSeffen fjing ift ^o(^? 

S)ie aWntter beg Äittbeg ift l^ier. 
aSeffen SJlntter ift ^ier? 

89 VOCABULARY 

head ber So^jf coior btc garbe 

wing ber flöget mght ber glug 

strong ftar! high I^OCi^ 

body ber Sör))er here l^ier 

90 ^er Wiener beS Aanigg 

©in tönig tjat einmal einen Wiener gel^abt. S)er 
2)iener beg tönigg l^at bie SSad^e gef)abt^ aber er ift 
mübe gettefen nnb ift eingefd^lafen. 2)er tönig l^at il^n 
gernfen, aber ber 3)iener beS tönigS I)at e8 nid^t geprt. 
35a ift ber tönig gefommen nnb t)at i^n gefnd^t. @r 
^at einen 33rtef beö 2)ienerg gefnnben. 35er Srief ift 
an bie 9J?ntter beS 35ienerg getoefen. S)er tönig l^at 



91-92] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 35 

bcn 83rief gelcfen* 3)a ^at geftanben^: ^,^6) bin je^t jo 
mübe, benn iä) \)ahe lange nid^t gefd^Iafem ^ä) ^abe jo 
öiel^u tun gehabt, unb nun fd^irfe td^bir^bag ®elb/' 5Da 
l^at ber Äöntg SJiitleib gefüllt unb l^at ®elb l^in'gelegt 
unb ift fort'gegangen* 3)er S)iener ift balb auf gewad^t, 
l^at bag ®elb be3 Äöntgg gefunben unb ift juerft fe^r 
erfd^rodcn* 3)ann l^at er alleg geprt unb ^at fid^ fel^r 
gefreut unb !^at ba8 @elb beS Äönigä an feine 9Rutter 
gefd^idEt. 

9 1 VOCABULARY 

Mascüline 
NOM. Gen. 

king ber BönxQ beS Königs 

servant fcer S)tener beS S)iener8 

letter ttt Srief beS SriefS 

Feminine 
NoM. Gen. 

Story bie ®efc^tc^te ber ©efd^id^te 

watch bie SBad^c berSBac^e 

mother bte äRuttcr ber SUlutter 

Neuter 
NoM. Gen. 

pity bii9 äßttleib beS mitUM 

money bttS ®elb be9 @)elbeS 

Pres. Perf. 

I go to sieep x^ fc^tafe cttt' i6) bin ein'öefc^lafcn 

he hears er ^ört er ^at gel^ört 

youseek bu fud^ft bu ^aft gefuc^t 

I find id) finbe ic^ ^ait gefunben 

you write bu f c^retbft bu l^aft gefd^rieben 

92 ^ )at Oeflaitbett = stood ; subject is the foUowing clause. What is 
the Order? ^ blt = to you. 



äe 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[93-94 



Pres. 


Perf. 


he rea4s er lieft 


er f|at gelefen 


he sleeps er f d^Iäft 


er ^at gefd)lafen 


I feel xä) fÜ^le 


xä) i)abt gefütjlt 


I do x^ tue 


xä) i)aht getan 


you lay money down bu legft ®elb l^ttl' 


bu l^aft ®elb l^in'gelegt 


hegoesaway , er Qti)i fort' ^ 


er ifl fortgegangen 


I wake up xä) tüaä)t QUf 


xä) Mtt aufgetoad^t 


Iwatcji xä) tOCiä)t 


xä) i)aU getüad^t 


you are frlghtened bu erf d^rÜ ff 


bu bifl erfd^ro'den^ 


he rejolces very much er f reut \xäf \tf)X 


er ^at fid^ fel)r gefreut 


I send to my mother xä) f dE|ide ttu meine 


id^ tjabe an meine SJiut^ 


aJhttter 


ter gefc^idft 


tired tttübe a long time laugc (adverb) 


for benn atürst juerft' 


all 


aüt^ 



93 aSer I)at ben SBrief gef ^rieben? Q'ft er eingefd^Ia= 
fen? SSer t)at il^n gefunben? ^at ber ^önig ben SSrief 
gelefen? Sin hjen ift ber S3rief gemefen? Sin toeffen 
SiJintter ift er gett)efen? Sin bie SKntter be8 3)tenerg. 
SSag ^at ber 2)iener be§ ^önigg gefcl)rieben? ^at ba§ 
ber Äönig gefetjen? äBa§ l^at ber dortig l^ingetegt? 
aSeffen ®elb ift e8 gen)efen? ^ür^ njen ift eS gemefen? 



94 ^ Observe that an adverb closely associated with a verb, is written 
with the perfect participle, like a part of the verb. In the present 
tense it comes last in the sentence. This particle always has the 
accent. See App. 80. 

2 Note that when an unaccented prefix is attacbed to the verb, 
the perfect participle omits the augment ge. 

^ fifl^ is reflexive for third person. 

* für tuen? = for whom ? 



96-97] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 37 

$at ber S)iencr be3 Königs ha^ ®clb gefunben? ^ft er 
erjd^rorfen? ^at er fi^ gefreut? SBa8 l^at er bann 
getan? SBeffen ©ol^n l^at gefd^Iafen? SSeffen Wiener 
l^at bte SSad^e gel^abt? SSeffen ßönig l^at if)n gefunben? 
SBeffen ^unb l)at ba8 @elb gefe^en? ShJeffen ^ferb ift 
fdinett gelaufen? SSeffen Sörfe ift gefatten? SSeffen 
Md^Ietn l^at ber ^abiä)t gefreffen? SSeffen SJiutter ift 
bte ^enne? 

95 ^ill in wiih articles: 5E)te ^enne ift bie Sßutter 

ßü^Ieing* S)er ^unb Kaufmanns l^at \>\t 

S3örfe gefeiten* S)a8 ^ferb äJlanneg ift grau* 35ie 

%axbt ^unbeg^ ^enne, ßüd^Iein^* S)er 

fjlug ^enne ift nid^t l^oi^* 3)ie 2Jiutter 

S!inbe8 ijt l^ier, 

96 Ans wer: SSeffen ßüd^Iein ift nid^t gefommen? 
SBeffen ^unb ^t bie S3örfe gefe^en? SBeffen S5ruber ift 
ein Dnlel? SBeffen SBater ift ©ro^üater? SBeffen S3örfe 
ift gefatten? SBeffen ©d^ttjefter ift eine 2;ante? SSeffen 
fjlug ift ^oc^? SBeffen 9Kutter ift ^ier? SBeffen Äopf 
iftgrofe? SBeffen fjlügel ift ftarl? 

97 Translate: The hen's chick did not hear the mother. The 
merchant's purse feil. The horse of the merchant was large. 
The merchant's dog saw the purse. The chick's mother called 
it. The king's servant did not go to sleep. The grandfather 
is the father's father or the mother's father. Is the nephew 
the son of a brother or of a sister? The uncle is the brother 
of the father or of the mother. 



38 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [98-100 

LE880N 9 
Dative 
98 Indibect Objbct 

3)er S)iener l^at ber 9Rttttet einen 95rief gefd^rieben. 
S)er ßönig l^at bem 2)iettcr bag ®elb gegeben. 2)te 
9Ran8 l^at ber Äa^e feine @(^ette angel^ängt S)er ^nnb 
l^at bem ^attfuianit \>a^ ®elb nid^t gerettet 3)er ßanf= 
mann l^at beut Jpferb bie Sporen^ gegeben. S)er Wiener 
l^at feliter Butter einen S3rief gefd^rieben. ®er ßönig 
i)at feinem dienet "t^ai (Selb gegeben. Q'ene ü)Zan8 l^at 
blefer Äa^e feine ©d^elle angetiängt. 2)iejer ^nnb l^at 
\tvitvx ^aitfmann jein ®elb nid^t gerettet. 

99 



NOM. 


Dat. 


ber Äönig 


betii Zottig 


bie aWntter 


beir ^tter 


bag ^ferb 


bem g^ferb 


Prononns 


ic^ 


mir 


bu 


bi¥ 


er 


{|m 


fie 


\lx 


es 


iim 



loo ggSag l^at er feittew Jpferb gegeben? 
3)ie Sporen l^at er i^w gegeben. 
äBem ]^at ber ßönig ba8 (Selb gegeben? 
©einem - 2)ietter l^at er eg gegeben. 
SSag l^at er bem 2)iener gegeben? 
S)ag @elb ]^at er i^m gegeben. 

' bie ®)iorett = spurs. 



101-108] 



INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 



S9 



101 





Nominative and Dative 




Nom. 


ber 


bie 


bas 


Dat. 


bem 


ber 


bem 


Nom. 


jener 


jene 


jeneg 


Dat. 


jenem 


jener 


jenem 


Nom. 


ein 


eine 


ein 


Dat. 


einem 


einer 


einem 


Nom. 


mein 


meine 


mein 


Dat. 


meinem 


meiner 


meinem 


Nom. 




wer? 




Dat. 




toem? 





102 



Dative after Pbepositioxs 

£ae ©etoiffeit beS SSolfe 



©in @jel fommt einmal an8 bem SBalbe unb be9eg=^ 
net einem SBoIf.^ S)ief er ^at jeit bem Xag jnöor ni^tg 
gefreffen nnb ift jel^r l^nngrig. 3)a öerfnd^t ber @fel, fid§ 
jn retten^ nb^^^^ äJiitleib mit mir, id^ bin arm unb 
fran!, i^ fomme eben au8 bem SBalbe, njo id^ auf einen 
S)orn getreten bin. ^d^ gel^e nun nad^ ber ©tabt, ju 
einem ^ottox, ber fott mir l^elfen."^ Unb er jeigt bem 
SBoIf feinen fjufe, toorin rid^tig ein S)orn ftedft. 35od^* 
bei bem SSoIf ftet(t eg^ feft,« bafe er ben ©fei frifet. @o 
fprid^t er, nad^bem er fid^ ein toenig befonnen ^t: „9Kein 
®ett)iffen befietilt mir, hxä) öon beinem ßeiben ju he^ 
freien." Unb im 9lu l^at er ben @fet aufgefreffen. 

1 03 1 Note that be^f ((Itet takes dative as direct object. See App. 188. 
'lauf» imperative. 

'^ft foS mir jelfen = he is to help me. 

*)iail|=but, yet (adversative) cf. 78, 5. 

^ Anticipatoiy object — in apposition with the foUowing bll| clause* 

* (ei • • • ff ff = it is a settied mfitter with thß wplf . 



40 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[104-105 



I04 Prepositions that always govern the dative 



105 



to (a place) }\aä) 


out of aud 


to (a person) JU 


near, with bei 


from 


t)on 


since ^eit 




wlth 


mit 




VOCABULARY 




Masculine 




NOM. 


Dat. 


wolf 


ber SBolf 


bent )ü5oIf(e) 


donkey 


ber ®fel 


bem ®fel 


woods 


ber aöalb 


bem äöalb(e) 


day 


ber lag 


bem Sag(e) 


thom 


ber SDoni 


bem S)orn(e) 


doctor 


ber SDoftor 


bem S)oItor 


foot 


ber gu§ 


bem 3w6(e) 




Feminine 




NOM. 


Dat. 


City 


bie ©tabt 


ber ©tabt 



Neuter 
NOM. Dat 

conscience bo3 ®ettjif feit bem ®ettjif fen 

pity ba^ SKitleib bem SKitleib 

suflering ba§ Seibeit bem Seiben 



Pres. 


Perf. 


icome td^ !omme 


iä) Mit gefommen 


I meet iä) begeg'ite 


iä) Jitt begegnet 


heeats er i^t 


er ^at gegeffen 


I try xä) öerfu'c^e 


ii) ^abe öerjud^t 


he saves hlmself er rettet ftd^* 


er f)at fid^ gerettet 


I Step ii) trete 


td^ bin getreten 


I go iä) ge^e 


id^ bin gegangen 


he Shows er jeigt 


er ^at gejetgt 



♦Observe that the Infinitive phrase, {id^ ju rtttttt (to save him- 
self), occurs in the text. 



10^107] 



INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 



41 





Pres. 




Perp. 


It sticks 


e§ ftedft 




e§ ^ai geftedtt 


hedevours er fri^t 




er f)at gefreffen 


he speaks 


er fpric^t 




er I)at gefprod^en 


I conslder 


iä) befiu'ne ntic^ 


iä) I)obe mic^ befonnen 


he commands ZV befiehlt 




er ^at befo^'ten 


he frees 


er befreit' 




er ^at befreit 


before 


5utjor' 


in "w 


hich ttjorin' 


hungry 


]£)ungrig 


really richtig 


•poor 


arm 


but 


boc^ 


slck 


franf 


ürm 


feft 


just 


tim 


after nac^bem' (conjunction) 


where 


JüO 


a littie ein menig 


now 


nun 


Ina 


triceim 3ln 



106 Seit tDann l)at ber S33oIf gehungert? SSie ift er 
je^t? 333em begegnet biefer SQBolf? 2Bem begegnet ber 
©fei? 2Ba8 öerfnc^t ber ©fei gu tnn? SSag jeigt er 
bem SSoIfe? 2Ba8 ^at er in bem ^nfe? 393ot)er ift er 
gefommen? 3a3o^in ge^t er? SSer tüoljnt^ in ber ©tabt? 
Sil wem gel^t ber ©fei? 393a8 foU ber 2)oftor bem ©fei 
tnn? 393ag ftecft in bem f^uB be§ ©feig? aSag ftel)t bei 
bem SSoIfe feft? SBie lange t)at fid^ ber SSoIf befonnen? 
Sft ba§ ©etüiffen beg SSoIfeg fet)r jart?^ 2öag befiehlt 
eg il^m? ®el)orcI)t^ er feinem ®etüiffen? 2öag tnt er 
im 5«u? 

2öof)in reitet ber Kaufmann? 9^a^ ber ©tabt reitet 
er. 9Kit njem fprid^t ber SJiann? 3JJit feinem SSater 



1 07 * ttO^ttt = dwells. 
2 gort = tender. 
'fte4oriit = obeys. 



42 ELEMENTS OP GERMAN [lOR-110 

]pxiä)t ber Wlann. ' 3u toem ift hai Äuglein gelaufen? 

3u feiner 9Kutter ift e8 gelaufen. SBo^er^ ift ber SSoIf 

gefommen? (Seit mann l^at er ni^tg gefreffen? SSon 
tt)em l^at ber 2)iener bag @elb gehabt? SBem tjat er 

einen S3rief gefd^rieben? S^ itjem ift ber Äonig gegangen? 

LESSON 10 
Prepositions with Accusative 

I08 (Sin 2)orf liegt fel^r einfam im fjelbe. @8 ift feit 
langem^ ßrieg gettjefen, unb je^t \ixi maw, ba§ ber fjeinb 
gegen baä S)orf jiet)t. 2)a8 3)orf ^t feine Slrmee' toiber 
"btxi fjeinb ju fd^icfen unb man fürd^tet fid^ fe^r. 3)a 
bittet ber Pfarrer ©ott um feinen ©d^u^. @r fott ettoaä 
für "ba^ 2)orf tun.^ Sn ber 9?ad^t fommt aud^ ber ^einb, 
bod^ er jiel^t öorüber ol^ne SJiorb, fjeuer ober S^otfd^Iag, 
S03a8 l^at nur ben Drt befd^ü^t? :3n ber SRad^t l^at eS 
gefd^neit unb eine 9Banb öon ©d^nee l^at fid^ um baS 
2)orf gejogen^ fo bag ber fjeinb nid^tg baöon* gefeiten 
\)(it 2)a8 l^at bag S)orf gerettet. 

1 09 Prepositions that always gövem the aocasstive : 

through, by means of butd^ against, contrary to tDtbcr 

for für without Ol^HC 

against, toward 0^9Sn around UTtt 

110 ^ ^^%tt = whence. 

^ feit lattdetlt = a long time. 
^ foO tun = is asked to do. 

*iation = of it. 



111] INDI 


CATIVE SINGÜL 


AR PERFECT 


lil 


VOCABÜLARY 




Mascut.tne 




NOM. 


Acc. 


war 


ber förieg 


ben ßrieg 


enemy 


ber geinb 


ben geinb 


pastor 


ber 5|Jf arrer 


ben ^^Jfarrer 


God 


ber ©Ott 


ben ®ott 


protection ber ©d^U^ 


ben <Bä)Viii 


murder 


ber aiiorb 


ben äliorb 


slaughtei 


• ber Xotfd^Iag 


ben S^otfd^Iag 


place 


ber Drt 


ben Drt 


snow 


ber ©d^nee 


ben ©d^nee 




Feminine 


army 


bie Strmee' 


bie 9lmtee' 


night 


bie mi)t 


bie '^laö^t 


wall 


bie aiknb 

Neüter 


bie Söanb 


vlllage 


ba« 2)orf 


ba« S)orf 


field 


ba« Selb 


bad f^elb 


fire 


ba« geuer 


baä geuer 




Pres. 


Perf. 


It lies 


cg liegt 


eg fjat gelegen 


onehears 


man l^ört 


man l^at gel^ört 


he marches 


er jiel^t 


er ifl gebogen 


he sends 


er fd^idft 


er l^at gefd^idEt 


one is afraid 


man fürd^tet fid^ 


man t|at \x6) gefürd^tet 


heprays.begs er bittet 


er ]^at gebeten 


he prays 


er betet 


er !^at gebetet 


hedoes 


er tut 


er t)at geton 


he protects 


er befd^ü^t 


er i)ai bejd^üfet 


it snows 


eg fd^neit 


e^ ^at gefc^neit 


it draws about e^ ilt^i \xi) 


e§ l}at fid^ gejogen 


hesees 


er fie^t 


er l^at gefef)en 


this saves 


baS rettet 


baS i)ai gerettet 



43 



44 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [112-114 

lonely cinfatU something et'ttJa§ 

for long feit lange past öorü'ber 

now je^t oniy nur 

112 2öie liegt bag 2)orf? 393er jtel^t gegen ba8 Sorf? 
^at H^ 2)orf feine Slrmee? ©egen ttjen fc^irft man eine 
Strmee? g^ürd^tet man fid^ fe()r? S^ h)^tn betet ber 
Pfarrer? 2Ber bittet nm ®otteg @c^n|? S3ittet er um 
©otteg @c^u^ für ha^ 2)orf? S93ag ^at @ott für bag 
2)orf getan? ©r ^at eg bejc^ü^t. ®egen wen? S33er 
fommt gegen bag 2)orf? S^ut er etttjag toiber bag SDorf? 
S93ie jie^t er öorüber? S93ag ^at ben Drt befc^ü^t? 
2Ö0 ift bie SBanb genjefen? :3ft fie aug ©d^n^e geniefen? 
2ßag t)at ber O^einb nid)t gefe^en? SSag ift um ha<b 
2)orf gettjefen? 

1 13 ®oittttagmargen 

@ie^/ ber SJlann fommt aug ber SSeite, 
Sangfam burd^ ber äöiefe ®Ianä, 
Unb er f)ält in ^änben^ l^eute, 
©tatt^ beg ^flugg ben 9lofenfranä» 

SJiutter fommt mit i^rem ßinbe, 
Unb eg^ eilt bie (Sd^nitterin, 
,^immelggarben^ l^eut^ ju binben, 
^u bem ^aug beg ^immelg f)in» 

I 14 ific^== behold! 

^itt ^dnbflt — stereotyped phrase = in his hands. 

^pott — preposition governing the genitive = instead of. These 
prepositions are not so frequently found as those that govem the 
dative, or the accusative. See App. 12ö. 

* e§ — merely introductory ; do not translate (somewhat like English 
there). 

^ PlMMtU^üXitU »= heavenly sheaves — picturesque figure of speech 
for ''mylng \ip treasures in heaven." 



115-118] INDIOATIVMINGULAR PERFECT 46 

Sltteg^ ^xeijt nad^ einem^ 3tele 
Slu§ ber 9iä^e, aus ber fj^tn^^ 
SSeg öom^ lauten SSeltgemül^Ie 
^in jum* ftttten ^aug beg ^errn. 



115 


VOCABÜLARY 




Sunday moming ber ^OnXitaQ' 


binds 


binbet 




morgen 


draws toward 


jiel^t nad^ 


distance 


bie SBeite 


goal 


ba§ 3iel 


brightness 


ber ©tanj 


neighborhood 


bie SRä^e 


to-day 


l^eute 


distance 


bie gerne 


plough 


ber 5ßftug 


away 


toeg 


rosary 


ber 9tofen!rau5 


rush of the World btt^ SBettgetüÜljl 


8he hurries away |ic tili ^Vti 


quiet 


fütt 


raaper (fem.) 


bie ©d^nitterin 


Lord 


ber ^err (gen. 


sheaf 


bie Oarbe 




beg $errn) 



1 16 SBte ift ein ©onntagmorgen? Slrbeitet bann aEe8? 
SBa« tut jeber? SSa8 Ijat bie Söfeje? Sie ^at einen 
©lanj. SBer jie^t ^eute burc^ bie SBiefe? S93a§ 
l^ält ber 9Kann l^eute in ^än\)en? S33a§ l^ält er jonft 
(on other days) in ^änben? Slrbeitet er mit bem 
^flug? S3etet er mit bem 9iofenfranä? 9Jiit toem 
fommt bie SRutter? SBag binbet bie ©d^nitterin 
fonft? aSag binbet fie ^eute? S93o äiet(t aEe8 ^in? 

1 1 7 Insert nouns in proper cases : Sllleg fommt au8 

unb jie()t nad^ . S)ie 9Kutter fommt mit 

t)om , jum . S)er 9Kann l^ätt 

in ^iixCbtxi. ©onft f)ält er . ©r äiet)t 

burd^ , 5U . 

I 18 ^adeg — neuter as collective, very common in German, mea- 
ning all people, but seeming to inclüde all beings. 

^ einem 3i^t( — empkasize einem in readingand translate: one goal. 

' Ätt§ . . . ^txn = f rom near and f ar. 

*tiom, gnm— contractionsof Don bem, gtt bem. 



46 ELEMENTS OF |GRMAN [119-121 

LE8S0N 11 

Dative and Accusative with Preposition to express 

Position and Transition 

1 19 Dat. JÖJa tft bie ^enne? 3fn bem ©arten- 
Acc. SBo^iii gctjt fic? 3fn bett ©arten. 

Dat. saSo ift bie ßa^e? 2luf ber ©trajje. 
Acc. ig^olliii fpringt fte? Sluf bie ©trajje. 

Dat. fön tft bie aßutter? »or bmi ^anje. 
Acc. S8o|itt gel^t fie? 85or baS ^anS. 

I20 Observe that the prepositions in, auf, lior may express 
either position or transition from one place to another, accord- 
ing as the verb expresses a state of rest (as flel^ett, bleiben, 
fi^en) or a motion towards an object (as gelten, laufen). When 
a State of rest is expi'essed, the preposition is followed by the 
dative, when motion towards an object is expressed, by the 
accusative. The prepositions of this kind are : 

by an over Über upon auf 

behind t)tnter under UlttCr ln,into in 

beside neben between gtüijd^en before, in front of ÖOt 

121 SBol^in ift ber Äönig be8 3)iener8 gefommen? 
©r ift in bag ^in^nier gefommen* 3Sßot)in ift ber ^abic^t 
geflogen? Sluf \^^i ^ang ift er geflogen* SSo ift ba« 
^üd^lein gewefen? Qfn bem ©arten ift eg getoefen* SBol^in 
ift e8 nid^t getanfen? Unter ben ^Jlügel ber 9Kntter ift e8 
nid^t getanfen* S)er Kaufmann l^at anf bem ^ferbe 
gejeffen nnb fein $nnb ift fel^r f^nell getanfen. SBo 
l^at er gefeffen? SSo ift ber |)nnb getanfen? %\t 
öörfe ift anf ben ©oben gefatten. SSSol^in ifi bie S3örfe 



122-124] INDIGATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 47 

gefallen? 35er ^unb tft äWifd^en bem Äaufmanu unb ber 
Sörfe l^in unb ^ex gejprungen* SBo tft ber ^unb l^in 
unb l^er gefprungen? 3)te SRauS tft l^tnter ben @tut)l 
gefprungen* SSo()in tft fte gefprungen? ^er (Stülpt f)at 
l^tnter bem %i'\ä) geftanben* SSo l^at er geftanben? 



Pres. 


Pebf. 


er fifet 


er i)ai gcjeffen 


i6) laufe ^er 


iä) iin getaufen . 


fie fäüt 


fie ifl gefaUen 


where? )P0? 


room ba^ 3i^ntcr 


where to'MPOl^iu'? 


to and fro ]^iu Ullb l^er 


garden bcr Oarteii 


chair ber StU^t 


Street bte Strafe 


table bcr %X\6) 


house bag ^a\i^ 





123 @itt Utiterfi|ie)i 

Stuf einem Äirrfiturme i^at einmal ein ©tord^ gefeffeu- 
Sllg er mübe geworben/ ift er l^inunter auf bie Strafe 
geflogen, 2)aS ^t ber Sater gefeiten. @8 ^at t^m^ gut 
gefallen unb er l^at bei fi^ gebadet: ^,@i, ba8 tue ic^ 
audj!" (Sr ift atfo auf ben Xurm gettettert^ l^at auf bie 
Strafe gefel)en unb I)at fid^ bann l^inunter auf ben 33oben 
geftürjt 5l6er baS l)at i^m* fel^r »e^ getan unb er 
l^at laut gefd^rieen. 2)a ^at er gefagt: „S)a« fjliegen^ 
l^at fid^ gemad^t, aber ba§ 9iieberfi^en* ift etwa« 
befd^n^erlid^ gett)efen." 



124 ^Supplyip. 

2 Dat. obj. of Hat gef aUett. 

8 Dat. governed by ^at mf^ ftftttll. 
* Verbal noun ; note gender. 



48 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[1S5->1!26 



125 



VOCABÜLARY 



Pbes. 

he Sita on the tower Ct jt^t auf bClU %nvm 



you l)ecome 

he flies down 

it pleases me well 

he thinks 

he climbs on the 
tower 



bu ttJirft 

er fliegt Iierunter 
e§ gefällt mir gut 
er benit 

er ftettert auf ben 
lurm 
hecastshimseif downer ftürjt ftd^ l^tnuuter 

thathurtsme ba§ tUt mir tüti) 

I scream lä) fd^reie 

I say id) f age 

that does pretty well e§ mad^t fid^ 

itis e§ ift 



Perf. 

er i)ai auf bem Xurme 

gefeffen 
bu kift gen^orben 
er ift Iierunter geflogen 
ed l^at mir gut gefaUen 
er l^at gebadet 
er iP auf ben lurm ge* 

ftettert 
er l^at ftd^ l^inunter ge« 

ftürjt 
bad l^at mir toel^ getan 
id) l^abe gefd^rieen 
id^ l^abe gefagt 
e§ ^t fi^ gemad^t 
e^ ifl getuefen 



diiterence ber Un'terfd^ieb 

steepie bcr S'ird^turm 

stork ber ©tord^ 

when ot^ 

tired mÜbe 

down l^inun'ter 

toto-catt ber S'ater 



whyl ei! 

tower ber lurm 

ground ber öobeu 

flying baS SKcgcn 
sitting down ba^ Siieberfi^eu 

somewhat et'U^a^ 

difflcuit befd^mer'Iid^ 



126 äSo ^at ber @tord^ gefeffen? SBol^inift ber Äatcr 
geüettert? ^at ber @tord^ bem Äater gefatten? SBol^in 
l^at ber fi'ater gefeiten? SBol^in i)at er fid^ geftürjt? ^at 
i()m ba§ toe^ getan? SSa« ^at i^m mf) getan^ hai 
Stiegen ober baS 9lieberfi|jen? 



127-180J 



INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 



49 



S)er ©torci^ jt^t auf betn SCurtn* S^oraiif ft|t er? 
Sluf betn 2;urm. föobittdi l^at ®ott baS 2)orf bef(^ü|t? 
3)ur(^ ben ©ci^nee. »wi« lebt ber fjijc^? :3m' SBaffer* 
©oriH lebt bcr SJogel? Qn ber Suft. Siegt bag 3)orf 
in bem äBalb? 3a, ed liegt barin. äBag lebt im äßaffer? 
ein gif d^ lebt Hxin. SBaä * ift um ba8 3)orf ? ©ine 
äßanb and @d^nee ift bsritiii. 

127 Note that mal and the demonstrative pronouns that repre- 
sent lifeless objeots are not used as the object of prepositions, 
bat are replaced by 100 and bt (before yowels koor and bat) and 
vrritten as Compounds with the preposition. 



Inwhat? 


toorin'? 


in that 


barin' 


at wbat? 


tooran'? 


at that 


baran' 


on what? 


toorauf ' ? 


on that 


barauf 


ander what? 


toorun'ter? 


nnder that 

1 


barun'tcr 


with what? 


ttjomtt'? 


with that 


bamit' 


before what? 


tooöor'? 


before that 


baöor' 


for what? 


toofür'? 


for that 


bafür' 


wherefore? 


toarum'? 


around that 


barum' 



128 Similarly are componnded the interrogative adverb loo 
and the demonstrative adverb ba with the adverbial partioles 
Hin (thither) and |er (hitber) 

where? tOO? there (place) bd 

whereto? ttJOl^in'? there (to) bol^in' 

Where from? tOOl^er'? from there ballet' 

129 ^ae »adileitt 

3)u S5äd^Iein, filberffett unb flar, 
3)u eilft öorüber immerbar; 
^m Ufer fteV i^, finn^ unb finn^: 
SSo fommft bu l^er,^ tt)o geljft bu l^in? 

ISO iContraoted form of iit htm» 

^ tt0|itt and M^tt are sotyietimes separated in colloquial usage. 



50 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 

^ä) lomm^ ani bunfler fjelfen ©d^o^;^ 
aWcin Sauf gel^t über 93lum' unb 9JIooö; 
8luf meinem Spiegel j^mebt fo milb 
2)eö blauen ,^immel8 freunblid^ Söilb» 

2)rum l)ab' id) froren ftinberfinn;*^ 
@s( treibt mid^ fort, tüei^ ^ nid^t ttjo^in* 
2)er* mid^ gerufen^ au8 bem Stein, 
@r/ benf id^, tüirb mein f^ü^rer ]ehu^ 



[131-182 



131 


VOCABÜLARY 


youhurry 


bueilft 


bn Hill geeilt 


I meditate 


ii) finnc 


iä) l^abe gefonnen 


it hovers 


eS fd^tDcbt 


e§ ^at gefd^toebt 


it drives me on 


eS treibt ntid^ fort eS \)at ntid^ fortgetrieben 


I know 


x6) ttjeift 


x6) l^abe getongt 


brooklet 




(dim. of ber SBa^) 


bank 


baS Ufer 


moss , baÖ ältOOö 


rock 


ber getfen 


mirror, surface ber ©piegcl 


lap 


ber @^og 


picture bag aSilb 


course 


ber Sanf 


stone ber ©tein 


flower 


bie SInme 


guide ber gül^rer 


briglit as sllver 


fitber^ett 


mUd milb 


clear 


ftar 


blue blou 


past 


öorü'ber 


gentie freunbUd^ 


forever 


immerbar 


therefore brum (contracted 


dark 


bunfel 


from bantm) 



1 32 Ult§ . . . <Sdiot = out of dark rocks. 

^frol^ett ftilttirrfintt = joyous, childlike mood. 
* meit = id| ttiril (poetio licenae). 

*tirr, nr=he who. 
^gtrnfni, supply ipat. 
'Witt fein = will be. 



138-134J INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 51 

133 2ßo l^abe i^ geftanben? 2ln »effen Ufer? 3Ba§ 
^abe iä) t>ai Säd^lein gefragt? SSol^er ift eg gefommen? 
SBol^in ift e8 gegangen? SBaS i^at anf bem ©piegel beg 
Söc^IeinS gefc§tt)ebt? SBeife bag Säc^Iein wo^tn eä gel^t? 
aSer ^at e8 gernfen? aSoljer ^at ®ott ba8 »äc^Iein 
gerufen? 

LESSON 12 

134 GRAMM AR REVIEW 

1. The perfect tense of all verbs is formed by the tense 
auxiliary l^aliett or fein + perfect participle ; fein if the verb 
expresses transition, l^oteit in all other cases. 

2. The perfect participle of all verbs is formed by prefixing 
the augment ge to the stem (except for verbs that have an 
unaccented prefix) with endings as f oUows : 

(a) Strong verbs alter the vowel of the root and add m — 
id^ f^jringc, id^ bin gef|irttngen ; ge + stem changed + m. 

(J) Weak verbs do not change the root vowel, and add 
(c)t — ^id^ folge, td^ bin gefolgt; ge + stem unchanged -f- (e)t. 

3. The participle Stands last in the sentence. 

4. The genitive masculine and neuter has the article bef, 
etnel, and the noiin = ending (e)8. The genitive feminine has 
the article ber^ eitter^ biit the noun has no inflection. 

5. The dative masculine and neuter has the article beut, 
einem, and the noun has no inflection (monosyllables may 
add e). The dative feminine has the article ber, einet, (like 
the genitive), the noun has no inflection. 

C. The dative is used after some verbs as the direct object; 
such verbs are : id^ folge, id^ begegne, id^ I)clfe. See App. 132-138. 

7. The dative is used after many verbs as the indirect 
object; such verbs are: id^ gebe, id^ fage, id^ jeige. See App. 141. 



52 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [ISA 

8. The following prepositions always govem the dative: 
itad|, Hon^ aui, nti^ }tt, iti, feit* See App. 146. These must 
be learned. 

9. The following prepositions always govern the accasa- 
tive : btttdl, fitr, 8^8^ miber, oi|ne, um. See App. 164. 

- 10. After the prepositions of position : an, auf, |inttr, in, 
nAtn^ fiter, nnter, üor, 3ttiifd|en, the dative is used if the verb 
expresses rest, and the accusative if the verb expresses motion 
toward the object. See App. 147. 

11. loaS and the demonstratives that represent lifeless ob- 
jects are not used as objeets of prepositions. Instead of them 
we use loo(r) and ba(r) to form a Compound with the prep- 
osition. See App. 171. 

12. The definite article + preposition are contracted when 
euphony permits : an + betn = um, an + bad » Ml, in + bem » im, 
in + bag = xnli, ju + bem = jum, ju + ber = jnt, bei + bem = keim. 

135 VEBB8 

Pbrfect Tense 
Streng 

bu ^aft bas ä3ud^ %t\t^tn 
er ^t hai 3ud^ gefe^eti 

i^ (in in bas 3itnmer getantnieit 
bu (ift in baS 3intmer getdnmieti 
er ift in hai Sivxmex getamntett 

Weak 

t^ l^ate ben S3riey gel^alit 
hvi |aft \>en ^rief gr^iitt 
er ^at ben S3rief gehabt 

id^ (in bem äJlanne gefolgt 
bu tift bem 2Ranne gefolgt 
er ift bem ällanne gefolgt 



1S«-187] INDICATIVE SINGULAR PERFECT 53 

136 VOÜVB 

Defizite Article and Demonstrative Pbonoün 





Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


N. 


ber* 9Kanu 


biefe SKntter 


jene« Äinb 


G. 


beS Cannes 


biefer SKntter 


jenes ftHnbe* 


D. 


betn SKannc 


biefer Sßntter 


jenem fiinbe 


A. 


bcn SKann 


biete 9Kntter 


jene« Äinb 




Indefinite Article and Possessive Pronoun 


N. 


ein ^unb 


meine ©d^wefter 


nnfer Snd^ 


G. 


eine« ^itnbc« 


meiner ©^ttjefter 


nnfereS Snd^eS 


D. 


einem ^unb(e) 


meiner ©d^ttefter 


nnfer em 95n^(e) 


A. 


einen ^nnb 


meine ©d^ttjefter 


nnfer Snd^ 



137 REVIEW EXERCISES 

/. Give present and perfect paradUjms of: eilft^ 

bift, l^aft, rnft, fanfe, fpringft, folgt, geflettert* 

II. DecUne: ber SKann, ber SEBalb, bie S5Inme, 
hai »äd^Iein, bag Silb, ba« Ufer, ber gü^rer, bie Äa^e. 

///. Fill out: 3)er @tord^ fi^t anf X^urm. 

@r fliegt öon S^nrm, 3) er Äater flettert anf 

SCurm. 2)te ©roßmntter ift anf ©tra^e- 3)ie 

SKntter ge^t in ©arten^ 2)er %x]6) lebt — SSaffer. 

3Der SBogel lebt in ßnft 33er ©tor^ fliegt öon — 

IV. Answer: SSBol^in fliegt ber ©tor^? SBol^er 
fommt ber Sad^? SBorüber gel^t fein ßanf? SSem l^at 
bie 9Kang bie ©d^ette angehängt? SBem l^at ber 2)iener 

*For fall declension of the articles and pronouns see App. 11 
and IS. 



54 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [137 

be8 Äöntgg ben S5rief gefd^rieben? SBem tft ber S93oIf 
begegnet? SBol^er ift ber ©fei gefotntnen? S33o()in tft er 
gegangen? S93a8 ^at er in bem ^^n^ ge^bt? SSem tft 
er begegnet? 3Sa8 l^at bei bem Söolfe feftgeftanben? 
393a8 ^at ba« 2)orf gerettet? 2Boran8 ift bie SBanb ge- 
mad^t? SSo ift bie SBanb genjefen? SSer ift gegen baS 
2)orf gefommen? SSen fd^icft man wiber hen f^^inb? 

F. Translate: 1. The man went to the house of heaven 
on Sunday morning. 2. The mother came with the child. 
3. The Lord saved the village. 4. The brightness of the 
meadow. 5. The hen's chick. 6. The pastor of the village 
begged God for protection. 7. The servant of the king wrote 
his mother a letter. 8. The king gave the servant the money. 
9. The wolf met the donkey. 10. The doctor did not help the 
donkey. 11. The wolf devoured him in a trice. 12. The cat 
sat on the tower. 13. The stork flow from the tower upon the 
ground. 14. The cat jumped from the tower upon the street. 
15. Where did the cat sit? 16. Where did he Jump (to)? 
17. Whence did he jump? 18. What hurt him? 19. Where does 
the brooklet go? 20. Whence has it come? 21. Whither 
does its course go? 



188-141] 



INDICATIVE PRETERITE 



55 



CHAPTER III 



INDICATIVE PBETEBITE. PLUBALS 



138 



139 



140 



LESSON 13 

S)cr ©tord^ l^at auf bcm Xuimt gefeffen. 
@r fa^ auf bem lurm. 

^er ^ater ifl auf bie ©trage gef|inittgett. 
@r ffirang auf bie ©trage. 

3)er Äater ifl auf ben lurm getlettrrt. 
@r flettttie auf ben lurnt. 

%a^ {^liegen %vA ftd^ gemalzt. 
^a^ fliegen ittaf|te fid^. 





Stronq 




Infinitive 


Preterlte 


Perfect Part. 


ft^en 


faff 


gefeffeu 


fpringen 


f^irong 

Weak 


gefprungen 


ftetteni 


Ketterte 


geflettert 


mad^en 


mad^te 


gemad^t 



1 4 1 Observe that strong verbs form their preterite f rom the 
Infinitive by an alteration of the stem-vowel, and that no suffix 
is added. To form the preterite weak verbs add it to the stem. 
The stem is found by dropping the vx of the infinitive. 

The infinitive, preterite, and perfect participle constitute 
the principal paHs and on them are based all the modes and 
tenses. The principal parts of every strong verb must be 
leamed. 



56 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[142-^145 



1 42 PAR ADIGM— PRETERITE 

Stronq Weak 

fe^en, fa^, g^fe^wi flögen, fragtt, gefrogt 
td^ fal^ td^ fragte 

bu fa^ft bu fragteft 

er fal^ er fragte 

Note that in the preterite singnlar of both strong and weak 
verbs only the second person shows a personal ending, (e)fl. 

143 X8al ieber fal^ 

@in ®ptäft befud^te einmal einen $fau. Sine Xaube ging mit. 
^^Slun, tüiel^at bir ^eute ber $fau gefallen?"^ fragte ber ©ped^t ^SBar 
er nid^t Xoibrig? Unb tüie ftolj er ift! aBarnm ift er nur* fa ftolj? ©ein 
gufe ift nid^t fd^ön, feine Stimme ift laut unb l^ä^Üd^, er ift bumm, 
nid^t toal^r?'" Die %a\iit aber antxoortete: ,,3d^ geftel^e, id^ l^abe 
baS nid^t bemerft; id^ fal^ nur immer* feinen Äo^jf, bic ©d^önl^eit fei* 
ne« ®efieber^ unb ben @Hanj feinet ©d^meife^/' 



144 


VOCABULART 
Strono 




to see fe^en 


fa^ 


gefe^en 


togo • gelten 


flinfl 


gegangen 


to piease gefallen 


gefiel 


gefallen 


to be fein 


toax 


getpefen 


to coniess gefte^eu 


geftanb 


geftanben 



1 45 ' W\t Int ^Ir . . . trf tten = how did the peaoock piease you? or, 
how did you like the peacock? Notice the dative after orfaDfIt. See 
App. 186. 

'Ülintll . . . ttttt = but why? 

*ttid|t ttmlr? (the French n^eat-ce-pas) requires an affirmative 
reply. 

^id| fal ttUr immer = 1 kept seeing only. Observe that while 
the Gterman has no progressive tense, the idea of continued aotion 
is expressed by partioles (cf . 88). 



M«-148] INDICATIVE PRETERITE 57 







Weak 






to Visit 


befud^en 


befud^te 


\ 


befud^t 


to ask 


fragen 


fragte 




gefragt 


to answer 


anttporten 


antwortete 


geantwortet 


to notlce 


bemerfen 


beraerfte 


bemerft 


woodpeo 


ker ber Spcd^t 




voice 


bie ©timme . 


peacock 


ber ^^Jfau 




ugly 


mm 


dove 


bie Xaube 




foolish 


bumm 


along 


mit 




head 


ber ftopf 


to-day 


^ute 




beauty 


bie @d^ön]^it 


disagreeable t)>ibrig 




piumagebai^ @efie'ber 


proud 


ftotj 




sheen 


ber &lani 


fbot 


ber 8fu§ 




tau 


ber @d^»eif 



146 SBen befud^te ber (Bptäft? SBar ber ?ßfau ju $aufe?* ®ing 
ber @))ed^t allein? SSad tat bie Xanbt? 3ft bie Xaube geflogen ober 
gegangen? (Sefiel ber $fan bem ^Sptäfi? S3ad gefiel bem ®))ed^t 
nid^t an bem $fau?' SSie ift ber ^fau getoefen? SBar bad bumm 
t)on il^m? SBie »ar bie Stimme be« 5ßfau«? fein gu^? SBie gefiel 
ber 5ßfau ber laube? $at pe feine Stimme unb feinen 3fu| bemerft? 
Wia^ bemerlte fte? SBie toar bad ®efieber bed $faud? 

GRAMMAK 

147 Strono Verbs 

1. The principal parts exhibit a vowel yariation in the stem. 

2. The preterite has no suffix. The personal endings of 
the Singular are: — , (e)jl, — . 

3. The perfect participle ends in en. 

4. The imperative is formed by dropping the ft of the 
second person singalar. Note, however, that only e verbs 
change the vowel, all others add e to the stem. 

5. In the present tense, the personal ending of the second 

1 48 ^11 C^aitfe =» at home. 

^ an lirni 9f a« = about the peacock. 



58 



ELEMENTS OF GERM AN 



[149-160 



and third singular formerly was of a nature to produce 
Umlaut (cf. App. 7), hence: 

e " ie or i 

'' ö 

an " äu 



149 In the following f becomes i: 



give geben 


gab 


gegeben 


Present 




Preterite 


iä) gebe 




td^ gab 


bu gibft 




bu gabft 


er gibt 




er gab 


speak fpred^en 


fprad^ 


gefprod^n 


iä) \pttä)t 




i6) \pxad) 


bu '{pn6)^t 




bu f))rad^ft 


er fprid^t 




er \ptaä) 


break bred^eu 


brad^ 


gebrod^en 


xd) bred^e 




id) ivaä) 


bu brid^ft 




bu brad^ft 


er brid^t 




er brad^ 


become tuerbeu 


tüQrb (tüurbe) 


gettjorben 


iä) tuerbe 




ii) tt)urbe or loarb ^ 


bu tüirft 




bu murbeft or »arbft 


er iüirb 




er tt)urbe or tüarb 


throw toerfen 


toarf 


getoorfen 


id) toerfe 




td^ n^arf 


bu tüirfft 




bu tüarfft 


er toirft 




er tt)arf 



1 50 ' Note that Uietktn haa two preterite forms, one strong, one 
weak ; tiutrllf is more frequently used. The second and third person 
Singular present has undergone the same assimilating prooess that 
we observed in Ijafi and f^at. The imperative is weak. 



151] 



INDICATIVE PRBTERITE 



59 



Step treten 


trat getreten 


xd) trete 


id^ trat 


bu trittft* 


bu tratft 


er tritt 


er trat 


take nel)men 


nal^m genommen 


ic^ ne^me 


id^ nal^m 


bu nimnift* 


bu nal^mft 


er nfanmt 


er nal^m 


151 In the following 


( becomes \t: 


see fe^en 


fa^ . gefe^en 


iä) fe^e 


td^fa^. 


bu fie^t 


bu fa^t 


er fie^t 


^^ f<i^ 


read fefeu 


lad gelefen 


iä) leje 


id^ lad 


bu lieft 


bu lafeft 


er Heft 


er lad 


steai ftel^Ien 


fta{)t gefto^ten 


iä) fte^te 


iä) fta^I 


bu fttefilft 


bu fta^Ift 


er ftie^ft 


er fta^l 




Irregulär 


fein 


toar getüefen 


id^ bin 


id^ roav 


bu bift 


bu ttjarft 


er ift 


er toar 




Imperative 


flib! f^jrid^! 


brid^! tüerbe! »irf! tritt! 


nimm! fie^! lieg! ftie^U fei! 

1 



* Observe that in ttetett and tteHnteit the long e is changed to 9hort 
I and tbe following consonant is doublt. 



60 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[152-158 



TWO EXCEPTIONS 




go gelten 


flinfl 


gegangen 


Present 




Preterite 


id^ fle^e 




td^ ging 


bu fle^ft 




bu gingft 


er ge^t 




er ging 


stand ftel^en 


ftanb 


geftanben 


td^ ftel^e 




id^ ftanb 


bu fte^ft 




bu ftanbft 


er fte^t 




er ftanb 


Imperative itf){t) ! fte]^(e] 


l! 


152 In the foUowing 


11 becomet i; 




hold l^alten 


^ielt 


gel^alten 


id^ l^Qlte 




id^ l^ielt 


bu ^äUft 




bu ^iettft 


er m 




er l^ielt 


carry, wear tragen 


trug 


getragen 


id^ trage 




id^ trug 


bu trägft 




bu trugft 


er tragt 




er trug 


fau faQen 


fiel 


gefallen 


xdf f aQe 




id^ fiel 


bu f iUft 




bu fielft 


er m 




er fiel 


Imperative ffalt{t)l 


trag(e) ! 


faa(e) ! 


153 In the following 


Alt becomes ttit: 


* 


nm taufen 


lief 


gelaufen 


xdf taufe 




i^ lief 


bu ISttfft 




bu tief ft 


er läuft 




er lief 


Imperative 


laufYe)! 





lo4-15S] INDICATIVE PRETERITE 61 

1 54 Obsei^e that the imperative of the a and ait verbs does 
uot show the umlaut. They foUow the analogy of the weak 
conjugation, though the final r may be omitted. 

1 55 Wbak Verbs 

1. The weak verbs exhibit very few yariations. The prin- 
cipal parts all have the same vowel ; the preterite is f ormed on 
the stem by adding (e)le;* the perfect participle ends in (e)t; 
the imperative is formed by adding r to stem. 



156 


answer ani'tOOtttn 


ani'toovtttt 


geanftoortet 




Present 




Preterite 




idf anttooxit 




td^ anttoortele 




bu anttDortrfl 




bu antmortetrfl 




er ontttjortet 


Imperative 

anttoorte ! 


er anttüortetr 




SuoHTLT Irregulär 


167 


^ahm 


^alte 


^z\!jaU 




id) ^abe 




td^ l^attr 




bu ^aft 




bu ^attefl 




er i)at 


Imperative 

^bel 
LES80X U 


er l^attr 



CONTINUATION OF WEAK AND STRONO VBRBS IN PRBSENT AND 

Preterite Singular 
1 58 SS$er fie^t ben ©tord^ auf bem Xurm? SBer f))rid^t mit bem 
eped^t? SBorüber fprid^t bie laube? Äari, jprid^ft bu mit bem 
Seigrer beg SRäbd^en«? SBag tut Sari? Sieft er bie ®efd^i(^te öon 
bem SBolf unb bem gfei? SBeld^ ©efd^td^te lieft bu am liebften? 3(^ 
gebe bem S)ieuer bed fö5mg§ ben Srief ber äKutter. 3&a^ tue id^? 

*Where the stem ends with a dental, an e must be inserted 
between this and the i of the inflection. 



62 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [159-160 

2)er ftönig nimmt ben öricf beö S)iener^ unb lieft il^n, SBaö tut ber 
ffönig? SBer toirft bie Stume unb ben Stein in bag »öd^tein? 
©tiel^lt ber Kaufmann ba^ Oelb auS ber Sörfe? ®u trittft in ba§ 
3immer» SBa^ tue ic^? SBa§ tnt Sari? SBen ftet)t ber Sater auf 
bem Xurm? SSa^ tut ber Stord^? 3!)a§ SRdbci^en tt)irb eine grau 
unb ber Snabe toirb ein 3Rann» SBaS toirb SDtarie? äBa§ toirft bu? 
SQSag trägft bu jur ©d^ule? SBer fdllt öon bem Surme? SBa« j^ältft 
bu in ber ^anb? 3)ie Xaube anthjortet bem (Bpt6)t SBem anttüortet 
ber SBolf? SBa§ ^at ber ®iener in ber $anb? 

Change the above seiitences to 

(a) the preterite 

(b) the perfect 
Answer the questions in both tenses. 

1 59 ©cfunben. 

S^ ging im SSatbe gd^ moßt' e^ bred^en, 

(3o für mid^ l^in/ S)a fagt' e§ fein: 

Unb nid^t§ ju fud^en „Sott id^ ^nvf SBetfen 

S)a§* toar mein Sinn. ®ebrod^en fein?"* 

3m Sd^atten fal^ id^ gd^ grub'g mit atten 

6in 93lümd^en fte{)n, S)en SBürjtein^ an^; 

SBie Sterne leud^tenb, 3«^" ©arten txnig id^'§ 

SBie ?luglein fd^ön. 9lm pbfd^en ^an^ 

Unb ^jpauät' e§ tüieber 
8tm ftitten Ort; 
9iun smeigt eS immer® 
Unb blü^t fo fort.— «oetjr. 



1 60 ^ fftt midfl |in = along, by my seif . 

^ bal, demonstrative tliaty resumptive of nill|t§ glt fltd|nt. 
' Jttm (=Jtt bem) aBeHett = for the purpose of withering. 
*foft iA . . . gebro^en fein = shall I be broken. 
^ mit aum ben äStttaleilt = with all its rootlets. 
^ttltn... Immer = it continues to grow. ^tltmft bas progressive 
force here ; cf . 145. 



161-164] 



INDICATIVE PRETERITE 



63 



VOCABULARY 



161 







Strong 




tofind 


finben 


fanb 


gefunben 


todig 


graben 


grub 


gegraben 


to carry 


tragen 


trug 
VVeak 


getragen 


to seek 


fud^en 


fud^te 


gefud^t 


to want 


tooUtn 


toollte 


getoollt 


to say 


fagen 


fagte 


gefagt 


shaU 


fotten 


foate 


gefottt 


to plant 


p^iatiitn 


<)flanjte 


ge^jflanjt 


tobud 


5tt)eigcn 


ätoeigte 


gejtoeigt 


to blossom billigen 


blühte 


geblüht 


mood 


ber Sinn 


garden 


ber ©arten 


shadow 


ber ©d^atten 


pretty 


^übfc^ 


flowret 


bag Ölümd^ev 


l^ again 


toieber 


shlnlDg 


leud^tenb 


place, spot ber Drt 


Uttle eye 


ba^ ^ugtein^ 


on 


fort 


softly 


fein 


Uttle root bag aöür^Iein 



162 SBogingid^? (Sing id^ mit jemanb? SBottte id^ ettoa« fud^n? 
SBag fanb i^? SBo ftanb ba^ »lümd^en? SBie fat) e^ au^? SBa« 
tooüte id^ bamit tun? SBottte bag Slümd^en gebrod^n fein? 3Ba§ 
fragte e§? SBa§ tat id^ bann bamit? SBoIjin trug id^ e§? 
SBa« ^flanjte id^? SBa« blühte? SBo blühte e«? 3Bag ^atte id^ 
bann in meinem ©arten? gft baS Säd^lein im ©arten ober im 
SBalbe? S3IüI|t baS Stummen am Ufer be^ »öd^teing? SBo ift baö 
HRoog? 3ft bie »lume Uan? SBo lenkten bie ©terne? 

163 Exercise — Paraphrase stanzas 1, 2, 4, 5, using 

(a) the present tense 
(ö) the perfect tense 

164 ^ka§ IbVmältn and bo§ liltOlein are the diminutive forms 
respectively of txt fßlUMt and ba9 Vttgf. Observe the umlaut pro- 
duced by the suffix. 



64 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [165-^169 

1 65 Translate^ using preterite: Where was I Walking? I was 
Walking by myself in the forest. Where did you go ? I went 
Into the forest. Why did he go into the forest ? He went 
into the forest to seek* a flower. Did the man find anything 
[ettr)a§] in the forest ? Yes, he found a flower. What did he 
do with it? He carried it to the garden by the house. There 
he planted it, and there it still grows. 

Ghange these sentences to the present and to the perfect. 

LESSON 16 
Plural of Verbs 

1 66 S)cr Wiener be^ föönigg fi|t in bcm 3itnmer unb fd^reibt. ®er 

Söntg, bie Königin unb ber S)iener fi^en in bent 3iwtmer be^ föönig^ 

unb jd^retben. SBa^ tun flc? @ie ftfeen unb fd^rcibeti. S)er ajiann, 

bie grau unb ba§ Sinb feigen unb l^örett* SSag im, fle? @te feigen 

unb l^ören. S)ie Xavbt fliegt, ber ^abid^t fliegt aud^, ber ©^jed^t fliegt 

aud^. 2)ie laube, ber ^abid^t unb ber ^^fti^i fliegen. 3)ie $enne 

VtdCt bag Äorn, bog Süd^Iein pxii aud^ ba§ Sorn. S)ie ^enne unb 

baS föüd^tein ^^idfen bag Sorn. @in 3Rann, eine ^xau unb ein föinb 

lommen* 

1 57 Pbesent 

Sing. (3rd person) Plural (3rd person) 

er, fie, e§ gel^t fie gelten 

// nift „ rufen 

,, tut „ tun 

// // // läuft ,, laufen 

The third person plural is formed by adding en to the 
stem.* 

1 68 The verb to he is irregulär. 

Singular Plural 

er, fie, eg ift fie finli 

1 69 1 Note that the infinitive phrase comes last in the sentence. 
^ tun adds only tt, since the stem ends in a vo wel. 






170-171] INDICATIVE PRETERITE 65 

170 Sie Sogel 

S)ic Söget l^aben'g * tool^rttci^ gwt: 
Sie fliegen, I)ü:pfen, fingen; 
©ie fingen frifd^ unb loo^Igemut, 
®a6 SBatb unb gelb erfitngen. 

©ie finb gefunb unb forgenfret 
Unb finben, toa^ gut f d^medtet ; * 
SBo^in fie ffiegeri, too'^ and) fei,' 
3ft fd^ön ber lifd^ gebedEet.* 

Unb ift* il^r lagetoerl'öodbradjt, 
3)ann jiel^n'^ fie in bie Säume ; 
(Sie rul^en ftill unb fanft bie 3taä)t^ 
Unb l^obcn fü^e Iräume. 

Unb totdV fie frül^ ber ©onnenfd^ein, 
2)ann fd^lüingcn fie'ö* ßJefieber' 
Unb fliegen in bie S33elt l^inein ^® 
Unb fingen il^re Sieber. 

171 ^ |alittt'0 (= iJaBett e?) pt= are well off. 

^ ff(lllf litt, Qftlflfet — an e before t on account of meter. 

' ttiO'« (=010 e«) auili fcl = wherever it be. 

^ ttltb ifi iltr Xa0fttierf eto. — a conditional clause with the ood- 
ditional conjunction WUU omitted. This Omission always causes 
the inTersion of the position of the subject and the predicate. See 
App. 188, 

^ jlcju (short form of gielflt) literally = draw, poetically = wander, 
betake themselves. 

^ bie ftui^i — accusative of duration of time. See App. 159. 

^ toeilt fie, etc.— see note 4 above. 

« fle'i = fie H%. 

^ fdUttingeit fle'S ©efieber = they soar. 

^® In bie SBelt iineltl = into the world. This tautological use of 
the adverbial phrase -{- adverb is often found. Cf. ait0 der Zttt 
liillttltK=out of the door, gnm ffenfiee jereittI=into the window, etc. 



66 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[172-174 



172 





VOCABULARY 




Singular 


Plural 


flies 


er fliegt 


fie fliegen 


hops 


fie ppft 


fie ppfen 


sings 


eg fingt 


fie fingen 


resounds 


eg erftingt' 


fie erflin'gen 


Is 


fie ift 


fie finb 


finds 


e^ finbet 


fie finben 


tastes 


eg fd^medft 


fie f d^ntedEen 


rests 


fie rul^t 


fie rul^en 


wakens 


eSloeit 


fie loedEen 


Swings 


er fd^toingt 


fie fd^tüingen 


bird 


ber SSogel 


bie SJögel 


tree 


ber Saum 


bte S3äume 


dream 


ber Sraum 


bie Xräume 


song 


baö Sieb 


bie Sieber 


truiy toai)xii^ 


day'slabor %aqttOZXl 


fresli frifd^ 




completed Doßbrad^t' 


joyous tDol^lgemut 


sweet fü§ 


carefree forgeufrei 


sunshine ©onuenfd^ein 


set, spread gebecft' 


piumage ©efie'ber^ 



1 73 SBer \)aV^ gut ? SBa§ tun fie ? SSie fingen fie ? SBa« maä)i 
SBalb unb gtur erllingen ? S)ag ©ingen ber SSögel ntad^t SBalb unb 
glur erHingen. SBog freffen bie Sögel? SBo finben fie ba§? 
aSo ift i^r 2:ifc^ gebedft ? SBer bedEt unferen Xifd^ ? SBag ift ba§ 
%aQzmxt ber ffiögel ? ©ingen ift ba« Xagetoerl ber SJögel. SBa§ ift 
mein ijagettjerf? ©tubieren (to study) ift mein S^agettjerf. 3Ba§ 
tun bie Sögel? SSaS tue id^ ? 3Sann ift ba§ Jagetuerf ber 
Sßögel öottbrad^t? SBa^ tun fie bann? SSo ru^en fie? SBie 



1 74 ^ @efie'bfr, observe that nouns as well as verbs have unaccented 
prefixes. 



i:5-i:ej 



INDICATIVE fUETERlTE 



67 



lange? SBann fiaben fie träume? SBann toedt fie bcr Sonnen- 
fd^ein ? SSa§ tun fie, tt)enn er fie totdt ? SBoIjin fliegen fie ? SBaö 
tun fie ba ? 

3BaS tun bie «ögel ? SBelc^e Söget befuc^ten ben ^fau ? SSSo 
fingen bie SSögel ? SBoöon erHingen SBalb unb glur ? ipörft bu bie 
SSögel fingen ? Sari unb SWarie, i)öxi i^r bie Sögel fingen ? 3<^ 
ging im SBalb, SKein SSater unb iä), mit gingen im SBalb. SBaö 
f cnb if^ ? SBa§ fanben mit ? 'i)u fingft ein Sieb, S)u unb bein 
S3ruber, i^x fingt Sieber, 

SBir fingen Sieber, toir fangen Sieber, mir ^aben Sieber ge= 
fungen, SBaS tut i^r ? 3I)r fingt. SBaS tatet il|r ? S^r fangt, 
SBaö fiabt i^r getan ? gtjr i)aU gefungen, Sie ge^en auS bem ^an^, 
fie gingen au§ bem ^an^, fie finb au§ bem ^a\i^ gegangen. 



175 





GRAMMAR LESSON 








Present 




Singular 






Plural 


ic^ finge 






toir fingen 


bu fingft 






i^r fingt 


er fingt 




PRE'fERlTE 


fie fingen 
©ie^ fingen 


xä) fang 




« 


mir fangen 


bu fangft 






i^r fangt 


er fang 




Perfect 


fie fangen 
@ie fangen 


id) ^abe gefungen 




mir ^aitn gefungen 


bu ^aft 


// 




i^r f^ait „ 


er ^at 


// 




fie ^aUn 

@ie l^aben „ 



i 76 * The third person plural (written with a capital) is used in 
stead of btt and i|t in conventional aiidress. See App. 165« 



68 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [177-178 

Perfbct 

Singular Plural 

xä) bin gctocfen ton flttb getocfen 

bu bift ,, ll^r f elb ,, 

er ift „ fte (Sic) flnb „ 

Personal endings for plural (in all tenses) are — 

eti (c)t ctt 

177' EXERCISE 

Write paradigms singular and plural of present^ preterite^ 
and perfeci tenses of •fingen, geben, gelten, ftel^en, fud^en, p^)fen, 
freffen, l^aben, fein, »erben. 

Translate: We are fond of grandmother^ and grandfather.^ 
Do you* love father* and mother? ^ What do the hen and the 
chick pick? Where do the birds fly? Do the merchant's 
horse and dog see the purse? Whom did the woodpecker and 
the dove visit? You see* the birds on the tree 





LESSON 16 




Plural of ITonns 


178 


Strono Declension— Class I 




Singular 


N. 


3)cr JBagel fliegt. 


G. 


®te Sarbe beS IBogclS ift fd^loar}. 


D. 


3Rav. gibt brat 6og(I i^utter. 


A. 


3^ l^öre ben aSogcI ftngen 




PluraL 


N. 


Sie Sogel fliegen. 


G. 


Sie garbe ter SSbgel ift f^toorj 


D. 


äRan gibt bra IBogeln gutter. 


A. 


3^ %i)Xt tli( Sögel ftngen. 



^Use definite article. 

«aive three forms, i.e., liebft bu? liebt i^r? lieben Sic? 



179-182] 



INDICATIVE PRETERITE 



69 



Singular 

ber SSogct 
bei fßo^tU 
bem SJogel 
ben SSogel 

baB aßSbd^en 
bei SRäbd^end 
bem äßabd^en 
baB m&Wn 

bie 3Rutter 
ber SKuttcr * 
ber SWuttcr 
bie 3Rutter 



Plural 

bie SJögel 
ber Söflet 
ben SSögeln 
bie Sögel 

bie aRöbd^en 
ber äßäbd^en 
ben äRäbd^n 
bie aJlöbd^en 

bie äßütter 
ber SRüttcr 
ben mnüzxn 
bie SRütter 



1 79 Observe that in the plnral — 

(a) The articie is the same for all genders. 

{b) The noun takes n in dat. f many of the masculines 
modify the root vowel. 

1 80 The nouQS in this class are all polysyllaMc and henoe 
are not increased in plural. Most of them are masculine or 
nenter, ending in er, el, en; some neuters end in f|en, lein. 
Only two are feminine: bie SRtttier and bie Zoil^ter. See 
App. 20. 

181 Decline like ber IBogel: ber harten, ber 9(^fel (apple), 
ber SSatcr, ber Srubcr, ber ©ro^öater, ber ©d^toager» 

Without Umlaut: bag Äinblein, bo§ gtäutetn, ba« Äüd^Iein, 
ber Seigrer, ber ©d^iifter (shoemaker), ber Dnfel, ber ©d^atten, baä 
SKäbd&en, bag genftcr (window). 



1 82 ^ Note that feminines have no inflection in sing. See App. 17. 
> Nouns that end in % do not have this inflection. 



70 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [188-184 

183 S)el 9RanneS Serbienft 

&axl ber ®ro§e intcrcffterle fic^ fet)r für Sübung uub Srjtel^ung. 
3u fetner 3^it^ fonnte man nur in ben Älöftern jur ©d^ule gelten. 
S)arunt grünbete ber Saifer eine ©d^ute an feinem ^ofe. S)ie ©c^üIer 
lernten bort öon Se^rem, bie ber S'aifer aug ©ngtanb berief. 3)ie 
SSater, Dnfel unb ®ro§t)äter ber ©d^üler toaren an bem ^ofe beS 
Kaiferg, fte toaren feine SRatgeber unb S'rieger. ®0(i^ mand^er ßnabe 
ttjar faul unb unge^orfam unb lernte nid^tg, toeil er glaubte, ba§ ber 
®influ§ feines SSaterS ober feinet DnfelS x^n befd^üfeen follte.* Slber 
eS toaren' noc^ anbere ©d^üler in ber ©d^ule. Siac^fommen öon 
S'riegern, Trompetern, Wienern, im Äampf für Äönig imb SSaterlanb 
gefallen,* fanben t)ier Slufnal^me. 

Eines lageS^ lam ber S^aifer, um bie ©c^ule ju befud^en, bie 
©d^üler ju pm^tn unb öon ben Setirem S3erid^t ^u t)örem ©ein 
?irger toar gro§, als er fanb, bag ©d^üler, bie® Stad^fommen feiner 
Slatgeber unb ffrieger toaren, nid^t fo fleißig toaren toie jene, bie 
feine SSäter unb Dnfel öon SSKad^t unb Slnfetien tiatten. 5)a befallt 
ber Saifer ben ©d^ülem,. bie* faul toaren, auf eine ©eite ju gelten. 
®ie anberen"' ftettte er auf bie anbere ©eite. 9?un rief er jenen' 
i«: //3^^ ©d^üler, meint i^^r, ber @influ§ eurer SSäter unb Dnfel 
fottte eud^ l^elfen? ©d^ämt tud)\^ SSeil Säter unb ®ro§t)äter tapfer 
toaren, mü^t il^r fleißig fein um ju öerbienen, bag i^r fold^e SSäter 

1 84 * glt feiner 8tit = in bis time. 

^ idn befdiü^m folltr = should protect him. Observe order. 
■ f ^ koattlt = there were. 

* gef ttttttt—partioiple of strong verb fanm, fiel, gefaffflt, used 
adjectively to modify ftrifgent, etc. 

* eincg ^ttgtS— genitive of time. See App. 128. 
6])|e= who. 

' bie anberen = the others. 

^ ienttt (dat. pl.) = the former. bieff = the latter. 
^fdÜmt tttdi— imperative reflexive. 



Ig5-186] 



INDICATIVE PRETERITE 



71 



l^abt! 3^^^ onbem aber, bie i^r feine SSäter me^r ^aU, ober iod) ^ nur 
fold^e, bie arm finb, auf eud^* bin ic^ ftolj! 3t)r toerbet einntaP 
meine 9tatgeber unb Srieger, meine Seigrer unb 5ßriefter ! Unb merft 
cud^ biefen meinen SBal^lf^jrud^: Qfd^ frage nad^ beS 3Ranneg SSerbienft, 
nad^ feinem SRamen nic^t/' 



186 



i 


VOCABULARY 




Stronq Nouns- 


-Class I 


convent 


baS glofter 


bie Ätöfter 


pupil 


ber ©d^üler 


bie Sd^üler 


tyeacher 


ber Seigrer 


bie Seigrer 


emperoT 


ber Saifer 


bie ftaifer 


father 


ber SSater 


bie aSäter 


uncle 


ber Dnfel 


bie Dnlel 


councilor 


ber »tatgeber 


bie aiatgeber 


warrior 


ber S'rieger 


bie S'rieger 


trumpeter 


ber Irom^jeter 


bie Trompeter 


vexatlon 


ber Srger 




power, respect baS Slufel^en 




priest 


ber 5ßriefter 


bie üßrieftcr 




Strono Verbs 



tocau berufen berief berufen 

to command bef cl^feu bef ttl^l befaßten (bu bef tel^tft, er befie!^Ü) 



Weak Verbs 



to take an interest ftc^ interef fiereu 

to found grttnben 

to leam ItVntXi 

to believe fltaubett 

to Protect bef d^ü^en 



to test prüfen 

to place, put ftetten 

must muffen 

to eam Derbieneu 



1 86 * bodi mx foHe = at least only such, attf ettd) = of you. 
''' riUHtar = at some time. 



72 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[187-188 



desert 


Do§ «erbtcnff 


Influence 


ber ginflug 


Charles the Great ^atl htX (äxo^t 


others 


anbere 


education 


bic )öilbung 


descendants 


bie SWad^fotnmen 


pedagogy 


bie ©ratel^'ung 


Btruggle 


ber ^amp\ 


time 


bie 3rit 


nativecountry ba^ löaterlaub 


one (any one) 


hian (seeApp.36) 


here 


l^ier 


court 


ber ^of 


asylum 


bie Slufna^me 


England 


(bag) ©nglanb 


in Order to 


um (with Inf.) 


many a 


tnand^er 


report 


ber liBerid^t' 


boy 


ber Änabe 


might 


bie maä)i 


lazy 


faul 


slde 


bie Seite 


becanse 


tüeil 


such 


fold^e 


dlllgent 


fteifeig 


watchword 


ber aöa^Ifprud^ 


brave 


tapfer 







187 SBer tüaren bie SSäter unb ©rofeüäter ber ©d^üler be§ Saifer^? 
aSol^er ^ai ber ^aifer bie Seigrer Berufen? SBetd^e Snaben toaren 
faul unb unge^orfam? SBer tüaren bie ©d^üler, bie fleißig toaren? 
^at ber Kaifer bie (Bä)ViU befud^t? SBarum? SBa^ tüollte er öon ben 
Seigrem ^ören? SBeld^e ©d^üler tüaren fleißig? SBeld^e toaren faul? 
SBo^in ftettte ber ^aifer biefe? SBo^in ftettte er jene? SBeld^e fd^alt 
er, biefe ober jene? 2luf toetd^e toar er ftolj? 3Ba§ tüurben bie, bie 
fleißig toaren? 

, SBa§ tun ©d^üler? SBa« finb @ie? SBag tun bie Se^rer? ©je 
Jtel^ren bie ©d^üter. ^arl, bift bu ein Seigrer ober ein (Sd^üler? ß'arl 
unb SBil^elm, toag feib i^r? SBaS tut itir in ber ©d^ule? 

1 88 Translate: The mothers of the pupils were proud. The 
emperor commanded the teachers aod pupils. The cousins 
(masc.) love the uncles. Do you like* the birds and bird- 
lings? Do you hear the birds in the garden? The gardens 
are beautiful in summer, but cold in winter. The girls love the 
apples. 

* Give three f orms. 



189-192] 



INDICATIVE PRETERITE 



73 



189 




9laii|tUeb 




Über aQen ©ipfeltt 




Saum einen ^m6) ; 




3ft fltn\)\ 




S)ie aSögelein fd^toeigen im SBalbe, 


3n oHen Uöipfeln 




aöarte nur, balbe 




Spüreft bu 




JRutie ft bu auc^ ! 


@oetl|e. 


I90 




VOCABULARY 
NouNS op Class I 




mountaln top 
tree top 


ber ®tpfel bic ®ipfcl 
bcr S33i»)fet bie SBipfel 




Weak 

feei fpüren 
wait toaxitn 




Verbs 

Strono 

tobesiient fd^mctgeu fd^tüieg 
to scoid f dielten \6)ali 


gefd^tüiegen 
gefd^alten 


rest ru^en 








breath bct ^ttU^ 

soon balbe 


peace bie Siul^e 

scarcely faUUt 





191 



LES80N 17 

STRONG DECLENSION — CLASS H 

' Singular 

2)er 8attm ift grün* 
S)ie görbe lieS SaumeS* ift grüm 
Sie Söget fifeen auf bem öattiti(c).* 
3d^ fe{)e tien Saum« 

Plural 

Die Saume ftnb grün. 
®ie garbe her Säume ift grün. 
S)ie SSögel fi^en auf bett Säumen. 
3;d^ fe^e bie Säume. 



1 92 ' With monosyllables the e in dat. sing, is optional. 



74 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [19S-190 

193 Model Noün— Class II 

Singular Plural 

ber (So^n bic ©ö^nc 

beS ©otineg ber @öf)nc 

bcm @ot)n(e) bcn @öt)ncn 

ben (Sot)n bie Sö^ne 

1 94 (a) The plural takes e and sometimes the umlaut. 
(b) Membership of Class II : 

1. Monosyllabic masculines. 

2. Some monosyllabic feminines and nenters. 

3. Some polysyllabic mascalines in ig, iitg, Hltg. 

4. Some polysyllabic nenters in nU, faU See App. 21. 

1 95 Like ®iil|n are declined — 

1. Masculines (a) with umlaut: ber @tut)I (chair), ber $ut 
(hat), ber Stamm (trunk of tree) , ber ©ang (walk), ber S'opf 
(head), ber Sud^g (f ox) , ber 5Iu§ (stream) . 

(b) Without umlaut: ber ©d^u^ (shoe), ber ©unb (dog), ber 
9lrm (arm), ber Zi\d) (table), ber ©rief (letter). 

2. Feminine monosyllables (all have umlaut): bie SEBanb 
(wall), bie Qanb (band), bie Stabt (city), bie 3Rau§ (mouse), bie 
Sanf (bench), bie JRufe (nut). 

3. Neuter monosyllables (no umlaut) : bod ^al^r (year), ba^ 
^aav (hair), bad $ferb (horse), bad $aar (pair), bad ^U (desk). 

4. Polysyllabic masculines and neuters : ber Sönig, ber ^v&f)^ 
Ung (spring), ber Söi^flK^fl (yonth), ba^ ©el^eimni^ (secret). 

196 Sie SBBIfe 

3n einem SBalb gab e^' SBöIfe. 3tt)ei ©öl^ne eine« ©d^äferg 
pteten ©d^afe auf einer SBiefe in ber SRä^e beg SBalbeS* S)ie Seute 
Dom 3)orfe in ber 9iä^e fagten: ,,aBenn SBöIfe auiS bem SBalb fom* 
men, fo ruft * uniJ* 3)ann fommen tt)ir unb Reifen. "* läge »ergingen, 



' 0all (§ = there were. See App. 87. 

' ntf t (iljt) tttt§ = call US, imperative pluraL 



197-198] 



INDICATIVE PRETERITE 



75 



unb eg tüurbc langtociltg. 3)a riefen jtc einmal: „SBöIfe! SBöIfe!" 
unb bie Seute famen gef))rungen,^ Sa tad^ten bie ©öt)ne be§ ©d^aferS 
bor greube nnb nun riefen fie alle Zaqtf „SBöIfe/' obgleid^ feine 
SBöIfe ba tüaren» 3wfefet tüurben bie Seute ber ^aä^t^ mübe* Slfö 
eine§ XageS tüirHid^ jtüei SBöIfe l^eröorbrad^en unb bie ©d^afe fragen, 
laut niemanb auf t^ren 9tuf unb fie fonnten nid^tS tun aU bie ^änbe 
ringen unb fd^reiem 

1 97 VOCABÜLARY 

NOUNS OF Class II 



wolf 


ber S«oIf 


bie Söötfe 


son 


ber ©ol^n 


bie ©öl^nc 


sheep 


ia^ ©d^af 


bie ©d^afe 


day 


ber Xag 


bie Xage 


I)eople 




bie Seute 


animal 


ba§ lier 


bie liere 


caU 


ber »tuf 


bie Slufe 


band 


bie §anb 


bie ^änbe 



Strong Verbs 
toheip l^etfen (bu l^ilfft, l^alf 

er ^ilft) 
to pass away öergel^eu (bu öergel^ft, Verging 

er öergetit) 
rufen rief 

tierüor'bred^en (bu brad^ l^eröor' 
brid^ft l^eröor', er 
brid^t t)ert)or') 
to wring riugeu rang 

fd^reien fd^rie 



tocall 

to break out 



geholfen 

»ergangen 

gerufen 
tieröor'gebrod^en 



CO scream 



gerungen 
gefd^rieen 



1 98 1 geftiritndttl — perf . part. used as a descriptive adverb with f ontmeit 
= came running. So also bet SOQfl fommt 0ff(O0m, the bird comes 
flyine; bft ftllttBe lommt gefoufm, the boy comes running, etc. 

^alle Xa^t = every day. Acc. pl. duration of time. (See App. 159.) 
Note the difference between this phrase and bett QaitSftt Xll(|, all day. 

'kct Sai|e = of the affair, matter. 



76 ELEMENTS OF GERM AN [199-200 

Weak Verbs 

toguard t)Üten tolaugh lad^Clt 

shepherd bcr ©d^äfet, -8, - joy bie greubc 

two jiüci aithough obgteid^ 

village baS 2)0rf really lüirflld^ 

tiresome laugtüetlig nobody uientaitb 

199 SBic öicie @öt)nc tiatte ber ©d^öfer? SBa« taten bie ©öt)ne? 
SBo pteten fie bie ©d^Qfe? SBar e§ gefätirlid^ (dangerous)? SBa* 
rum? SBeit SBöIfe in ber SRätie tüaren. SBo toaren bie SBötfe? SBaö 
finb SBölfe? SRennen ©ie uod^ liere, SBo tüo^nen SBöIfe? SBetc^e 
Siere tüofinen im |)aufe? S)iefe tieigen ^au^tiere. $yft ber SBoIf ein 
^au§tier? ber gud^ä? SBaö freffen biefe Siere? SBar e§ benSö^nen* 
(angtüeilig? SBag taten fie, aU e§ it)nen langtoeiüg toar? SBer tarn? 
SBie !amen bie Seute? SBoin famen fie? Um ju tielfen. ganben fie 
n)a§ fie fud^ten? ®efiel ba§ ben ©ö^ncn be§ ©d^dferS? SBaä taten 
fie? SBie tüurben bie Seute? Samen fie bann nid^t met)r? SBer fam 
julefet (at last)? SBag taten bie Söt)ne be§ ©d^öferg? 

200 Fill out, giving proper plural forms: Xifd^ — , ©tül^I — 
unb San! — finb in biefem gi^^^^i^- 2)^^ ©d^äfer l^at fed^g ©ö^n — . 
3n ben 3^^^^^ — P"^ äRöbel (f urniture). gn ben ®ärten finb 
Säum— • STuf ben Saum— finbet man St)fel unb S«üff— . 2)ie 
©d^üter mad^en ben Seigrer—* 3KüI)e (trouble). 3^ ^^^^ J^^i 
Süg— . S)ie gtüff— SImerifag finb grog. SBiIt)cIm unb SatI, 
it)r meine ©d^üler, 

Decline in singular and plural all nouns of the first and 
second class that have occnrred in tliis lesson. 

* Dative of interest. See App. 142. 



201-204] INDICATIVE PRETERlTE 77 

LE8S0N 18 

STRONG DECLENSION— CLASS III 
20 1 Singular 

2)a8 Sieb bed SSogelg tft f^öiu 
S)er SRamen bei Siebe« ftel^t in bem a3ud)e. 
3d^ taufd^e* bem fileb(e) beS SSoöelS, 
$örft bu bai Sieb?. 

Plural 

3)ie Siebet De^ SSogefö finb fd^ön. 
3)ie Slatncn bet Sieber ftel^en in bem 8uc^. 
3ci^ taufd^c ben Siebern* 
$örft bu bie Sieber? 
202 



Singular 


Plural 


bad liBud^ 


bie SBüd^er 


be^ iüud^eg 


ber ȟd^er 


bem S3ud^e 


ben Supern 


ba^ §Buc^ 


bie S9üd^er 



203 (a) Plurals take er umlaut if stem-vowel permits. 
{h) Membership of Class III: 

1. Monosyllabic Neuters. 

2. A few monosyllabic masculines. 

3. Masculines and neuters ending in tum. 

4. Polysyllabic neuters accented on last syllable. 

204 Like 83tt^ are declined : 

1. Neuters: ba§ ^auS, ba^ Sinb, ba§ Statt (leaf), bag S3ilb, 
bag gelb. 

2. Maviculines: ber SKann, ber SBalb, ber ®eift (spirit), ber 
SSurm. 

3. iJfouns in tum: ber 3^^^^""^ (error), ba§ SKtertunt (age). 
(See App. 22.) 

4. Polysyllabic neuters : ba§ ^ofpital'. 

* Imiflile = listen to. See App. 138. 



78 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [205-208 

206 ^erlifmeb 

S3unt finb fd^on bic SBälber, 
®clb btc @to^))3elfeIbcr 
Unb ber iperbft beginnt 
Unb bie Stätter faHen, 
Unb bie SRebel toaUen, 
mi)l ipetit ber SBinb, 

206 «feenbUeb 

3)er 3lbenb fommt leife tiernieber 
2luf Dörfer unb SBälber unb gtur* 
@§^ fd^lüeigen ber SSöglein Sieber, 
3lo^ e i n Sieb* t)ört man nur. 

207 VOCABULARY 

Strong Noüns— Class III 

forest ber SBalb bie SEBälber 

stubbiefleid bttg (Sto^)|)elfetb* bie @top^)elfelber 

leaf ba§ 93Iatt bie Slätter 

vuiage bo§ S)orf bie S)örfer 

song ba^ Sieb bie Sieber 

Strong Verbs 

to fall fallen (bu f öUft, er fällt) fiel gefallen 

tobegin beginnen begann begonnen 

Weak Verbs 
towander tüalleu toblow tO^^tlX 

208 *il§ . ... fiteber. ®8 is merely introductory. Translate: 
The songs of the birds are silent. 

^ ÄOdi . . . ttttt = one song only is heard. 9loilt and nnt express 
the same idea. 

^ In Compound nouns only the last component part is inflected. 



209-211] 



INDICATIVE PRETERITE 



79 



gay bunt 

already fd^Olt 

yellow gelb 

autumn bCV ^etbft, -Cd, -t 



wind ber SBinb, -ed, -c 
evening ber Slbeitb, -S, -c 
down l^ernic'ber 
meadow bie glut (bie SBiefe) 
fog, mist ber Siebet, - d, - 



209 aSad h)ä# in ben SBalbern? S8ie finb bie gelber im $erbft? 
SBie finb fie im grütiling? SBann falten bie »tätter? 2Bic finb fie 
im^erbft? SBa« ^aben bie ©aume? SBann ^aben fie »tätter? SBa§ 
ift bie äRe^rja^I (plural) bon ,,ber SBinb/' ;,ber ^erbft," ,,ber 
SRebct/ M^ ßteb''? SBad ift ber Unterf^ieb jn)if d^en ®orf nnb 
©tabt? SBad ift bie äHe^rao^t öon M^ 3)orf/' ,,bie ©tabt"? 



2IO 



Review op Strong Declensiox 
Singular genitive — el (except feminines) 



MAIN CLASSES 



SUBCLABSES 



Plurals 

I. Masc. ft Neut. Polysyllables Two feminines : bie SKut- ) 

ter, bie loc^ter ) 

II. Masculine Monosyllables Monosyllabic feminines 

Monosyllabio neuters 
Masculines in ig, in%, Hitg 
Neuters in nil^ fil 

III. Neuter Monosyllables Monosyllabic masculines ^ 

Neuters and masc. in tttiit 
Polysyllabic neuters ac- 
cented on last syllable. . 

For füll Statement and ezamples see App. 19-22. 

2 I I EXERCISES IN STRONG DECI-ENSION 

/. Give dative plural of: ber SSoget, baS ^a\xi, ber ^unb, bie 
äBanb, bie SRutter, ber SRann, ber äSalb. 

//. Oive genitive singular of the above. 



>tx 



80 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [212-213 

///. Change notms and verhs of fhe following seniences to 
plurals: 3)er ftaufntann %ai ein 5ßfcrb getiabt. 2)aS §auS beS 
SKanneS ift an bem %hx%. Sic SBanb be^ 3itnnter^ ift toei§. ©in 
»ratt ift grün. 3m iperBft toirb ba^ Statt eines »anme« gelb. 
3m SBi^fel ift SRnl^. 3m SBi^jfel beS »anmeS fifet ein SSoget nnb 
fingt. %m lifd^e fifet ein SRabd^en nnb tieft. 3)er ©d^üter beS 
ßetirerS ift flei|ig. J)er Setirer !ommt anS ©ngtanb imb ift fel^r 
berül^mt. 3)a§ S33affer ift lalt nnb ftor. @ib bem Sinb einen 
2l))fet bon bem Saume. 

IV. Translate: The woods and the fields were gay. Did 
you see the apples on the trees? The little-birds were singing 
sweetly in the gardens. The fathers, brothers, and uncles of 
the pupils were the coanoilors and warriors of the emperor. 
The little-girls have snng songs, and the names of those songs 
were in the books. Wolves, donkeys, foxes, and dogs are 
animals. Domestic animals live in houses with people. Wolves 
live in forests. Storks live in the neighborhood of water. 

LE880N 19 

WEAK AND MIXED DECLENSI0N8 

2 1 2 Weak Declension 

Singular Plural (e)it 

bie ©d^mefter bie ©d^tocfkerti 

ber ©d^ttjefter ber ©(^toeftem 

ber ©d^ttjefter ben ©d^toeftcm 

bie ©d^toefter bie ©d^toefterti 

2 1 3 All weak masculines take the ending (e)lt in all cases 
except the nominative singular. 

ber S'nabc bie Snaben 

bed Snaben ber Knaben 

bem Knaben ben Knaben 

ben Knaben bie Knaben 



214-2171 INDICATIVE PRETERITE 8t 

ber §crr bte Ferren 

beö ^errii ber ^crren 

bcm ^ernt bcn Ferren 

ben ^crrn bic Ferren 

2 1 4 Singular Plural 

bic Sel^rerin bic Scl^rerinncn 

ber Scl^rcrin ber ßcl^rcrinnen 

ber Scl^rerin bcn ßcl^rerinnen 

bic Sel^rcrin bic Sctirerinnen 

215 The siiffix in is affixed to many masculiDO noiins 

(especially names of occupation or nationality) to form the 
feminines. Ex. — ber ©tubent', bic ©tubentin; ber ©d^fiter, bic 
©d^ülerin; ber Slnterila'ner, bic Stmerifa'ncrin. Wherever possible, 
this Suffix produces umlaut— cf. ber ^o6), bic Söd^in (cook); 
ber S3aiter, bic SSaucrin (peasant) . 

Note the doubling of the n in the plural. 

2 1 6 Membership of Weak declension : 

1. Folysyllabic Feminines. 

2. Some monosyllabic feminines (but see Streng Class II): 
bie U^r (clock), bic grau (woman), bie 2A^ (number). 

3. Masculines ending in e: ber ßnabe, ber Sunge, ber @atte 
(husband), ber 9labe (raven), ber $afe (hare.) 

4. A small number of masculines formerly ending in (: 
ber ^err (master, Mr.), ber ®raf (count), ber gfirft (prince.) 

5. Foreign masculines with accent on last syllable: ber 
©tubent' (Student), ber SIefant' (elephant), ber ©olbat' (soldier.) 

217 MixED Declension 

Some nouns are streng in the singular, weak in the pluial. 

Singular Plural 

baS Slugc bie Stugcti 

be8 äugcl ber Slugen 

bcm Stugc ben Stugen 

bad 3(uge bie 9Iugen 



82 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [218-220 

2 1 8 Like tlnge are declined : ba^ O^r, ber Staat, ba^ S3ett, 
and words derived from Latin, as ber 3)oftor, ber 3nfi)ef'tor, ber 
©ena'tor, and also a number of nouns of Latin derivation which 
end in ium in the singular and iett in the plural. 

ba^ @>Qinnaftttitt bte S^mnaftett 

ba^ (Stubium bte ©tubien 

219 2)ie Säulen 

^er <Siaat fd^idt iä^rltd^ gnfpeltoren an^, um bte ©d^ulen auf 
bem Saub unb in ber @tabt ju befid^ttgen* Einmal l^at ein ©d^ul- 
inf))eItor eine ©d^ule auf bent ßanbe befud^t. 3)a ift fein Sluge auf 
einen ftnaben gefaKen, ber erft * fieben ^af)xt alt toax, aber fo gefd^eit 
auSfat),'^ ba§ er bie 2lufnier!fant!eit beS gnfpeftorS auf fid^ jog,' 
,,9lun/' fagte biefer, ,,mein Sunge, nenne mir* einmal eine S^W* 
,,SSier unb ätoanjig/' antwortete bag ftinb fd^neU, ol^ne fid^ ju befin- 
neu,® Der SRann i)at nun bie 3^^^ ^^ ^^^ %a^tl gefd^rieben, aber 
fo: 42. Dann fal^ er ben Sangen erttjartungSboK an. Die ©d^üler 
fperrten Singen unb D^ren auf. Der Snabe aber üe§ fid^ nid^t§ 
merfen/ Da l^at cg ber SSefud^er nod^ einmal berfud^t. ,,@age mir 
nod^ eine QafjilV* Der Surfd^ fagte fd^nell, „\tä)^ unb ftebjig." 
SBieber fd^rieb ber ©d^uIinf|)eftor bie 3^^^ öerfe^rt: 67, unb toieber 
lieg fid^ ber Qunge nid^t« merfen.* 9?un fagte ber S^fl^^ftor loieber: 
,,®ib mir noc^ einc^ 3a]^l!" Da ^tal^it ber Surfd^e l^eraug: 
„Sier unb tjierjig! ©d^reibe baS ücrfel^rt, loenn bu fannft, bu 
®efd^eiter!"« 

220 ierf[— literallv^rst; translate OTiZ^. 

^ attiffti = looked, appeared 

'attf ^41 )0Q = attracted to himself. 

* »ir— ethical dative. See App. 143. 

'^i|tte {id| }1t leftit1tett = withouthesitating. Note the use of Oer- 
man Infinitive as ooject of the preposition where Engllsh employs 
the present partioiple. See App. 217. 

^Urt {l4 ttiditl mrrfnt =pretended not to notice it, 

^no4 citir = another. 

^)in 9rfd|rUer— translate h^re, smcirtv» you! 



221] 



INDICATIVE PRETERITE 



83 



221 



VOCABÜLARY 
Weak Nouns 

numbep btC 3^^^ 

schooi bie ©d^ule 

boy bcr föllftOe 

attention bic Slnonerffamfeit 



Plural 

bic S^^Un 
bie ®d)itUn 
bie Knaben 



blackboard bie %a\tl 

boy ber ^un^t 

number bie Slummer 
boy ber 85urfd^(e) 

MiXED NOUNS 
Qea. Sing. 



bie lafeln 
bie jungen 
bie dummem 
bie 93urfd^en 



Nom. Sing. 

ber Btaat 
ber gnfpeftor 
ba^ Slitge 

baS €)^v 



bed ©taated 
beg 3nf<>e!tor« 
bed Sbtged 
bed Ol^red 



Nom. Plural 

bie Staaten 
bie ^n^pttio'vm 
bie ^MQtn 
bie D^ren 



Strong Verbs 
to lock, appear auS'fel^eu (bu fiel^ft fal^ aiiö' 

an^, er fie^t aiid) 



todraw 
to conslder 
to look at 

tosend 
toname 

to open 

to know (be ac- j htiffp« 
qualnted wlth) f *vl]^n 



m 

b'efann 
\Qi) an' 

Weak Verbs 



ou^'gefel^eu 

gejogen 

befonnen 

an'gefe^n 



to try oerf ud^en 

to biirst ^la^ett 

yearly JÖl^rtid^ 

Reven fiebeit 

oid alt 

smart gefd^eit 



jiel^en 

befinnen 

an'fel^en 

fd^en 

nennen nannte genannt (see App. 88) 

anf'fj)erren f<)errte auf aufgef<)errt 

to\i%it gemußt (see App. 83) 

öerfnd^te öerfud^t (see App. 80, 1) 



34 (four and twenty) öierimbätüanjig 

7« (six and seventy) fed^gnnbfiebjig 

wrong slde before t)erf el^rt 

you can bU tonnft 



84, ELEMENTS OF ÖERMAN [2^2-224 



SBo^in ging bcr Suf^jeftor? SBaS ixti ein 3ttf^)eItor? SBie 
\df) bcr 3unge an^? Ocbcn Sic ein @^nonl)m für ,,ber 3ungc/' 
SBa§ tft bie SKel^rjal^I t)on ,,!3unge" unb bem ©^non^m? SBag toottte 
ber 3nft)cftor bon bem jungen l^aBen? fßtlam er fte? SBol^tn 
fd^rieb ber 3nfl>eftor bie QafjH? ©d^rieb er fte rid^tig ober berfel^rt? 
SBoöte er ben fönaben bamit fangen? ®clang e§ it)m? SSag fagte 
ber ffinabe ^nU^i? 

223 WRITTEN EXERCISES 

1. Give Singular and plural genitive of all the nouns in the 
above story. 

2. Change tne entire story so as to have all the nouns in 
the plural. 

3. Form feminines of : ber ßügner (liar), ber Sefer (reader), 
ber @änger (singer) ; decline them in singalar and plural. 

LESSON 20 

224 GRAMMAR REVIEW 

1. The preterite indicative of streng verbs is formed by an 
alteration in the stem vowel — no suflSx is added to the stem : 

loat, ging, fiai^. 

2. The preterite indicative of weak verbs is formed by add- 
ing te to the stem of the present : liebte, ^offle, befud^te. 

3. Personal endings in preterite singular are the same for 
ströng and weak verbs, — , ft, — ♦ 

4. The principal parts of all verbs consist of: present 
Infinitive, preterite indicative, perfect participle. On these 
parts all the tenses are formed. 

5. Streng verbs with the stem vowel a, t, au, take the 
Umlaut in second and third person singular indicative (except 
in gelten and fte^en). 

6. Plural personal endings for present and preterite, weak 
and streng, are eit, (t)i, fit. 



224] INDICATIVE PRETERITE 85 

7. In direct address, kit and il^t are superseded by Sie 
(3rd pl.) in all conventional conversation. Only towards chil- 
dren and animals, between members of the family and yery 
intimate friends, in prayer and very elevated diction, are btt 
and {]|r used. 

8. In the declension of nouns, two facta apply in every 
case without exception : (a) no feminines are inflected in the 
singalar^ (b) all dative plurals end in n. 

9. There are three nonn declensions, streng, weak, and 
mixed. 

10. All streng nonns form their genitive sing, by adding 
(e)» (butef. 8,a). 

Glass I takes no additional syllable (sometimes umlaut). 
Glass II takes e (often umlaat). 
Glass III takes er (always umlaut). 

11. Membership — Main Glasses. 

I is primarily a class of polysyllables (masc. and neut.) 

II is primarily a class of monosyllabic masculines. 

III is primarily a class of monosyllabic neuters. 

The subclasses are: 

I two feminines: bie äßutter and bie Xod^ter (umlaut). 

II monosyllabic feminines and neuters, and polysyllabic 
masculines in ig, in%, litlg, and neuters in nU, fal. 

III monosyllabic masculines, and polysyllabic neuters and 
masculines in ittni^ and neuters accented on the last syllable. 

For examples see App. 19-22. 

12. The weak declension has (e)n in singular and plural 
(except nom. sing.). See 8, a. 

13. The weak declension is primarily a class of polysyllabic 
feminines, but it contains also monosyllabic feminines, foreign 
masculines, masculines in e and a number of monosyllabic 
masculines (no neuters, no umlaut). 

14. Mixed nouns take a streng genitive singular and a weak 
plural. See App. 24, 25. 



86 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [225 

225 REVIEW EXERCISES 

/. Oive the preterite paradigms, Singular and pluraly of: 
gelten, ftcl^en, tun, laufen, rufen, fud^cn, lüecfen, fingen. 

//. Write principal parts of these verbs. 

III, Answer the following questions: SBag i\m bic SJögletn 

im SBalbe? aBeld^c Xiere finb |)au8tierc? SBetd^e liere fiub im 

SBalbe? SBcr xoax faul in bc8 fiaifer« ©d^Ie? S8cr leierte bie 

©d^üler? SBol^er lamcn bic Seigrer? SBie finb bie SSIätter ber Säume 

im Srül^Ung? SBie toerben fie im $erbft? SBag föHt im SBinter ab? 

SBie l^eißt ein SKann an^ 2tmerifa? SBie l^eißt eine grou m% Slmerila? 

@inb Sie Ämerifaner? SBol^cr fommt ein ©nglönber? Sennen Sie 

Diele Slmerifanerinncn? Semen Sie S)eutfd^ bei einem Seigrer ober 

bei einer Sel^rerin? §at man l^ier mel^r Seigrer ober mel^r Sel^rerin«^ 
neu? 

IV Give plural forms in the same cases of: bem Staate, beil^ 

©d^ul^e«, bei ©d^loefter, ba« ^aud, be« aSanneS, bem SBalbe, ber 

SRutter, ben SSater, ber ^nfp^tor, bie ftul^, ber ^n(At, ber ®aft, bie 

SBanb, ber U^r, ber grau, ber ^anb. 

F. Translate: 1. The lifctle birds sing joyously in forest and 
field. 2. Are you well and in good spirits? 3. The trees be- 
come brown in antumn and the leaves fall. 4. The pnpils were 
lazy and disobedient. 5. They did not obey the teachers. 6. The 
warriors and councilors of the emperor had sons in the school. 
7. Were the boys lazy in the eyes of the teachers? 8. In the 
tree-tops and the mountain-tops is peace. 9. The villages are 
near the cities. 10. The sons of the shepherd herded the 
sheep near the city. 11. Do the wolves and bears live in the 
woods? 12. They eome out and devour the sheep of the people. 
13. All day, the boys watched the sheep. 14. But it grew 
tiresome. 15. The numbers on the board were wrong, but the 
boy read them without hesitating. 16. The eyes and ears of 
the pupils were not open. 



2ir«-2Ä7] INDICATIVE PLÜPERFECT 87 



CHAPTER IV 
nmiCATIVS PLÜPEKFEGT 

LE880N 21 

@r i|atte Stio^eti itnter beut ^nit. 

©in ©Querniunöe namenS 3Rtd^I l^atte einmal ©po^en 
gcfanöen. ®r l^attc nid)t gctDufet, tool&in^ bamit, fo l^atte 
er fie in feinen $ut geftedtt unb ben S^vi auf ben ^o)3f geftül^jt. 
3)ann toar er dergnügt lüeitergcgongen. 

5 9?un Begegnete il^m^ ein STOann ; ber^ grüfete il)n f reunblid) 
unb ft)rQd): 

„greunb, fannft bu mir üießeid)! fogen, xoo^m biefer 28eg 
fül)rt?" aSeil aber Sttid^el bie @|)aftcn unter feinen $ut geftedtt 
l^otte, fo bod&te er: „aSoS gel^t bid) ber 2»onn on?",^ liefe 

10 htn ^vA auf bem üop^t unb ging tociter. SRad^bem ber SWann 
il)m ein pQor SWinuten nadigeblidtt j&atte, fd^üttelte er ben ^opf 
unb fpradi: „Der Suttge \)at nid|t öiel SebenSort!" Dann ift 
ber STOann tüeitcrgegongcn. 

Se^t fam ber ämtmann be§ SBege^. 2)er^ I)atte einen 

15 ©^jogiergang gemod^t unb toar auf bem SBeg nad) $oufe. 
$inter il&m l^cr fam ber ©erid^t^biener. 3Jun grüben immer 
äße 2eute ben ämtmann. Slber unfcr aWid^el tot c§ nid^t, 

227 ^ tiM^n kawtt (|e|nt) = what to do with them— literally= where 
to go with them. Note the Omission of the verb of motion, since the 
idea is already expressed in the adverb ti0|iii. 
' i|ai— dative af ter lr|Cgimi. Cf . App. IM. 

*»er=he. 

* 1W« |e|t kill Irr %$m im = what is the mm to you? 



88 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[228-229 



crftcnö toeil er öon $qu§ au^^ immer ein ©robion getüefen 
ttjQr, 8tt)citen§ tocil er bcn Tlovqen lanq bic @:pafecn unter bem 

80 ^ute l^erumgetragen l^atte, unb il)n bal^er nxäjt abnel^men 
lonntc. 35Q ging bcr ®eri(f|tSbiener äu il)m unb fprod): „3)u 
©robion, ftöft bu nod^ nie gelernt, iDa§ fidö fcliitft?" unb rife 
il&m bcn $ut t)om So|)fc. SJrrr — tooren äße (Spai^en l^rauö- 
geflogen nad) allen ©den unb ©nben,^ bie ber awicfiel ben 

» aWorgcn long aufbemol^rt l&atte. Sllle Scute l&aben gelodit. 
Unb toenn mon l^eute ben ^ut nidtit aur 3ett abnimmt, bann 
j&eifet e§:3 ,,2)er l&at getoife ©<5a^en unter bem §ut." 



228 


VOOABÜLARY 






Plüperfect 




Stronq 




Weak 


had caught 


l^atte gefangen 


had known 


l^atte gemußt 


hadgone 


mar gegangen 


had stuck 


l^atte geftedt 


hadbeen 


Kit getoefen 


had put 


l^atte geftülpt 


had waiked on iiiat U^eitergegangeu 


had made 


l^atte gentad^t 


f armer's boy 


ber Üöauemjunge 


manners 


bie SebenSart 


by name of 


namend 


halliff 


ber Slmtmann 


sporrow 


ber ®paii 


walk 


ber ©pajicr'gang 


cheerfully 


t)ergnügt 


beadle 


ber ©erid^tS'biener 


on, f arther 


n^eiter 


flrst (adv.) 


erften« 


togreet 


grüben (weak) 


lout 


ber ©robian 


pleasantly 


freunblid^ 


secondly 


^meiteng 


friend 


ber gfreunb 


moming 


ber aWorgen 


perhaps 


öicHei^t' 


around 


l^erum' 


way 


ber Söeg 


therefore 


bal^er 


to look af ter 


nad^blicfen (weak) 


off 


ab 


staake 


fd^ütteln (weak) 







229 ^%$U {^a«l anfs^by nature. 

'' Mnt Mtk ftefefll — an alliterative phrase meaning in all directiona, 
' rl |ei|t = the saying is. 



230-231] INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT 89 



to snatch rcifecH, xx^, ßerijf CIl 




to keep aufbctoal^ren, bctoa^rte 


au\\ auf'betoa^rt 


to laugh laäfm (weak) 




to be caiied ^ti^txt, l^tefe, gel^ei^eit 




certainly getOt^ 


• 


230 Synopsis THROuan 


Plüperfect 


Stronq 


Weak 


fein toax getpefen 


i)abtn f)atit gehabt 


id) bin 


id^ f)aht 


td^ toax 


id^ l^atte 


i^ Bin getoefen 


id^ |tfte gehabt 


id^ mar getoefen 


i^ |ttte gehabt 


tragen trug getragen 


lad^n ladete gelad^t 


bu trSgft 


er Ia($t 


bu trugft 


er ladete 


bu ^aft getragen 


er liai gelad^t 


bu l^atteft getragen 


er |atte getad^t 



Note the pluperfoct tense is si^iilar to the perfect (see 
81), ezcept that the preterite instead of the present form 
of the auxiliaries Räkelt and fein is used. 

23 1 SBte l^atte ber 93auern][unge ge^etgen? SBad l^atte er gefangen? 
SBol^tn l^atte er fie geftedCt? äSo ^atte er ben ^ut getragen (carried, 
wom)? SBie mar er toeiter gegangen? SBer toax i^m bann begegnet? 
^atte ber 3Rann ben gungen gegrüßt? ^atte er mit if)m gefprod^n? 
SBaS l^atte er gefagt? S93ar SRid^el freunbUd^ gegen tl^n? SBarum 
nid^t? SBa§ loottte er nid^t tnn? SBarum nid^t? SBem begegnete 
er bann? $atte SKid^el ben Slmtmann öorl^er gefannt? SBer toar 
l^tnter bem 8lmtmann l^ergegangen? SBa§ trug ber ©erid^t^biener? 
SBa« foKte ber Sunge tun? gotgte er nid^t? SBarum? SBa« riß 
i^m* ber (Serid^t^biener öom Sot)f ? SBaS gefd^al^ bann? SBie toaren 
bie SSögel unter ben §ut gefommen? 

* See App. 144. 



90 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[232-23S 



EXERCISES 

/. Change verbs in the following sentences to pluperfect: 
S)cr S)iener fagt: ,,SBo§ l^aft bu unter bem $ut?" SRid^et caxi- 

ttjortet: ,, 3d^ l^abe nid^ts barunter." SBo^ ^at ber Slmtmann gefrogt? 

@r l^at gefragt: ,,3Barum nimmt ber ^nn^t ben $ut nid^t ab? 

9tlle Seute nel^men \fyx ob/' S)ie Seute benfen: ,,SE8ir ^aben immer 

ben ^ut abgenommen, nur ber äßid^el tut ed ni^t. äBarum tut er e$ 

nid^t?" ®r ^at ^pa^tn unter bem $ut. 

//. Oive principal parts of all verbs in the above story. 

III. Pill out with aucciliaries to form pluperfect tense: 3^ 

— nad^ ber ©tabt gegangen. 3)er 3unge bie S^^Ien an bie 

lafel gefd^rieben. — er ju ^aufe getoefen? @ic ben ^ut 

aufgeftütpt? toir einen $ut getragen? SBir l^inter 

bem 9lmtmann l^ergegangen. 



LÜSSON 22 



PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOÜNS 



Personal Pronotjns 







Singular 














Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


N. 


^ 


bu 


er 


fie 


ed 


G. 


meiner 


beiner 


feiner 


i^rer 


feiner 


D. 


mir 


bir 


i^m 


i^r 


il^m 


A. 


mid^ 


Plural 


il^n 


fie 


ed 










N. 


tt)ir 


il^r 


fie 


(Sie) 




G. 


unfer 


euer 


i^ret (S^wr) 


D. 


un$ 


txiä) 


i^nen (Sinnen 


i) 


A. 


und 


tviäi 


fie 


(Sie) 





284>286] INDICATIVE PLÜPERFECT 91 

234 Reflexives 





Singular 




Plural 




X. 










G. 






/ 




D. mir 


bir 


fid^ un^ 


eud^ 


m 


A. mid^ 


bic^ 


jtd^ nn^ 


eud^ 


f^ 


236 




^er motitt 







©in aSurm tüar einmal auf bem Soben l^erumgefrodöen. 
3)a l&atte il)n ein Sj^erling gefelien, l&atte if)n fd)neH mit feinem 
Sd)nabd gefafet unb toar mit ifim auf einen Saum geflogen. 
„9ld)", Iiat ba ber SBurm gerufen, „la% mid^ bodE)^ leben! 

5 SBarum töteft bu mid^? S<^ ^abe bir nid)t§ gu leibe getan,* 
unb idö lebe fo gcrnl"^ Slber ber @t)erling l^ot gefagt: „^df) 
freff€ bid^, benn id) bin grofe \xnb bu bift Hein, barum gel)örft 
bu mir!"^ 35omit ^at er il^n gefafet unb aufgegelirt. 

2)a ift ein $abidf)t gefommen unb l^at ben ©t)erling 

io gcfafet. „2)u bift ein SWorber!" fd^ric biefer, ,,SBarum frifet bu 
midö? Sd) ^abe bir^ nid)tg getan." „Sd)'fteffe bid)", 
antwortete ber $abid)t, „benn id^ bin gröfeer aB buV 5Da§ 
I)atte ein Säger gefeiten, unb nun fdiofe er auf ben ^abid^t. 

15 „So", fagte er, „idf) bin $err über eud^ alle, benn ii^r feib aUe 
Heiner aB id^ ! '^^x tötet eud) unter einanber, unb id) töte eudj 
alte!" 



236 'fei^ — intensive; do not translate. 

^ i^ i$at lir 1li#t0 1« Irile |rtt1l = I did not härm you. For dative 
see App. 142. 

' i4 Ulf §mt = I like to live. 

*llrfr— dative with ^tf^üttn, 9«e App. 186* 



92 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



VOCABÜLARY 



Verbs — Pluperfect 



[287-289 



Strono 






hadcrept toax gcfrod^cii (frie- 


had flown 


toat geflogen 


(l^en^frod^.gefrod^en) 


hadseen 


l^atte geje^en 


murderer bet iUlÖtber 


tolive 


leben (weak) 


ground bcr fflobcit 


tokUl 


töten (weak) 


sparrow bcr (S})erttng (ber 


to devour 


anfjel^ren, jel^rte 


©pafe) 




anf , anf'geje^rt 


bin bcr ©d^nabcl 


to setze 


faffen (weak) 


toiet laffen, (bu lä^t, er 


among 


nnter 


läßt) Üeß, flcroffcn 


one anothei 


• einonber 



SSar ber äBurm größer aU ber ®))erIingV 9{ein, er tuar 
Keiner» fiarl, bift bn größer aU xd)? Stein, xä) bin fteiner als Sie, 
unb @ie finb größer unb älter aU xd). !Der Säger fagte: „^ä^ bin 
größer aU il^r. oüt, f o töte xd) tntSf aUe. ^f)x feib f (einer ald ici^, i^r 
lönnt mtd^ ntc^t töten.'' SSSa^ l^atte ber ©perling ju bem SBnrnt 
gefagt? S93aS ffattt ber SBnrm gefrogt? SBer ^atte bcn ©pcrling 
gefaßt? SDäarum fonnte ber ^ahx^i baS tnn? 3!Ba§ ^atte ber 
(S^jerling ju bem ^abid^t gefagt? SBcm gehörten fie aUe? SBarum? 
SBaS fagte ber Säger jn i^nen? 

239 Translate: **You are my child," said the hen to the 
chick. "You have not been there, Mr. Smith,"^ said Mr. 
Brown. **Ohildren, you have been lazy and disobedient," said 
the mother. I had seen him. They had gone home. He 
gave you' his band. He met her in the garden. She saw him 
in the honse. They wore hats and coats. ''Children, I see yon 



'Use three pronominal forms for you. 



S40-242] 



INDICATIVE PLÜPERFECT 



93 



in the gardenl'* *'Mir. Brown, I bave given you^ the purge." 
"Mr. Smith, I saw you all day."* 

Change all the nouns and verbs in the aboye exercise from 
the Singular to the plaral, or yice versa. 







LE880N 2S 








POSSESSIVES 




o 




Singular 




Plural 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut 


M. P. N. 


X. 


mein 


meine 


mein 


meine 


G. 


meinei 


meinet 


meinel 


meiner 


D. 


tneinent 


meiner 


meinem 


meinen 


A. 


meintit 


meine 


mein 


meine 


N. 


euer 


eure 


euer 


eure 


G. 


eures 


eurer 


curel 


eurer 


D. 


eurem 


eurer 


eurem 


euren 


A. 


euren 


eure 


euer 


eure 



241 Notethat— 

1. The inflection is the same as that of the indefinite article 
in the singular. In the plural it is like the definite article. 
(See App. 12.) 

2. Three forms {nom. masc.y nom. and acc. neut.)^ are 
nninflected. The other forms have the same endings as the 
definite article. 

3. The other possessive pronouns are: Mn (vour), fein 
(his), i^r (her), fein (its), unfer (cur), euer (your), i|r (their), 
3lpr (your) — all declined like the paradigms above. 

Masculine 

Sein §ni toax auf bem föo))fe geblieben. 

^er ^aifer ^atte ben (Bof^n feinel ttatgefeerl geliebt. 

3)ie äRutter fd^rieb ll)rem Sol|ne. 

^ä) ^atte meinen Ißogel getötet. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 



* Dative. 
3 See 198, 3. 



94 ELEMENTS ÜF GERM AN LS48 347 



Feminine 

N . Seine SRuttet mar arm unb frant 

G. Der 3lamtn uitfeter ^Htt ift Stteto ?)orf. 

D. gl^r gebt eutet Zoitte ein ©efd^ent 

A. @ie ^aben ^l^te S^loeftet lange nid^t gefel^n. 

244 Neuter 

N. SRein »ndj enthält t)tele S^efd^id^ten. 

6. 2)er Kaufmann ffilt ben 3ügel (bridle) feine! ipferbeS. 

D. 3)ie Si^tin l^atte il^reni ftinb einen Srief gefd^rieben. 

A. a)ie «ögel fingen i^r 8ieb. 

245 Plurals 

X. SReine Oriiller finb in bent harten. 

G. 3)ie 93üd^er keiner <Sd|liieflern finb beutfd^ 

D. @§ ftei^t in nnferen 8iiii|etn. 

A. Die ^txmtn lieben il|te ftitii|Iein, 

246 £er Winter 

3töei Sauficute, namens Saltl^öfat unb aWuftat)]&o, toaren 
fd[)on tüeit geritten. ®a berlor SBaltliQfar feinen 33cutel, ol&ne 
e§ gleidö 3u Bemcrfen.^ ©in Dertüifd^ iDor ben SBeg^ gegangen, 
l^atte i^n gefunben, aufgel^oben unb cingeftcdtt. 
B ?iun bemerften audö bie ^auflcute il^ren SScrIuft unb öcr* 

ft)rad)en bem ginber il^re^ @elbe§ 500 ©olbftüdtc öB Sol^n. 
35er 3)erlt)ifd& trat l&erbor unb ft)rad) : ,,$ier ift euer @clb, gebt 
mir meinen Sol^n!" 2)odö bie Saufleute l&atten pd^' einen 
^lan au§gebad)t. ajaltliafar öffnete feinen SSeutel, sällltc ha^ 

_ , I II I —t 

247 ^ otne . . . g« temrrfen = without notioing. Cf. App. 217. 

^ lirn SBeg — acc. of place. See App. 160. 
' |id|— dat. of interest. Cf . App. 142. 



248-249] 



INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT 



95 



10 @elb unb rief: „Sld), greunb, id^ fel^e, bu l^aft bir bcinen Sot)u 
fd^on öß»ommen; €ö fe^It^ mein Smaragb. S)er toar 500 
(Solbftüdte tüert." ©e^Iialb^ tDottten fie bem Sinber b^n Solin 
nid)t geben, llmfonft betenerte ber ÜDertoifdö feine ® f)rlid)!eit ; 
fie glaubten feinen SBorten nid^t unb blieben bei ilirer 33eliaut)- 

15 tung. ©nblid) gingen aöe brei 3u einem 9li4)ter, trugen if)m 
il&re @Qd)e bor unb berlangten feine SntfdEieibung. 2)er SRid)- 
ter ft)radö: „St)t ßaufleute, il&r beliau^jtet, ilir I)attet einen 
©maragb in ben 93eutel geftedft?" „Sa!" riefen fie an^; „ber 
©maragb toar in unferem Seutel, toir fd)tDÖren 6udö unferen 

ao eib barauf!" „®ut!" fagte ber Stid^ter, „bann ift alle§ Har. 
2)ie§ ift nid^t euer Söeutel, beim er entf)ält nidt)t euer Eigentum, 
©r gel^ört alfo biefem 3Wanne, unb xf)v müfet' harten, biö 
jemanb euren 93eutel finbet." 



248 


VOCABÜT.ARY 




Judge 


ber atid^tcr 


to connt 


jagten (weak) 


merchants 


bie föaufleute* 


to be lacking 


fehlen (weak) 


to rlde horseback 


reiten, ritt, gerit^ 


to afflrm 


beteuern (weak) 




ten** 


honesty 


bie S^rlic^Ieit 


far 


tt)eit 


to belleve 


glauben (weak) 


tolose 


öerüeren, öerlor, 


Word 


bad JiUSort 




verloren* 


toremain 


bleiben, blieb, ge« 


iwucli 


ber öeutel 




blieben * 


atonce 


gleid^ 


assertion 


bie ItBe^auptung 



249 ' ei fcljlt mein (gmarauJl— the cl is impersonal and introduo- 
tory, like Eng. tkere; translate: My emerald is gone. 
^ )ied|aUi = on that accoont. 

" ijr mkf^ = you must 

* Used as plural of ber Saitftnaittt. 

^Plup. mar gerittett; (jatte tierloreti: ttar %Mit%tn. 



96 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



250-251 



dervish 


ber Dcrtoifc^ 


tliree 


brei 


to pick up 


aufgeben, l^ob auf, 


Judge 


ber Siid^ter 




aufgehoben* 


cause 


bie @ad^e 


topocket 


ein'fteden (weak) 


todemand 


verlangen (weak) 


loss 


ber Serluft' 


decislon 


bie @ntf(i^ei'bung 


to promisft 


\)tv\pn(t^n, t)er= 


to insist 


btf)anptzn (weak) 




fpra(l^,t)erfpro(i^en* 


tovow 


fd^toören, fd^tt^ur, 


finder 


ber ginber 




gcfd^tooren* 


goldplece 


ba^ ®oIbftüd 


oath 


ber @tb 


forward 


l^erbor' 


clear 


«ar 


reward 


ber Sol^n 


to contain 


entl^atten, entl^ielt, 


plan 


ber ^4Jlan 




entl^alten* 


toopen 


öffnen (weak) 


property 


bad (Eigentum 



260 SBeld^er ber Äauffeute l^atte feinen ©eutet bertoren? SBeffcn 
Beutel fanb ber Z)em)ifd^? SBad tat er bamit? Sßem berfprad^n 
bie Sauffeute ben So^n? SBa^ berlangte er? SBofür? SBeffen »eutel 
öffnete SSaltl^afar? 3taä) (according to) toeffen ^lan toax baö? 
SBoUten fie bent ^txtox^d) feinen So^n nid^t geben? SBad fagte ber 
S)em)ifd^? Sa totm gingen pe? SBaS »erlangten fie bon i^m? 
$ot er il^nen feine ©ntfd^eibung gegeben? * SBaren bie ÄauPeute 
aufrieben bamit? $atte ber SRid^ter i^ren $tan burd^fd^aut? 



251 



EXERCISES 



/. Fill out the hlanJcs: ®ie SSöget fingen i^r — Sieber, S)ic 
Seigrer lehren il^r — ©tubenten. 3)ie ©d^üler ftubieren aw^ x^x — 
Sudlern. SRein — 3Rutter liebt il^r — lod^ter. 3)ie föinber gel^ord^n 
il^r — ©ttern. SBir lieben unf — Dnfel, unf — lante unb unf — 
SSettern unb Eoufinen. 3)ie SJüd^er eur — Äinber finb bidt unb 
fd^toer. 

*piup. Hatte anfgedobttt; Hatte tierf)iroii)ni; Hatte gefdlMtm; |attr 
rntHalteit. 



252-253] INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT 97 

//. Fill out with appropriate possessives: S*arl, l^oft bu 
Slufgabe gelernt? $otte SRid^et bic ©^jerltnge unter 



^\\i flcftedt? 2!)ie SSögel fd^lafen in Sicftcni. ^aben (Sie 

^ut in ber ^anb ober auf bem ftopfe? 3(1^ liebe SSater, 

SKutter unb ©rofeeltcrn. 3)er ^wx%z l^otte — äugen unb — 

D^ren toeit aufgemad^t. 3)er Wiener be« SönigS l^atte 9Rutter 

einen S3rief gefd^rieben unb n)ar babei eingejd^tafen. 

III. Answer: SRein ^unb ift grofe, toie ift ^i)xtx? * ©ein 5ßferb 
ift grau, lüie ift 3^^^^? ^^^ ^^«^ ift teuer, ift meinet bittig? Unfcr 
Sud^ ift bidt, toit ift eure^? ^aben Sie S^r 93ud^ ober meine«? $at 
er fein ^ferb ober beined? ^abt i^r euer ^an^ ober feine«? SRein 
^ut ift fd^toarj, ift beiner loeiß? Ql^r ^an^ ift flein, ift feine« grofe? 

IV. Fül out müh pronouns: ,^au« ift neu, ift alt. 

^err SBraun l^at nid^t mein 33ud^, fonbern . SBir \^(At\\ 

V. Translate: She has her book, not bis. Tbe boy had 
written bis word on tbe board, not bers. My borse is expen- 
sive, is yours cbeap? Onr bouse bas a garden, bas yours one? 
I have two apples, my brotber bas only one. Sbe bas one 
book and be bas one. Have you two borses or only one? I 
see yonr bat, do you see mine? 

LES80N 2^ 

DEMONSTRATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

252 Siefer Saufmann ^atte einen beutet oerloren. 
3ener 2)em)ifd^ l^atte i^n gefunben. 
Sfefe 3Ravi% ^at ber ßa^e leine @c^eUe angehängt. 
3ene ^enne rief t^r Süc^Iein. 

203 ' Note tbat when tbe three uninflected cases of the possessives 
are used without a noun, they have the same ending as the definite 
article {tx, ff.) See App. 44* 



98 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[254 2.55 



Siefei Süid^Ietn tft feiner 3St\iikx nid^t gefolgt. 

3ene8 föinb ift ungelforfam getoefen. 

Stefel $ferb l^atte jenen Kaufmann nad) ber ©tabt gebrad^t 

Set >^obid^t f)at jene ipenne erfd^rcdt. 

Siefer ^abid^t ^ai jeneS Küd^lein gefreffen. 

^ier toat ein lifd^. Sarauf ^at ein SBnd^ gelegen, 
©iel^ft bn ba§ Snd^? Sarin fte^t eine ©efc^id^te. 
2)ie lafel ift fd^ttjarj. Sarauf ftel^en ^a\)Un. 



254 



G. 
D. 
A. 

that N. 

G. 
D. 
A. 

each.every "N, 

G. 
D. 
A. 

this one N. 

G. 
D. 
A. 



Masc. 

biefer 
biefeg 
biefem 
biefen 

jener 
jenes 
jenem 
jenen 

jeber 
jebeS 
jebem 
jeben 

ber 

beffen' 
bem 
ben 



Singular 

Fem. 

biefe 
biefer 
biefer 
biefe 

jene 
jener 
jener 
jene 



jebe 
jeber 
jeber 
jebe 

bie 
beren 
ber 
bie 



Neut. 

biefe§, bieS 
biefeä 
biefem 
biefeS, bieg 

jenes 
jenes 
jenem 
jenes 



jebeS 
jebeS 
jebem 
jebeS 

baS 
beffen 
bem 
baS 



Plural 

M. F. N. 

biefe 
biefer 
biefen 
biefe 

jene 
jener 
jenen 
jene 

aue 

aller 
allen 
alle 

bie 

beren (berer) 

benen 

bie 



255 * ieber, by its nature, can have no plural ; alle may take its placa 
The Singular of alle is inflected like the other pronouns of this class, 
or may be used without inllection—allel ttaffer or aD ^t^i SSaffet« 
* Note difference from gen. of dßftnite article, 



256-258] INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT 99 



Observe tliat — 

1. The demonstratives are inflected like the definite article, 
with a slight deviation in the gen. sing, and gen. and dat. 
pl. of bct. 

2. The demonstrative her may often be translated by the 
personal pronouns, Jie^ she^ it. 

3. Stefer and ictter are nsed for the latter and the former. 
See App. 167. 

4. The demonstratives (when referring to things) may be 
compounded with the prepositions in the foUowing forms: 

barin, barauf^ barulier, borum, baneien, bamit^ bakei, etc. 
See 127. 

257 Scr dinfatt 

3h)ei gul^rleutc, $Qn§ unb aKid)eI, trafen in einem §0^1* 
tuege äufammen. Diefer tüor fo enge, ha^ bie SBagen jener 
SJIönner nur mit 9KüI)e barin an einanber öorBeifommcn fonn* 
ten. „5al|r' mir^ a\x^ bem aSege!" rief $an§ biefem }^x? 

5 „aSetdöe i\\ jclbft^ au§!" entgegnete il^m biefer. „gd) tüiß 

nid^t!" fdjrie jener barauf guriidt. SBeil nun jeber nad^ feinem 

flo^jf* Iianbeln tüoUte, lam e§*^ 3u 3onI unb ©treit bar über. 

(Snblid) fagte §an§: „9lun frage id^ bid) nod^ einmal: 

tDißft hu mir au^ bem SBege^ fal&ren ober nid^t? SBenn 

to nid)t, bonn mad)e \ä) e§ bir^ jefet gerabe fo tüie id6 e§ htuX^ 
morgen^ jenem 3Kanne^ gema4)t l&abe." 2)a überfam 

258 ^ mir attS btm SBene. See App. 144. 

^ Observe position of gu; pntfm = to call out to. 
' felÜfi— intensive (iminflected) = yourself . 

* Itadl ff int m ftotif = according to his own inclination. 

* fast t% gtt Sttttf = a quarrel arose. 

^ Dative of interest. See App. 142« 
' jflltf ntorfint = this moming. 



100 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[269-261 



3D?idt)cI ein ©rouen. „3lnn, l^ilf mir lt)enigften§ biefen SBagen 
betfeite f(f)ieben", brummte er barauf, „fonft fonn id^ nid)t!" 
S)arauf ging $Qn§ ein, unb balb toav biefe 9lrbeit getan. 

15 9?un f ofete fid£) ber SWid^el ein $erä unb fragte : „$or' ein* 

mal, lüie ^a\t bn e§ benn mit jenem SWann Ijeute morgen 
gema(f)t?" 35arauf ladEjte ^an^ unb rief an§: „XenV bir nur, 
jener SKenfdö lüid) nun einmaP nici)t au^. 25a bin id^ felbft 
au^gctüid^en!" 

259 VOCABÜLARY 



wagoners 


bie gutirleutc'^ 


once more 


nod^ ein'mal 


tomeet 


treffen, trof, ge* 


overcome 


überfom'men, über* 




troffen 




tam\ überfom'men 


cafion 


ber $)of|Ihjeg 


awe 


ba^ ®rauen 


together 


jufammen 


at least 


menigften^ 


narrow 


enge 


aside 


beifeite ' 


wagon 


ber SBagen 


push 


fd^ieben, fd^ob, ge- 


difflculty 


bie mn^t 




fd^oben 


past 


t)orbei' 


to miitter 


brummen (weak) 


give way 


tt^eid^en, toxä), gc* 


otherwlse 


fonft 




toid^en 


toagree 


eih'gel^en, ging ein', 


back 


jurüdt 




ein'gegangen 


quarrel 


ber San! 


work 


bie Slrbeit 


fight 


ber ©treit 


heart 


ba^ ^erg 



260 i^XERCISES 

' /. Änswer, using demonstratives: SBetd^er äRann ^tte einen 
SBagen? SBeffen SBogen ift ju breit für ben gßtirhjeg gemefen? 
SBeld^er gu^rmann mottte wai^ feinem S'opf l^anbetn? $an§ uub 
3Rid^eI njaren in bem gal^rhjeg genjefen. SBetd^er ift banad^ ougge= 

26 I ^ ttUtt elttntal— a somewhat colorless parenthetioal adverb diffieult 
to translate. Say: The man would not get out of the way. 

2 PL for gitlinitaun; see Aaufinttr, 249, 4. 



262] INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT 101 

totd^en, biefer ober jener? äBeld^er l^atte einen StnfaU babei gel^abt? 
^attc er biefe (Srfa^rung fc^on einmot (once before) gel^abt? 3Rit 
wtm? 3Sa^ liatte er mit jenem SDtanne getan? 9Ber l^atte babei mel^t 
9Rnt gejeigt, ^an^ ober jener SKann? 

//. Translate: 1. These two wagoners had met [fcogether] 
in a cafion. 2. This was very narrow. 3. These wagoners, 
Hans and Michael, had wagons in this cafion. 4. The former 
said upon this : "Get out of my way!" 5. The latter did not 
yield. 6. Each acted according to his own inclination. 7. The 
two merchants had lost this purse. 8. The contents (ber 
^n^alt) of it were gold pieces and that emerald. 9. This 
dervish f ound that purse with the gold pieces in it. 10. These 
merchants had promised that Ander a reward. 11. The judge 
spoke this sentence: "You say, your purse had contained this 
omerald. 12. The dervish found this purse withoüt the 
emerald. 13. He did not find your purse. 14. The purse 
without the emerald in it is notyours." 

LESSON 25 
RELATIVE PRONOÜNS 

262 brr, »eUltr 

Masculine 

2)er Snl^rmann, ber jiterft auf bem ^o^Imeg mar, unb beffen 
äBagen fel^r grog xoax, ift jurüdgegangen. ^an^, t)or beut äRid^el 
fid^ fürd^tete, ^atte fe^r laut gefd^rieen. Xer SBagen, ben Wxä^zl nid^t 
aUetn fd^ieben fonnte, ftanb im 3Beg. 

Feminine 

S)ie aRaud, bie bie Safe färc^tete, l^atte eine (Sd^eQe gefauft. 
2)ie $enne, bereit Hc^lein nid^t fam, l^atte ed oft gerufen. 
Sie ßa^e; uon btr toir gelefen l^aben, trug feine @d^elle. 
Sie 9Rutter, bie ber 3)iener bed S'önigd liebte, mar fel^r franf. 



102 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [264-267 

264 Neuter 

S)a8 »lümd^en, bal im SBalbe gcbtü^t i)aiit, btü^te int (garten 
Weiter, 

2)a$ föüd^tein, beffett äRutter ed gemfen l^atte, toax nid^t gef ontnten. 

X)ad föinb, beut bie äRutter ben Slpfel gegeben ^atte, toax gnt 
getoefen. 

S)a8 ©ebid^t, baS toir lefen, ift fd^ön, 

265 Plural (Masc, Fem., Neut.) 

®ie gul^rleute, bie ftd^ in bem $of|thjeg begegnet tparen, finb 
einanber au^gemid^en. 

3)ie 5ßferbe, bereit Slrbeit ju fd^mer getoefen toax, taten fie nid^t. 
3)ie SSögel, öon beitett tuir gelefen ^abzn, leben im SBalbe* 
®ie dürften, bie bag «oH liebt, finb glüilid^. 

266 S)er ^o^Imeg, tooburi^ bie SBagen fn^ren, tvav fe^r eng. 
S)ag SBöd^lein, tooriit bie SBlätter fd^luammen, tvat filber^ell. 
35ie ®efd^id^te, ttiotitt mir öon bem SBoIf gelefen Ratten, toar 

eine gäbet (fable). 



M. 


F. 


N. 


PI. 


ber 


bie 


bas 


bie 


beffen^ 


beren 


beffen 


beren 


bem 


ber 


bem 


benen 


ben 


bie 


baS 


bie 


toeld^er 


totl^t 


tDeld^e^ 


toeld^e 


beffen* 


beren 


beffen 


beren 


ft)eld^em 


tt)eld^er 


luetd^em 


n)eld^en 


tDeld^en 


meldte 


n)etd^eg 


ItJeld^e 



267 ' Note difference f rom def . ^rtjcle. 



2Ö8-271] INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT 103 

268 Relative and interrogative Compounds are formed by 
ttm + the preposition. See 127, also App. 171-174. 



Note that in all relative clanses the verb comes last. 

270 Xtx 5ßrins bo» ^omburg 

griebrid) SBill&cIm, ben man „ben ©rofeen" nennt, lüeil 
er fo fel^t tapfer toat unb fein ßanb bon geinben befreit l^atte, 
toav ^rfürft bon Sranbenburg. ©r l^atte einen Steffen, 
bem^ er fefir äugeton toav. 3)iefer toav jung unb feurig 

5 aber anä) lüagfialfig. ©r l^atte fd^on aJDei Sdilad^ten üerloren 
burd^ ben ©ifer, beffen^ er nidE)t $err getoefen tuar. 9tun 
l^atte il&m ber Surfürft toieber einen 5ßoften anvertraut in einer 
®ä)laä)t, öott ber man öiel ertoartete, 3)aS ift bie ,,@d^Ioci^t bei 
gel^rbettin,'' g^^^^^^t nod^ bem Orte, too man fo(i^t 

10 S)er spring !onnte ben 3}lnt, ber il^tt bcfeelte, nid^t bämt)fen 
unb ftürate fidE) 3u frü]& in bie (5döIadE)t, bie er aud^ gelDann. 
Sitber fein Dnfel, beffen ©trenge betannt toax, berurtetite il^n 
gum 2;obe. aSergeben^ baten aQe Offiziere, benen^ er fel^i^ 
teuer toar, unb atte ©olbaten, beren ^erg ex gett)onnen Iiatte, 

16 um ®nabe. 

S)a legte ber Surfürft, ber SRefpeft bor bem ei^arafter 
be§ ^{Jrinaen l&atte, beffen^ Urteil in feine $anb. Unb ber 
^ring, beffen ©fered^tigfeit^finn felir ftarf lüar, fdirteb: „Sein 
Urteil ift geredet. S<ä^ ^öbe ben Zob, ben 2)u mir augeft)rod)en 

20 j^aft, berbtent." ®a bergiel^ il^nt fein Dnfel, ber nun fal), ba% 

27 I ^ bem — dat. with adj. See App. 145 and 136« 

'brfftn — gen. with ^rrr ttltrlim = to become master of. See list in 
App. 122. 

^ bfltflt — dat. with adj. See App. 145 and 186» 

*>rffnt ttrtrtt = the judgmept of the latt^r» 



104 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[272-274 



het 5ßrina fttiö ö^Bcffert l^atte. SBon nun an^ ift bcr 5ßrina, 
he\\en Flamen Sncbrid^ öon ^ontburg toax, nid^t nur tapfer 
fonbern auä) bcfonnen unb felbftbel^errfd^t getvefen. 



VOCABULARY 



enemy 

tofree 

elector 

partial 

flery 

reckless 

twtüe 

zeal 

to •ntrust to 

toexpect 

toflght 

prince 

to inspire 

to dampen 

too 

early 

towln, gain 

severlty 



ber Sf^inb 
bcfrei'cn (weak) 
ber fiurfilrft 
jugetan 
feurig 
toag^alpg 
bie ®6flaäfi 
ber ©fer 

an't)ertrQueu (weak) 
crlüor'ten (weak) 
fed^ten, f oc^t, gef ödsten 
ber $rin} 
befee'Ien (weak) 
böm))fen (weak) 

frft^ 

getoin'nen, getoann^ 
getoon'nen 
bie Strenge 



known 

to condemn 

invain 

dear 

I>ardon, grace 

respect 

character 

Judgment 

senseof justice 

death 

to decree 

to deserve 
to f orgive 

to improve 

careful 

controUed 



befannt' 

öerur'teilen (weak) 

t)erge'bend 

teuer 

bie ®nabe 

ber 9ief»)elt' 

ber Cl^raf ter 

ba« Urteil 

ber ®ere(^'tigf eit^fiun 

ber Xob 

5u'f»)re(i^,f<)rod^ju', 

ju'gefprod^en 
t)erbie'nen (weak) 
öerjei'^en, öerjte]^, 

t)erjie]^en 
beffem (weak) 
befon'nen 
felbftbel^errfd^t' 



Mll in wUh relative pronouna: griebrid^ SBill^elm, 

5Rame ^ber ©rofee'' war, unb fein Sanb 'öon geinben befreit 

l^atte, toor ein Äurfürft. Qm 3a^re 1675 fd^Iug er bie ©d^toeben 

(Swedes), feine geinbe toaren* Die ©d^Ioc^t, in bie§ 

gefd^a^ (happened), ]^ie§ gel^rbellin. toir über ben 5ßrinjen 

gelefen l^aben, gefd^^ toftl^renb biefer ®d^Iad^t« Der $rinj, ein 

{Reffe beÄ fturfürften toax, bon toir dUn gefprod^cn l^oben, roax 



274 ' UW wm •« = from now on. 



275-270] INDICATIVE PLUPEBFECT 105 

fül^n, aber toag^olfig gewefcn* l^a^ ategiment, er ju filieren 

fiatte; ftanb im ^intergnmb» 35er Surfürft, ßiebe ffir \f)n fel^r 

groß toax, l^atte il^m befolgten, ntc^t öor ber Drbre (before the 

command came) tjorjugel^cn, ?lbcr ber $rin§, ©ebulb 

(patience) nid^t ftor! toax, toartete nid^t auf bie Drbre, il^m §u 

tangfam war. ®r ftürjte pd^ ju frül^ in bie ©d^Iad^t, Wütete. 

2)ie ©d^Iac^t enbete in einem ©iege für ben Äurfürften, aber auf 

feinen Steffen, bie Drbre öerlefet l^atte, fel^r böfe war. Sllle 

Dffijiere, greunbe be« ?ßrinjen gewefen Waren, unb aße ©olbaten, 

gegen — er fe^r gut gewefen war, baten für ben 5ßrinjen, fie f o 

fe^r Hebten. 3[ber ber Äurfürft, ©erj für ben ?ßrinjen ^ptadf, 

@inn aber fel^r ftreng War, gab nid^t nad^. @r fd^rieb bem 

$rinjen, im ®efängniS War, einen SJrief, — rin ftanb: „SBenn 

ba§ Urteil, id^ über ®id^^ gefjjrod^en l^abe, in Steinen Äugen 

nid^t red^t (right) ift, Witt id^ ®id^ freif<)red^n \" 3)er 5ßrin j, 

©eele geredet war, badete lange über biefen ©rief, i^n fel^r gerül^rt 

l^atte, nad^. S)ann fd^rieb er: „"Siai Urteil, — nad^ id^ fterben mu§, 

ift geredet (just) !" 3)er ßurfürft, Seele biefe «ntwort erwartet 

l^atte, War fefir gerül^rt. 5Run fonnte er ben ?ßrinjen, fein 

Unred^t einfal^, freift)red^en, wag* er anä) tat 

LE880N 26 

275 REVIEW 

1. The pluperfect tense is formed of the preterite of 
|afeen or fein + perf ect participle. 

2. The ruie for the choice of |afem or fein is the same as in 
the perf ect. (See 80, 2.) 

3. For personal and reflexive pronouns, see App. 27-29. 

--•-•-' -- - -■ ^^___^^^.^_^_^^_^^_ 

276 ' Note that in letter-writing the pronoun of address is capitalized. 
^ ipai has for its antecedent the preoeding clause. 



106 ELEMENTS OF GERM AN [277 

4. For possessive proiiouiis, see App. ^-33. 

5. For demonstrative pronouns, see App. 34, 35. 

G. For relative and interrogative pronouns, see App. 38, 37. 

7. For Syntax of pronouns, see App. 165-176. 

8. Eelative clauses have the verb at the end. 

277 REVIEW EXERCISES 

/. Give plnperfect paraäigms of: ftecfen, ftütpen, \:^(At\\f fein, 
töten, fliegen, laufen, urteilen, lueid^en, fed^ten. 

//. Translate: 1. The battle in which the elector freed his 
land was in Fehrbellin. 2. That wagoner, whose load was 
very large, went back. 3. The caüon, through which he had 
gone in the morning, was too narrow for two. 4. The hunter, 
who had killed the hawk, cried out: "I am large, you [all] are 
small, you [all] belong to me, I have you all!" 5. The mer- 
chants asked, "What have you done with our emerald which 
was in the purse?" 6. The dervish declared: *'The purse in 
which the emerald was, was not the (one) which I found." 
7. The judge's sentence whereby the merchants had lost their 
purse was just. 8. The dervish had come the way which the 
merchants were Coming. 9. The tower from which the stork 
had flown, was that tower on which the cat was sitting. 10. Did 
you find the flow'ret which you were seeking in the woods? 

11. I had found it in the garden in which it had been growing. 

12. The officers, to whom he had been very dear, begged for his 
life. 13. The soldiers whose officer he had been loved him. 
14. He was brave and reckless, which* lost him the battle. 

III. Oive the plurals^ in the corresponding casesy of: bem, 
bte, toeld^e^, ber, toeld^em, biefei^, biefer, td^, bu, mein. 

IV, Translate^ Singular and plural: My book, his battle, 
that officer, his judgment, her sparrow, their hat, our house, 
your goldpiece, in which, in this, on which, on this. 

♦See 276, 2. 



27S-280] FUTURE AND FUTURE PERFECT 107 



CHAPTER V 
FUTURE AKD FUTXTBE PERFECT 

LE8S0N 27 

present 2)cr ftQufittann reitet ^cxttc nad^ ber ©tabt. 
Future @r toitb tttorgen naä) ber ©tobt retten. 
Fut. Perf. @r totrb morgen nad^ ber @tabt geritten fein. 
@r toirb bte 9(rbett gelon Italien. 

S)ie S'aufleute toerben nad^ ber ©tabt reiten. 3cf| merbe bir 
morgen baö 39ud^ geben. 3)ie 2Ran§ tt)irb ber Äafee niemals eine 
©d^ette antiängen, benn fie loirb fie ftetS fürd^ten. Der ©^jerling fagt 
^nm SBnrme: „gd^ merbe bid^ treffen, benn td^ bin gro§ unb bn bift 
flein." 3)er |)abid^t fagt jnm Säger: .^SBirft bn mi^ töten? 3cf| 
{|obc bir bod^ nid^tö ju leibe getan." 

(S^e bie ^enne bad föüd^Iein erreid^t, mirb ed ber ^abid^t ,gefangen 
!|aben. SBenn bie Äa|c lommt, toirb bie aWauiJ fortgelaufen fein. 
aSenn bie SBäume ntt^t mel^r blül^cn, tt)irb ber grül^Iing vergangen 
fein. Sie Sperlinge toerben öerloren fein, toenn ber S)iener be^ Slmt> 
mannet bem Knaben ben $ut nimmt. 

280 FuTUBE Tekse 

td^ toerbe ben SRann fel|en 
bu toirft ben äRann fel|en 
er ttirb ben SRann feigen 
toir tterben ben SRann fe^en 
i^r merbet ben SRann feigen 
fie toerben ben SDtann fe^en 
@ie toerben ben ajlann fe|en 



108 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [281-283 

281 FüTURE Pebfbct 

Verb with |aleit 

id^ ttrrke bad SBort gcfi^rirlieii Irrten 
bu mixft bad SBort gefi^rieten l^alett 
er loirk bad äSort gcfi^rieleit |ateit 

mir iiietken bad SSort gef^rieten l^aten 
i^r ttetbet bad äBort gefi^rieien Italien 
fte ürrben bad SSort geff^riekeit Italien 
@te lorrknt bad %ort gefi^rielett l^aten 

Verb with fein 

td^ loetbc nad^ ^aufe geldmmeti fein 
bu loirfl naäf $aufe gelomiiteitlfetn 
er toirb naci^ ^aitfe gelommen fein 

mir tocrben nad^ ^aufe gelommen fein 
il^r loetbet nad^ ^an^t gelommen fein 
fie merken mi) ^aufe gelommen fein 
®ie merken nad^^^aufe gefommen fein 

282 aRtttterliebe 

Sn einem ®orfc im ©d^tooratoalb lebte ein ©dönciber unb 

feine Srou. ©ic IiQtten einen ©ol^n namen§ Soniel. 33cr 

$Baler ^ift f)avt unb ftreng getDcfen. ©r f)Qt bcn So^n geliebt, 

aber er Ijai i^m feiten erlaubt 5« ft^ielen. Smmcr fafe er bei 

5 bem aSoter unb l^olf if)m. „3)u tnirft btn Swngen nod^ ^ bcr- 



283 ^ no4 = before jou're tbrough with it. Compare with the use of 
noi| to express progressive action (88). See also bf d| (S6» 4). These 
particles lend color and force to the narrative. 



284] FUTURE AND FUTÜRE PERFECT 109 

treiben", fagte il|in oft bie Srau, bic fid) t()rc§ @oI|ne§ töcgen ^ 
Bartöte. 2l&er ber aSater tuurbc gornig unb fdEiric: „gür tocn 
arbeite id^ benn? bod^ nur [cincttoegen!* 6r loirb einmal ein 
SKeifter fein unb biel (Selb t»erbiencn!" 2)od& bie SWutter, bie 

lü uicl flüger tüar, feuf^te nur: „3Benn er nur bi§ bal^in^ nid&t 
längft^ fortgelaufen fein tt)irb!" 

Unb e§ tarn mirflid^ fo. SBäl^renb einer 9laijt, in ber e§ 
ftarf fdincite, ift ber Snabc babongelaufen. @r l^interliefe einen 
93rief an feine SKutter: „SBenn 3)u biefen SBrief lieft, toerbc id^ 

Iß längft fort fein. SBcnn idö reid^ bin, tuerbc id^ lüieberfontmen. 
33i§ bal&in toirb mir ber SBater tool^I bersiel^en l&abenl" 

2)a njeinte bie äßutter bitterlid), unb ber 3Sater, bem^ nie* 
manb f o oiel ®ef ül&I augetraut l^atte, ' nal^ni e§ fid^ f o fcl&r ju 
§er5en^ ba^ er franf tourbe unb ftarb. Gl&e er ftarb, fagte er 

20 3u feiner Srau : „ SWarie, njenn bu aUe ©d^ulben beaal^It l^aben 
lüirft, lüirb n)enig übrig bleiben. 3fber bn toirft bid^ burd&* 
fdfjlagcn, benn bu bift tapfer unb in n^irft einft unferen Daniel 
tüicberfel)cn. 3)ann fage il^m, ha^ id& feiner'^ in meiner 3^obe§- 
ftunbe gcbac^t l&abe!" S)amit ftarb er. 

(Schlug fotgt= To be coTicluded.) 



284 ^ megm, laUer, «m . • . . ttiten = f or the sake of , on aooount of — 
almost synonymous. These prepositioiiB usually foUow the noun, and 
govem the genitive. See App. 126. When united with a personal 
pronoun, Wt%tn is preceded by et, giving fehirttir|f1l» for his sake, 
metnrtlsrgnt, for my sake, eta See App. M. 

' m bali« = by that time. 

Miilg^ = long ago. 

* ^rm—dat. obj. of gtttrtnnt. See App. 182. 

^«a|m rS M git j^ergni = took It to heart. 

' frl«rr— gen. after (r^t^t See App. 122. 



110 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[285-28C 



From now on the speoial vocabulary will be discontinued and all 
new words (except the verbs) will be found only in the general 
vocabulary. 

285 Strong Verbs 



to drive away 


vertreiben 


öertrieb 


vertrieben 


to forglve 


öerjei^en 


üeriiel^ 


berjie^en 


todie 


fterben 


ftarb 


geftorben 


to make one'a way fid^ butd^f d^Ia- 


Wm \i^ 


fid^ burd^gef dalagen 




gen 


burd^ 






Weak Verbs 




tollve 


leben 


tosigh 


jeufjen 


tolove 


lieben 


tosnow 


jd^neien 


to ];)ennlt 


ertauben 


toweep 


toeineu 


toplay 


i[))ielen 


to believe to be 


zutrauen, traute 


to be af rald 


fid^ bangen 


capable of 


au, jugetraut 


to deserve 


öerbienen 


topay 


be^aliten 



286 SBo ^ai ber ©d^neiber gemol^nt? §at er allein getool^nt? 
SBie ülele S'inber fiatten bie Seute? ©inb fie fpäter (later) allein 
gettjefen? SBaS tt)irb ber SSater tun, njenn ber ©ol^n fortläuft? 
SBann n^irb ber ©o^n hjieberfommen? SBirb üiel ®elb ba fein nad^ 
beö SSater^ lob? SBirb bie SWutter öergnjeifeln (despair)? 
SBarum njirb fie nid^t üerjmeifetn? SBie toirb fie fid^ burd^f dalagen? 
3ft ber SKann geftorben? SBoran ift er geftorben? $atte er ben 
©ol^n fel^r geliebt? SBie ^atte er il^n bel^anbelt (treated)? §at er 
fid^ ba§ gortlaufen beS ©ol^neS fel^r ju ^erjen genommen? SBie fel^r 
^at er eS fid^ ju ^erjen genommen? SBirb ber ©o^n njieberfommen? 
SJon hjcm Ujirb il^m bie SKutter erjäl^ten? SBeffen l^at ber SSater in 
jeincr XobeSftunbe gebadet? 

SBaä ift ein ©d^neiber? eine ©d^neiberin? ein ©d^ul^mad^er? 
geben ©ie ein anbereä (other) SBort für ©d^timad^er ! SBad ift ein 
Se^rer? eine Se^rerin? ein ©d^üler? ein?.(^d^ülmn? , SBaÄ ift eine 



287-289] FUTURE AND FüTURE PERFECT 111 

Sd^ute? eine SBerfftatt (Workshop)? SBa8 ift ein Arbeiter? eine 
9trbeiterin? 



Translate: 1. I shall have a story for you which yoii 
will like. 2. I shall have returned when your brother is in 
school. 3. When theyouth returns he will not find his father. 

4. Does the mother think of her son in the hour of her doath? 

5. The father had taken the departure (bo^ fjortgel^en) of the son 
so rauch to heart that he died. 6. The mother will not make her 
way through life and will not see her son again. 7. Will the 
latter have beeome rieh? 8. The former will have become old. 
9. I shall have run away. 

288 Change all the above sentences so as to use the present 
tense; theperfect; the preterite. 



LES80N 28 

ADJECTIVE DECLENSIONS 
Nominative 

Dag ift btt große Saum. 



S)er aSaum ift gruft. 



Die ^Utme ift fi^on. 



Dag Äinb ift flcin. 



Dag ift ein großer 33aunt, 

Dag ift bie fd^öne 93lume. 
Dag ift eine fd^öne »Inme. 

Dag ift baS Heine föinb. 
Dag ift ein Keines mn\>. 



M. ber große ^anm ein großer 33anm 

F. bie fd^öne Stume eine fd^öne SUinie 

N. baS fleine ^inb ein fleinel föinb 

Observe that when the article has an ending which 
shows the niimber, gender, and case of the following neun 
the adjective has merely a perfunctory inflection. In the 
nominative case this is e. When the article has no inflection 



1 12 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [290-291 

(as eilt in masc. nom., neut. nom. and acc.) the adjective 
takea the strong characteristic ending, masc. er, neut. el. 

290 Genitive 

2)te asiötter M grfineti Saumed ftnb grog. 
2)te ^Blattet etncS grfinen Sauntet. 

2)ie garbc brr fd^önen Slume tft rot 
2)ic 2farbc einer fd^öncti SSlume. 

2)ie äRutter keS Iteinnt Sinbed. 
2)ie aRutter einei Heinen ßinbed. 

beS grünen Saumei^ ünt% grünen Sannted 

ber fd^önen Slume einer fd^önen 93Iume 

beS Keinen mnbed eine« Heinen ßinbed 

Observe that the perfunctory inflection in the genitive 
is tUf and that this appears after the definite and the indefinite 
articles, since both indicate thenumber, gender, and caseof the 
noun by their füll inflections. 

29 1 Dative 

2)ie Stätter ftnb auf bem großen 99aume. 
2)ie SBIätter ftnb auf einem großen Saunte. 

S)ai^ ßinb tpirb t)on ber fd^önen SJIume f^red^en. 
2)ad Sinb mirb t)on einer fd^önen 93Iume f))red^en« 

S)ie 3Jdutter gel^t ju bem Keinen fiinbe. 
2)ie 3Rutter gel^t ju einem Keinen föinbe. 

bem großen 93aume einem großen 83aume 

ber fd^önen 93Iume einer fc^önen Slunte 

bem Keinen ^inbe einem Keinen fiinbe 

Observe that the dative as well as the genitive of the 
adjective after the definite and indefinite articles has the per- 
functory ending en. 



292-295 FUTURE AND FUTÜRE PERFECT 113 

292 ACCUSATIVE 

^ä) totxht ben grognt 93aum feigem 
^ä) toerbe einen großen Saum fel^ett 

äSir ßeben bie fd^önc 93Iume* 
äBir Heben eine fd^dne S3Iume. 

Wtan toirb baS Heine föinb pren. 
Tlan tpirb ein Heinel föinb l^ören. 

ben großen 93aum einen großen Saunt 

bie fd^öne Slunte eine \6)'6nt 83lume 

baS fleine ^nb ein Heine! Sinb 

Observe that in the* accusative neuter the adjective 
yaries according as it is preceded by the definite or by the 
indefinite article. Note the same difference in the nom. 
masc. andneut., cansed in all three cases by the uninflected 
condition of ein. 

The mascnline accusative is alike after the definite and 
indefinite articles and ends in en. 

293 Plurals 

bie großen Säume leine^ großen Säume 

bet fd^önen Slumen meiner fd^önen Stumen 

ben Keinen Sinbem feinen Keinen fiinbem 

bie großen Saume feine großen Säume 

294 Where no article or pronoun precedes, the adjective 
is declined like ber. 

Plural 

großer Saum fd^öne Slume Keines föinb fd^one Slumen 
grogel' Saumes fd^öner Slume Keines^ ^inbed fd^öner Slumen 
großem Saume fd^öner Stume Keinem föinbe fd^önen Slumen 

großen Saum fd^öne Slume Keines fiinb fd^öne Slnmen 

- 

295 ^ The indefinite article has no plural^but fein and the possessives 
which are declined like it and have a plural form are therefore used 
instead of it. See App. 12. 

^ ei IS usually changed to en to avoid recurrence of sibilant. 



114 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [296-297 

The pl Urals of those phrases that have ein in the singular 
ure also declined like ber: 

ein Heine« ftinb Heine Kinbcr 

einel Heinen fiinbeg Ifeiner ffinber 

einem Meinen Äinbc fleinen Äinbern 

ein fleine» ftinb Heine ffinber 

296 GRAMMAK 

1. Adjectives used predicatively are uninflected. 

2. Adjectives used attributively are inflected according to 
the foUowing principle: One of the adjuncts of the noun must 
show the number, gender, and case. If this is done by the 
article or pronoun, the adjective lias a merely perfunctory 
ending (e^ ett) . When the article or pronoun does not do this, 
the adjective must have the streng ending. 

3. There are three possible conditions: (a) The adjective is 
not preceded by article or pronoun ; (b) the adjective is pre- 
ceded by the definite article, or the pronouns declined like 
it; (c) the adjective is preceded by the indefinite article, or 
the words declined like it. We get, therefore, 

THREE ADJECTIVE DECLENSIONS 

I. Streng — when used alone — inflected like definite article. 
II. Weak — preceded by def. art. (or demonst. pronoun) — 
weak endings (e^ ett ). 

III. Mixed — preceded by indef. art. (or possess. pron.), — 
three streng endings, the others weak. 

297 TABLE OF ADJECTIVE INFLECTIONS* 

Stronq 



M. 


Singular 
F. 


N. 


Plural 
M. F. N. 


-er 


-e 


-e§ 


-e 


-eg (en) 


--er 


-eä (en) 


-er 


-cm 


-er 


-cm 


-en 


-en 


-e 


-eg 


-e 



* For füll Hdjective deoleneion, «ee App. 88*44i 



2»8-29»] 



FUTCJRE AND FÜTURE PERFECT 



115 









Weak 




ber — e 




bie — e 


bo^— e 


bie — en 


beg — en 




ber — en 


be^ — en 


ber — en 


bem — cit 




ber — en 


bem — en 


ben — en 


ben — en 




bie — e 


ba^— e 

MiXED 


bie — en 


mein — ei 


• 


meine — e 


mein — eS 


meine -— en 


meinet — 


en 


meiner — en 


meinet — en 


meiner — en 


meinem — 


-en 


meiner — en 


meinem — en 


meinen — en 


meinen — 


en 


meine — e 


mein ~-e§ 


meine — en 






LE880N 29 





298 «tttierlielie 

(@d^Iu6) 

2)ie einfame i^xavi lebte nun traurig lüeiter. ©§ fam fo, 

lüie e§ if)r fterbenber^ SWann gejagt l^atte. ©ie mufete alle§ 

berfaufen unb mufete fogar bei fremben ßeuten biencn, um ilir 

2cbcn äu crl)altcn. Sod^^ bie langen, traurigen Söi&te t)er= 

5 gingen il^r^ fd)ncß in ber Hoffnung: „2Rein Spaniel, mein 

lieber ©ol^tt, lüirb fd)on lüieber fommen. S<^ lüerbe dteHeidöt 

bann fd]on alt gelüorben fein, aber fterben lüerbe \ä) n\6)i, bi§ 

er fommt!" So lebte bie liebenbe 3Kutter meiter in biefer 

stetigen Hoffnung unb merfte gar nid)t, lüie bie ^afire ent« 

10 jd)Iüt)ften. 

2)er ®ot)n tüar mittlerlüeile lüeit l^^umgefommen in ber 
SBelt, ^Ciii^ biel burd)gemad)t, lüar alt unb grau gelüorben unb 
))aiit feine ©Item faft gäuälid) bergeffen. SBenn er il^rer^ ein- 

299 *üetliettlier=dying. 

^ "^^ÜS^ — an adversative conjunction, weaker than aÜer. 
'"ijt — dat. of interest. See App. 142. 
* liter— gen. with benfen. See App. 122. 



116 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [800 

mal badjte, jü faßte er fid): „Sie tücrbcu xmi)l läuöft ö^^ftürbeu 

16 feiit!"^ 

2)a tüor er einmal augeöen bei einem italienifcf)en S^fte, 
lüo er öiele Srembe^ traf. 3«f5fliö fcim bie Siebe auf bic 
beutfd^e Streue. Scmanb madjte bie 99emerfuno: ,,9tdö, mit 
ber Berühmten bcutfd^en Streue ift eö aud) nid)t fo tueit I)er J 

ao S)ie j^at aud) il&re Süden!" 2)ie anberen ladeten mit^ unb anäj 
ber grcmbe au§ bem ©djtoarälüalb mad^te eine ironifd^e Semer- 
funö barüber. 2)a faßte ein junger 9MaIer mit ernftem ®e» 
fid)t: „SdE) tüiU eud) eine ©efdiid^te erjölölcn, bie mir iünöft 
öorgefommen ift, ba werbet il^^ \^^n, toa^ ia^ mit ber 

28 beutfd^en Sirene auf fid| l&at!"^ 

3iun erääl&Ite er bie ©efdjid^te bon ber alten grau im 
©ditoaratoalb, bie il^^ ]&arte§ So§ fo gebulbig trug, toeil il&r^^ 
tief im $eraen bie Siebe aum ©ol&n, lüie ein frifdier SBrunnen, 
Seben unb Hoffnung gab. „©o finb nun bieraig ^oi^ve ber* 

w floffen, bie alte grau ift toeife geworben unb gel&t gebeugt il^ren 
fd^toeren 3Beg, bei fremben Seuten um il&r 93rot arbeitenb. Slber 
ieben SRorgen unb jeben Slbenb betet fie für biefen ©ol^n, jebcn 
Sremben fragt fie nad^ ii&m, unb jeben SReifenben^^ bittet fie 

300 ^t^ttttn M|I teftorBnt felii = probablyhave died-«n idiomatic 

use of the future perfect. See App. 179. 

^ Hielt Sl^tmbc — ^frtmb is an adj. Here it is used as a noun. But in 
such cases the adjective retains its füll infleotion according to rule. 
It is strong ; coordinate with Hiele. 

' ifi C8 att4 ttHt f a mrlt Irr = isn't so great as al ways supposed— 
corres^nds to the slang phrase, '*isn't all it's oracked up to oe," but 
is less inelegant. 

*mlt=too. 

* tpaS baS mtf fl4 Int = what is in this talk of Qerman fidelity. 

^^ i|t — im C^rrscit— dat. pron. + def . art instead of possessive. See 
App. 144* 

^^ Itttn fteifntbnt = each traveler—« present participle used adjeo- 
'tively. SeenoteO. 



801-302] 



FUTURE AND FUTÜRE PERFECT 



117 



nodö il^m ouSsufd^ouen. Unb aH il&r faucr berbicntcg @clb 
35 qM fic au§, um naäj ii^m au froöcn. ©ic'toirb mdjt ftcrben, 

bt§ fie öon tl&m l&ört ! " 

aiHe toaren ftiQ öetoorbcn. S)cr Daniel aber fragte leife: 

„SBie l^eifet bie alte grau?" „grau SBrunner, bie aSitttje be§ 

©(i)neiber§ Srunncr, unb ber ©ol^n l&iefe Daniel!" Da ging ber 
40 SWann ftiH l&inauS, fd^nürte fein 99ünbel unb madEitc fid^ auf 

ben $eimtt)eg,^2 ^^ jjjg Qjtg SWutter nodi einmal au umarmen. 



30I 




Stbong Verbs 


tomalntain 


erl^atten 


erl^iett 


erl^alten 


toforget 


öergeffen 


t)ergag 


Dergeffen 


topassaway 


öerfliegen 


öerflog 


öerfloffen 


toblte 


beigen 


big 


gebiffen 


tohappen 


t)orfontmen 


lam t)üt 
Weak Verbs 


t)orgefommen 


mnst 


muffen, mußte, ge* 


to relate er jäl^feu 




mugt 




to bend beugen 


tosell 


t)erlaufen 




to pray beten 


toserve 


bienen 




to travei reifen 


toescai» 


entfd^lä^fen 




tosee,'look fd^aueu 


to exiierience 


burd^mod^er 


t, mad^te 


tostrap fd^nüren 




burd^, burd^gemad^t 


toembrace umarmen 



EXERCISES 

302 SBa§ für eine^^ grau toar nun bie SBittoe be§ ®d[)neibcr§? 
2öer Ijatte il&r ba^ gefagt? Sei ttjem mufete fie bienen? SBie tuarcn 
bie Sö^re, bie nun vergingen? SBa§ erliielt itiren 3Wut au biefer 
traurigen 3cit? SBa^ l^offte fie? aBa§ tüar ifire ftetige Hoffnung? 



^'«adltr J^^ mtf bnt fiüvmtt =" started od bis way home. 

"»«0 für rinr« what kind of. 



118 ELEMENTS OF OERMAN [SO8-804 

3SQr bcr ©ofin ein reirficr 3ßann gctoorben, tote er e§ öc^offt I)atte? 
aBa§ für ein Snabc toar er getoefen? SBo^ für ein 3Kann ©ar 
er öctoorben? SBq§ badete er in Seäug auf (in regard to) feine 
eitern? Sei toa^ für einem gefte toav er äugegcn? SBaS ift ein 
itolienifdöe^ Seft? SBorauf tarn bie SRebe? Oft bie bcutfdie Xrcue 
bcrül&mt? Slcnnen ©ie (do you know) boö Sieb „S5eutf(f)Ianb, 
!Eeutfd)Ianb über oHeö"? $ielten^ bie fieute bei bem itolieirifcfien 
geft öiel t)on ber beutfdien S£reue? SBa^ für SBemerlungen madi« 
ten fie? SBer backte anber§ (differently)? SBoS für ein ©efidit 
madite er? SBon toem et^af)lk er nun? SBie fielet bie alte grau 
ie^t au^? aBann betet fie für il^ren berlorenen ©ol^n? SBo^et l^at 
fie @elb? SBa§ tut fie bamit? 3BeIciöen ©inbrucf madite biefe 
@efcf)id)te auf Daniel? 

303 Flll in: 



2)ic arm , öcriaffen grau loirb auf tjvjn öerloren- 



©ol&n loarten. 2>er arm — , alt — 3Wann tüirb je^t fein — alt — , 
gebeugt — 3Wutter umarmt Iiaben. S)er jung — , ftitt — SKaler, 
mit bem ernft — ©efidöte, eraäfilt bie traurig — @ef(f)t(f|te bcr 
treu — , alt — grau. S)a§ italienifd) — geft, toobei ber jung — 
3WaIer bie§ er3äl)lte, ift längft borübcr. !I)a§ $er3 be^ alt — 
©d^neiber^ toar nid^t fo l^art, aU ber sornig — ©ol^n geglaubt 
löatte. 2)a§ Iiart — So§ ber arm — SBittoe rül^rtc alle fersen. 

304 Translate: 1. The poor old woman will work hard all 
her life. 2. Her son will not retum to his mother. 3. She 
will'hope for (öttf) his retnrn and will look out for him. 
4. He will have become a rieh man. 5. She hopes to see her 
young son, who will have become an old man. 



'lifttm . . . Il01l = thought muchof. 



305-806] FUTÜRE AND FÜTÜRE PERFECT 119 

LESSON 30 

305 ^ie %aviU unb btc i$(eigtge 

©ine SBitoe l^atte stuei Xöditer; bte eine mar fd)ün nnb 
fleifeig, aber bie anbere tüar Iiöfelid^ unb foul. Sie SWutter 
liebte bie fiäfelid^e, faule %o&jitx biel mel^^ aB bie jd^öne, flei= 
feige. 2)ie erft genannte^ ^odjter tüar il^r eigene^ Sinb, aber 

5 bie anbere tüar hai einaige Sinb ber erften grau il)re§ 3Kanne^. 
2)arum l&afete bie böfe SBitoe ba§ arme, fdiöne SKäbd^en. ®ie 
gab il^rer eigenen, f)ä6Iii)en ^od)ter alle§ ©ute^ 3U eften, 3u 
trinfen unb 5u tragen, aber bem fdöönen, fleißigen ©tieffinb 
gab fie nirf)t§ aB l^orte STrbcit, fcfiled^te^ ©ffen unb alte, abgc» 

10 riffenc^ Sllciber. ßinft tüar beut armen ©tieffinb'* beim ©^^in- 
nen'^ eine Senile in einen tiefen, bunflcn^' 33runnen gefallen. ®a 
fagte bie böfe, alte Stiefmutter: „SSlwn ift bie jd)öne Spule 
I)eruntergefaUcn. 2)a tüirft bu fie aud) lüieber I)oIen, ii\x faulet, 
bumme^^ bo^artige^ 2)ing!" ®a§ arme SWäbdöen bangte fid) fo, 

15 ha^ e§ t)or lauter^ @d)redten in ben fd^tüaraen 93runnen fprang. 
35üdö c§^ fiel nid^t in faltet, fdiredlidö^^ SBaffer, tüie e§ tüoI)P 
ertüartet I)atte, fonbern auf eine fd^ön« fonnige SBiefe, t)oH rei= 
äenber aSIumen.^^ ^an^ erftaunt ging e§ lüeiter. „SBa^ tücrbe 

306 ' bie Ctfl genannte = the first named. 

^ littet ®nte = all good things; note the weak adj. after alled. 

^ nboeriffen = shabby. 

^^tteffinb, dat. of interest. See App. 14-2. 

* beim (= Bei bem) 8))lnnen = at her spinning 
^bnnften, for bnnfelen. See App. 81, note. 

^ lanter, indecliDable adj. s= sheer. 

^e0 refers to bfl§ 9läb4en, hence neuter. But often {le is used, 
referring to sex. 

• malil = probably . 

^^reljenber »Innten— gen. after tiott. See App. 12&. 



120 



ELEMENTS OF QERMAN 



[807-808 



xij nun alle§ ftnben?" fragte ftc fid^. 3>a tarn e§ an einen 
» flrofeen 93adfofen, öoB Reiften »rote«," Semanb l^otte ba^ fdööne 
Srot J^incinöeftedt, unb l^attc e§ bann öcrgeffen. S)a§ frtfd)- 
flcBadtcnc Srot rief : ,,SIdö, ^ie^e mitf) l^erauS, bu fd^öneS, Qutc^ 
SWäbd&cn, fonft tocrbe idö ganä unb gar^^ jjcrBrennen". ®a§ 
gute Sinb tat eS unb ging frol^Iid^ toeiter. ®o tarn c§ on einen 
» mödtitigen SH^felBaum. SDer^^ Iiing t)oII fdjöner 5S4)fcI. 5Dic^3 
riefen: ,,9td|, gute§, liebet Sinb, f djüttle- un§ reife t^jfcl ob!" 
2)aS gefällige Ttäbd^en tat e§ gern unb ging glUdlid) läd^elnb 
toetter. ©nblid^ tarn e§ an ein Heiner, niebrigeS ^an^, mit 
toinaigen genftern, einer fd&iefen 2;üre unb einem niebcrl^än* 
80 genben 2)ad&. 2lu§ einem ber tüinaigen genfter^* gudCtc eine 
Heine, runalige alte grau l&erauS. Die^^ l^atte gar feine Saline, 
fdöneetoeifeeS $aar unb eine ßrüd e, toorauf fte ftd) ftüfetc. 

(gfortfcftung folgt.) 



307 



to tear down abreijjen 
to spin f Pinnen 

to bake bcicf en 



Strono Verbs 

rig ai 

\pann 

6ul 



abgeriffen 
gefponnen 
gebaden 



Weak Verbs 



to expect ertoarten 

to burn up Verbrennen, öer* 

brannte, Derbrannt 



toshake fd^Üttctn 

tosmue lächeln 
to peep guden 



308 " Irilrn 8rite«-«enitive with UU. Ct. note 10. Observe that 
Oon governs both gen. and aco. Cf. 295, 2. 

''dans nn^ ^ar = altogether. Note alliteration. 

^^^tt, blc. Is this relative or demonstrative? See App. 166. 

" JfmPfr— partitive genitive after rinmi, See App. 180ft# 



»09-810] FÜTÜRE AND FüTüRE PERFECT 121 

309 EXERCISES* 

1. 3Bte fal)en bie beiben Zbä)t€x ber SBitoe an^? 

2. 3Bie hcljanbclte bic SWutter bie Bcibcn SKöbci^n? 

3. 3Baö (icfcl)n() ber fd^önen 2!od)ter cine§ 2;aöc^ beim ®)?innen? 

4. 93cfd)rciben Sie bas 2anb ias^ fio in bem 33runnen Dorfanb! 

5. 3Ba§ loar bic erfte (firsfc) Prüfung, bie fie gu befte^en l^öttc? 

6. SBqS tüav bie nädöfte? 

7. SBie l^atte fie fid) in ben bciben ^rüfunöen ^e^eiQt? 

8. a3efd)reibcn Sie iasf $^au^ unb beffen SSetool^nerin ! 

1. The wicked widow had an only daughter, but her hus- 
band had had a daughter before. 2. She will not treat her 
beautif ul stepdaughter well : she will give her nothing but hard 
work and poor food. 3. Once the poor child let her spool fall 
into the dark cold water of the well. 4. The bad stepmother 
oalled (nannte) her a lazy, stupid, malicious creature. 5. The 
poor girl will be so frightened, that she will leap into the 
black water of the deep well. 6. But she will not have 
jnmped into the well in vain. 7. She will find a beautiful, 
sanny land, and a kind old woman who will love her. 

LE8S0N Sl 

3IO Sie $attle ttttb bie 91ei|ige 

(gfortfc|ung) 
5DieQlte grau rief: .Surd^te bid^ nidit Iiebe§ Sinb ! a3Ieibe 
bei mir ! SBenn bu alle 3lrbeit in meinem f leinen $aufe orbent 
lid) tuft tt)irft bu e§ gut J&aben^ bei mir. SIber mein grofee^ 

*The questions on the text oan now be formed by Student and 
instructor in analogy with those of the preoeding lessons. The 
questions in the ezercises from now on will be more in the nature of 
composition work (freie 9ie^robuftion) and will give the Student more 
•sGope for originality and independence of expression. 
' ttiirfl bn ef dltt )«lnt = you shall have a good time. 



122 ELEMENTS OF (iEHMAN [»11 

geberbett mufet bu Qut fd)ütteln ; bann trirb eö brunten auf bcr 
5 gonseti SBelt bcr SWenfdien fd)neien. ^cnn idö bin bie bir tool]! 
bcfannte Srau §oHe."2 gs^j^ 5^^^ g^^j^ ^^Qg ^^^te ba^ SWäb^ 

d)en fd)on fefir oft gel&ört. 2)te Seute faßten diel öon il^i^/ &utei: 
unb Söfc^. 

SSeil bie 9IIte i^m \o gut aufprad),^ fofete fid) ba^ mäbäjon 

10 ein $erä unb tDiUigte ein, unb begab ftd& in il^t^en 2)tenft. 6? 
bcforgte aud) aße^ su il^rer gänälid^en 3"friebcnf)cit unb fd}üt- 
tcitc \l)v ba^ grofec Sctt immer fo gctüaltig auf, ba^ bie bkicn 
gebcrn trie lauter Sd^neefloden um[)erfIogcn. Safür^ l^atte 
e§ aud& ein gute^ Seben bei i^v, belam fein böfe§ SBort unb aUe 

« Stagc @efott€ne§ unb ©ebratene^.^. 

9?un toar e§ eine ganse S^itlang bei ber alten Srau §oIIe ; 
ba toaxb e§ traurig in feinem fersen, unb ob e§ l^ter gletdö'' öiel 
taufenbmal beffer toar aB 3U ^aufe,^ fo l&atte e§ bod^ ein grofeeS 

. 3SerIangen bal)in. ©nblid) merfte e§, bafe e§ ^einttoel^ §atte, unb 

20 fQQte äu ir)r: „3d) ftabc bcn Sommer nad^ ^an^ gefricgt, unb 
mcnn c^^ mir axid) l)kt nod) fo gut ger)t,9 fo fann id) bod) nid)t 
länger bleiben." Xk alte ^van ^oße fagte: „gg gefällt mir,i<' 
ba^ b\\ micber nad^ .<Qa\^\^ dcrlangft, unb toe il bn mir fo treu 

311 ^Hie bir ttaiatfaimte gfran $otte = Dame Holle well known to 
you— an example of the use of the participle as adjeotive, with its 
object (bh) before it. See App. 214i 

» bcr. The article is used with proper nouns to ezpress f amiliarity 
See App. 100. 3. 

^ gnt pf)irttd| = spoke encouraginglj 

• bafttr = in retum. 

• «efottme» unb «e*riltnie§ = (meat) boiled and roasted. Note Sub- 
stantive use of participial adjective. See App. 217, 

^ ^ üb dleidi = although— the Separation is ooUoquial. 

' * glt ^ailfc = at home. See App. 101. 

• ttintll .... (|e|t = ho wever weU off I am here. See App. 142. 
^ e8 grfiOt wir = it pleases me, I like it 



818-318] 



FÜTÜRE AND FÜTURE PERFECT 



128 



gebtent i)a\i, fo toerbe id^ btd) fetter toteber iiinaufBringen." 
85 ©ic nol^m e§ barauf bei ber redjten $anb unb füfirte e§ bor 

ein grofeeB Xot. 3)a§ grofee ^or öffnete fie, unb aU ba^ fleine 

3)?Qb(f)en baruntcr ftanb, fiel ein geloaltiger ©olbregen, unb 

alle§ ®oIb blieb an il&m J^öttgen,^^ fo ba^ e§ über unb über 

babon bebedCt loar. „S)q§ foHft bn fiaben, loeil bu fo fleifeig 

80 getoefen bift", ft^rad) bic alte grau $oIIe unb gab il)m and) bic 
berlorene ©pule tüicber, bie i^m in ben tiefen Brunnen gefallen 
mar. darauf fdjlofe fie bo^ ^or, unb ba^ fleine äßäbdien 
befanb fid^ oben auf ber alten SBcIt, nid)t lüeit bon feiner 
aKutter $aufe; unb aB e§ in ben belannten $of tavx, fafe ber 

85 rote $a]&n auf bem alten SSrunnen unb rief: „Siferift, unfre 
golbcne S^ngfrau ift toieber Iiie!"^^ ®a ging fie l&inein gu 
il)rer böfen 3Kutter, unb tücil fie fo mit @oIb bcbcrft anfam, 
iüar bie böfjf Sßuttcr fef)r frcunblid) gegen fie. 

cet^Iug folgt.) 



312 


Strong Verbs 




to betake oneself 


ftd^ begeben 


begab fid^ 


ftd^ begeben 


toobtain 


befomitten 


belam 


belomtnen 


toboil 


fieben 


fott 


gefotten 


toroast 


braten 


briet 


gebraten 


tobe 


fid^ bcfinben 


befanb fid^ 


fid^ befunben 


toslt 


fifeen 


faß 


gefeffen 


to arrive 


anfommen 


lant an 
Wrak Verbs 


angefommen 


shall 


foHcn 


to demand berlangen 


to consent eintüiHigcu 


to lead 


führen 


to arrange beforgen 


to Cover 


bebedfen 


toget 


fricgen 






313 »Mir» 

19 &X« ».^l 


an i|m ^in%tn 


= stuck to her. 

Mf» 





124 ELEMENTS OF GERMA» [814-316 

EXERCISES 

314 1. aBQ§ toirb boS Tläiäjcn bei bcr alten grau tun? 

2. 3Ba§ fagtcn bic fieute öon bcr lüunbcrbarcn alten grau? 

3. Sürd^tetc ftd) ba^ Wdbä^en fel&r bor il&r? SBarum ntcl)t? 

4. aSaS tat ba^ 2»öb(f|cn bei bcr alten grau? SBie Bcl^anbclte 
biefe ba^ gute SWäbdöcn? 

5. 3Bie ging e^ bcm frcmbcn aWäbdjcn nad| einiger 3«tt? 

6. aSar bic alte grau aornig ober aufrieben? 

7. SBa§ für ein Sera l&atte ba^ MSbd&en? SBie aciflt fid^ ba^ 
]&icr? 

8. aSoburdö toat ba^ SRcid^ bcr alten grau $oIIc bon bcr SBcIt 
abgcfdöloffcn? SSirb ba^ 2Räbd)en J^mauSgclöen, toie e§ l^erein- 
gcfomnten loar? 

9. SEBirb fte je^t nod^ immer ^baS arme ^ab^tn" l^ei^en? 
SBarum ni(f)t? 

316 Fillout: 

9Kcin grofe gcbcrbctt toirft bvi fcfiütteln. 3)ic§ ift ba% 

f lein S^avi% bcr bir tool^IBefannt — grau $oIIe. 35ic Stit — 

fpradö bcm Hein — aWäbd)en \^^t freunblid) a«. ®i€ gcbcm beB 

grofe 93ctt€§ toerben auf bic SBcIt bcr gut — SDJenfdien fliegen. 

@in mäd)tig — ^or bcrfd^Iofe ba^ SRcidE) bcr gut — grau $oIIe, bic 
ba^ ^or für bo§ gefällig — SBäbd&en öffnete, gin rot — $a]&n 
faf] auf einem tief — 33runncn unb iegrüfetc unferc golbcn — 
Jungfrau. 

Ghange all the verbs in the preceding story to the fatnre 
tense. 

3 1 6 Translaie: 1 The obliging girl met an old woman who 
was supportiiig berself oi^ ^ crptch. 2. ^'Will you come with 



817-318] FÜTCJRE AND FÜTÜRE PERFECT 125 

me and make my large beds well and shake my f eathers tbor- 
oughly?" Said the old woman« 3. The f eathers in the old 
woman's feather-beds are snow down in the world of men. 
4. This is probably Frau Holle, who is well known to us. 

LE880N 32 
317 Sie %m\t ttnb hie 9Iri|{ge 

5Da§ q}xiz SWäbd^cn etäöljlte alleö, H)Q§ x\)m Begcönet toar, 
unb qI§ bie böfe SJhitter prte, toie e§ 8U bem tüunbcrbaren 
9leid)tum gelommen toor,^ tooHte fie ber ]&S6Itd^cn unb foulen 
^oditer^ boöfelbe grofec ©lüdt berfd^affcn. 2)tcfe l&äfelidEic unb 

ft faule 2;ocf|ter mufete^ ]\6) anä) an ben tiefen, fdötnarjen Brunnen 
fe^en unb ft)innen; fie inarf bie Heine ©t^ulc in ben bunflen 
Srunnen unb fpronö felBer l^inein. ©ie lern, tnie bie anbre, 
auf bie fd^öne SBiefe unb ging auf bemfelben grünen 5ßfabe 
toeiter. 31B fie gu bem fdjtnaraen 33acfofen gelangte, fd^rie ha^ 

» gebadene Srot toieber: „%ä), aiel^ mid^ Iierau§, giel^ midö 
fierau^, fonft loerbe id& berBrenncn; id6 bin fd&on längft ali§ge- 
badten!" 3)ie gaule aber antwortete: „S^i toiH mid^ nid&t 
fdimufeig madien!" unb ging fort. SSalb fam fie su bem mäd^- 
tigen 2I^3f elBaume ; ber rief: „Sld^, fd^üttfe mid^, fd^üttle mid^; 

16 meine roten ^fel finb aDe miteinanber^ reif!" ©ie antwortete 

aber: „2)a^ fällt mir nidEjt einl"^ unb ging toeitcr. 21B fie bor 

ber S^au $otte $au§ fam, fürd^tete fie fid^ nid^t, weil fie bon 
if)rcm ©todte fd&on gel)ört l^ötte, unb bcrbingtc fid^ il^r gleid&. 

318 ' tote- • • • tuat = how she had attained this wealth. 

■ ber Xodjter— dat. of interest. See App. 142. 

'limWe=hadto. 

* alle miteinattber = all together {not altogether). 

^bll9....eiltssl have no such intention. What does it mean 
Uterally? 



126 ELEMENTS OF GERM AN [319-820 

3tm crften ^age tat fte ftd& grofee ©etnolt an,^ toar flcifeig 

30 unb folgte ber alten Srau $oIIe, tüenn fic il^r cttt)a§ fagte; 
benn fte badete an ba^ biele ®oIb. 9lm aftjciten 2;age fing fic 
fd^on an äu faulengen, am britten nod) mel&r; ba troQte fic mor* 
gen§'^ gar nidfit aufftcl)en. ©ic madf)tc auä) ber guten grau 
^oHe ba^ mäd^tig grofee 95ett fd^Iedit unb fd^üttelte c§ nid)t. 

25 2)e^ ttjarb bie alte Srau ^oHe balb mübe unb fagte bem fau- 
len, unnüfeen ®ing ben 2)icnft auf.^ 33ie Saulc ttjar c§ tt)oi)l 
aufrieben unb erwartete nun ben befannten unb getoünfd&ten 
©olbrcgcn. S)ie alte grau $oIIe aber füfirtc ba^ bumme SKäb- 
äjen bi§ an ba^ grofee, fditoaräc Zov. 21I§ bie gaule barunter 

30 ftanb, fiel ein SRegen öon fdötoaraem 5Ped) ftatt be§ crlüortetcn 

@oIbe§^ auf il&r bummeö ^anpt unb itiren faulen Körper. Sa 

. tarn nun bie gaule gan^ mit fol&Ifdinjaracm $ed) übcrfd^üttet 

nadö §aufc. 5Der rote ^af^n fd£)ric: „Siferifi, unfre fdEimu^ige 

Jungfrau ift njieber l&ie!" 3)a§ fditoarac ^edö toirb an il^r 

ä» I)ängen bleiben, if)r gan^cö Seben lang.^^ 

3 1 9 Strono Verbs 

to occur einf attcn fiel ein eingefallen 

tobegin anfangen fing an angefangen 

tofget up aufftel^en ftanb auf auf geftanben 

Weak Verbs 

toprocure öerfd^affeu tobeiazy faufen^eu 

toget gelangen towisn toünf d^en 

to hire out öerbingeu 

320 ® tat ait = ezerted great control over herseif. 

^ müX%tn% = in the morning — adverbial genitive. 

^ fagte lim ^itnft auf = dismissed f rom her servioe. 
•®0ltlf«-gen. with flatt (= atlfiatt). See App. 12«. 
^^ ilr lang = all her lif e long. 



321-823] FÜTURE AND FÜTÜRE PERFECT 127 

321 EXERCISES 

1. aSefd^rciben ©ie bie beiben 3;ödöter bcr SBitoe! 

2. @raäl)len ©ie Iüqö ben SRäbd^en beim ©t^innen beflegnete! 

3. aSie unterfd^ieb fid) bog aSerl^Qlten ber beiben in bem 9leid) 
ber 5rQU §oIl€? 

4. aSie ging eö ben beiben bort? a3e|d^reiben ©ie jebe Prüfung, 
bie fie ia au befteJ^^n l&Qtten! 

5. SBie famen bie beiben fieim? 

6. aKit njeldien SBorten begrüfete fie ber $a]&n? 

7. 93efd^r€iben ©ie ben Slpfelbourn, ben aSadtofen, ba§ $qu§ bcr 
Srau §oIIe! 

§ier ift ein fleineö ©ebid^t über biefe grau $oIIe, ba§ in 
®eutf(f)Ianb fel^^ befannt ift. Sefen ©ie e§ unb fe^en ©ie e§ in 
^rofa um, mit {o Dielen Slbjeftiben tvxe möglid). 

322 ^xan ^olle 

©döneeflodten luirbeln um unb um; 
Sm ©arten blül)t bie SBeiI)nad)t§bIum' ; 
grau §oHe fäl)rt im 2)orf l&erum — 
©d&nurre, 9iäbcf|en,^ fd^nurre! 

S)er 3Konb blidEt qu§ bem aSoIfengrauö, 
aSeift il&r ben SBeg au icbem Qan^, 
SDafe'fie bie flinfften finbet an^ — 
©d^nurre, SRäbdEien, fd)nurrel 



323 ^ XatllXittt— addressed to the spinning wheel with which tradition 
associates Frau Holle. 



128 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [824-325 

Semerft^ fie too^ nod& einen Sdiein, 
Srau $oIIe l^ält* unb fdiaut l^inein; 
3)te^ munter brcJ^'W/ Belol&nt fie fein — 
©dinurre, dtäbi^en, fdinurre! 

Kartiit «reif. 

Write a prose version of the poem with verbs in the future 
tense. 

LESSON 33 

324 GRAMMAR REVIEW 

1. The fatnre tense is formed of totrbeit -f present Infinitive. 

2. The future perfect is formed of toerbeit + perfect infin- 
itive. Cf. App. 67, II., and 76. 

3. The future and future perfect tenses are used idiomatically 
to expresB probability. App. 179. 

4. The infinitive always comes last in the sentence. 
App. 92. 

5. Adjectives are not inflected when they are used predi- 
catively or when they foUow the noun. 

6. Attributive adjectives when they precede a noun are 
inflected in three ways, according as they are preceded by the 
definite article (or demonstrative or interrogative pronouns) ; 
the indefinite article (or the possessives) ; or by no liniiting 
word whatever. See App. 38-41. 

7. The general principle that underlies adjective declension 
is : Some one word bef ore the noun must show by its form, 
the gender, number, and case. After such a word, the adjec- 
tive has the weak ending (e or en). When not preceded by 
such a word, the adjective has the streng ending. 

326 ^ fbtxattti fit — inverted order, because ttintll is omitted. See 
App. 188. 

stllO = anywhere. 

*|illt = Steps. 

»Wr (=Wc, Wc) = those wha 



320] 



FUTÜRE AND FÜTURE PERFECT 



129 



REVIEW EXERCISES 

/. Oive future and future perfect paradigms of: fd^retben, 
gelten, lommen, fein, polten, bleiben. 

//. Ghange to future and future perfect: 3)ic arme j^xavi 
^at lange auf i^ren @ot)n getoartet 3)er junge @o^n ift alt 
getoorben. (£r ift öiele Qal^re in bcr grembe gebliebem 5)er alte 
SSater ift au^ ®rant geftorben. %\t äRutter f)at bie Hoffnung nid^t 
t)erIoren. S)ie 9Raler unb ^ünftler ^aben ein präd^tigei^ geft gefeiert. 
@ie ftnb lange iufamnten geblieben. 2)ann ftnb fte alle nad^ $aufe 
gegangen. 

///. Tranelate: l. The old atoryof Dame Holle will always 
please the little children. 2. The wicked stepmother will have 
died before (el^e) the good little girl returns. 3. The two 
little children were spinning by the deep well. 4. They will 
drop the Shuttle into the black water of the dark well. 5. An 
old woman will be very kind to them, and they will not be 
afraid. 6. The red cock will crow: "Golden maiden! good 
child!" 7. When she returns she will be covered with gold. 
8. Her wicked stepmother will treat her well, because she will 
be rieh. 9. The ripe apples called from the tree: **We are 
ripe, will you not shake us?" 10. The little girl had a good 
heart. 

IV. Decline in the singular and plural all the adjectives 
and their nouns in II. and III. 



130 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[327-^829 



CHAPTEE VI 



REFLEXIVE VEEB8 

LES80N 3i 

327 Some verbs in German reqnire as direct object a per- 
sonal pronoun which refers back to the subject. The verb and 
the pronoun together express the thought. For ezample: 

fid^ freuen = to rejoice 
ftd^ jd^ämen = to be ashamed 
fid^ erinnern = to remember 
[xä) bejtnnen = to recoUect 

328 The reflexive pronouns in Ist and 2d pers. sing, and pl. 
are the same as the simple personal pronouns in the dative and 
accusatlTe; in 3rd pers. sing, and pl. the reflexive pronoun is 
fU^f for both dative and accusative. 

In independent clauses this pronoun always comes immedi- 
ately after the infleeted part of the verb. 

329 



ACGUSATIVB 




Dathtb 


to rejoioe 


Singular 


to imagine 


ii^ freue mi<| 




i^ Mibe wir ein 


btt freuft bid| 




btt btlbeft bir ein 


et freut fi^ 


Plural 


et btibet fU^ ein 


mir freuen nnS 




mit Btiben nn% ein 


i^r freut endi 




i^t bitbet etti^ ein 


fle freuen fi^ 




fie bilben fld| ein 


®ie freuen fi^ 




Sie bilben fi^ ein 



330-832] 



REFLEXIVE VERBS 



131 



330 



Sic SSctitrtcii 



3toei Sinber l^otten fidö int SBalbe öerirrt. S)a faßte ber 
Heine .ßnabe 311 bem Keinen 9Käbd)en: „ßrinnerft bu bid) benn 
öar nidE)t, lüol^er lüir gefommen finb?" @r fd)ämte \id), bafj 
er e^ nid)t tDufete unb barum fd)Qlt er feine arme fleine @efäf)r» 

5 ttn. 25tefe rief au§: „^dj, fd)ilt mid) nid)t, id) fürd^te mid) fo 

fd^on^ entfe^Iid). 2afe un§ h)emöften§ einanber tröften, bann 

toerben loir un§ bieHeid^t befinnen, iüol^er tüir gefommen finb." 

ajalb famen fie an eine ntoofige §ütte. 9?un freuten fic 

fid^, benn fie glauBten 9Kenfd)en äu finben. 3)odf) fie l&atten 

10 fid) geirrt. §ier tt)or)ntcn brci fonbertare 3Befen, bie fid) 
SBSalbmcibIcin nannten. Sie tnarcn flein nnb fünf nnb Hei» 
beten fid) in grünet 2)?oo§. ®rft fürditete fid^ ha^ fleine Wdb- 
d)en, bod^ ber SnaBe, ber fid^ gern feinet SWute^^ rül^mte, trat 
Bel^erät öor fie l^in unb Bat bie SBalbtoeiBIein um 3fu§funft. 

16 2>iefe tuaren gerabe Bei red)t guter Saune. ®ie Begnügten 
fid) bamit, ben Sinbern jtoei Siätfel aufaugeBen. „SBenn il^r 
biefe löft, bann merben n)ir eud^^ ben red)ten 3Beg meifen!" fag= 
ten fie. 







(3ottfc|img folQt; 


331 




Strong Verbs 


toscold 


fd^elten 


Walt 


gefd^otten 


tolet 


laffen 


lieg 


geiaffen 


togive 


aufgeben 


gab auf 


aufgegeben 


togxiess 


raten 


riet 


geraten 


todlrect, 


Show loeifen 


toie« 


gen^iefen 



332 ^ fo f^Ott = without that. 

^ feine« »ttte§ — gen. with ^d| tftlimett. See App. 124. 
' tnii — dat. of indireot obj. 



132 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [888-884 

Weak Verbs 

to know (inteiiec- loiffen, louftte, gc* to comfort fid^ txb\Un 

'^^> loufet* 

to lose one'8 way jtd^ öerirreit, öerirrte to be mistaken jid^ irre« 

\iä), [lä) üerirrt to be caiied fid^ nennen 

to remember fid^ erinnern to dress fid^ tieiben 

to be ashamed fid^ jd^omen to boast of fid^ rill^men 

to fear ftd^ fürd^ten ^ed^^th**^'' ^^ beflnügen 

to Boive löf en 

EXERCISES 

333 1. gBa§ l&aBen bie f leinen Sinber getan? 

2. 2Bie bel&anbelte ber f leine Snabe ba^ aWäbdEieTi? 

3. Um h)a§ bittet bog f leine 3Käbd)en ben STnaben? äBaB ttjufeten 
bie armen Sinber nid^t? 

4. 2Ba§ tun bann bie ^nber? 

5. 93efd^reiben ©ie bie SBalbtoeiblein nnb Hjx $au§! 

6. SBa§ iDar ber Unterfd^ieb in bem 3SerIiaIten be§ Sitaben unb 
bem be§ 2Räbd)en§? 

7. SBerben bie SBalbtüciblein ben Sinbern l&elfen? 

334 Translate: 1. I have lost my way in the deep dark 
forest and I shall ask the woodsprites for Information. 2. He 
scolded the little girl. 3. They will comfort each other [fid^] 
4. Guess these two riddles for me, and I shall show you 
the way. 5. Do yoa not remember [fid^ bejtnnen] wKence 
we came? 6. I have forgotten it. 7. He was afraid, but he 
liked to boast of his courage, so he stepped forward boldly. 

8. I am afraid. You are afraid. He is afraid. They 
will rejoice. 9. The little boy will say to the little girl, "Do 
you not remember the way we came?" 10. They had lost their 
way and they were frightened. 

* Compare trtme]t=to know, in the sense of '*to be acquainted with." 



886-886] 



REFLEXIVE VERBS 



133 



1 


LE8S0N 35 




. 


CARDINALS AND ORDINALS 


335 


Cardin ATi Numbers 




1, eins 


11, elf 


21, ein unb atoanaig 


2, a^^i 


12, atDÖIf 


22, atuei unb a^cinaiö 


3, brct 


13, breiael&n 


30, breifeig 


4, biet 


14, t)ieräel)n 


40, bieraig 


5, fünf 


15, fünfäel^n 


50, fünfaig 


6, fed^g 


16, fed^äel&n 


60, fecfiaig 


7, ftcbcn 


17, fieBael&n 


70, fiebaig 


8, aä)t 


18, oditael^n 


80, ad^taig 


9, neun 


19, neunael^n 


90, neunaig 


10, äcl&n 


20, atüQnaiö 


100, r^unbert 


1,000 


taufenb 1,000,000 eine SDHHion 


1899, ein taufenb aäjt l^unbcrt neun unb 


neunaig ober od^taelön 




]&unbert neun unb neuuätg. 



Sd& aSI)Ie: eins, itoei, brei u. f. to. 



336 5Da§ ift 



ein 'SKann 
eine grau 
ein ^niy 



®Q§ finb aftJßi SWänncr 
atüei grauen 
atpci Sinber 

Observe that eini when used witb a noan drops the 9 
and Ib infleoted like the indefinite artiole* Tbe other cardinal« 
baT0 np infleotioo, 



134 





ELEMEN'I^ OF GERMAN 




r337-839 






Ordinale 


\ 






eind 




bcr, 


bie, bad er{le 






atoei 




tt 


// / 


f Jtoeitc 






brci 




H 


n t 


, Mut 






btcr 




n 


n » 


, öterte 






fünf 




n 


tt t 


, fünfte 






neunjel^n 




n 


tt t 


, neunjel^nte 






atoanjig 




9* 


n f 


, ämangigflc 






fünfunbjloanjig 


ft 


ff / 


, fünfunbjioanjigfle 




l^unbert 




tt 


ff / 


, l^unbertpc 







338 Observe: 1. Tbat ber erfle and her brüte are irregulär. 

2. That all other ordinals are formed regularly by the addi- 
tion of a suffix. 

3. That from 1-19, inclusive, this suflfix is {, from 20 on the 
suffix is fl. The ordinals are regularly declined (cf. App. 48.) 

An old form of jmeit was ailber (other) which is still 
found in set phrases as anbert^alb = one and one-half, i. e., the 
second less one-half , ber onbere, the other, the second. 

339 3äI)Ien Sic bon fed)5Cl)n Bi§ ä^ottsiö! SBog tft nicl^r, 
fieben ober fiebsef^n? SBie biel nicl)r tft €s?? SBaö ift lüemger, ad)t 
ober ad)tätö? SBie biel toemger? 

3toei, t)ier, fed^ö finb gerabe 3öI)Ien ; m\t\ brei, fieben finb 
nwi^^iah^ Sohlen. SBa^ für 3öI)Ien finb bie folgcnben: 7, 9, 11, 
156, 58, 75, 89, 124? 

aSier unb atoei ift fed^g, atoei bon fe(f)§ ift bier. SBq§ tft 7 bott 
27? 8 bon 100? 10 bon 100? 1 bon 100? 2 bon 80? 

3X4=12, brei mal bier ift atoölf, fed^S mal fieben ift att)ci unb 
bieraig. SSie biel ift 8X9? 10X12? ©agen^ ©ie ha^ einmal- 
ein^^ bon 5 l^er! bon 7! bon 9! 

2)rei in fedE)§ ift a^ßi. S^oei in bieraelin ift fieben. ©iebcn in 
bierael^n ift atoei. SIeun in brei unb fedE)aig ift fieben. 3Bic biel 
ift 8 in 48? 9 in 36? 4 in 84? 

*l|frfageil=recite. 

^fead Üimiialfilll = multiplication table. 



^40-841] REFLEXIVE VERBS 135 

340 Sie Sertrrlrn 

(8rottfe|ung) 
S)a§ erfte 3?ätfel lautete: SBie btele ©ternlein ftel^en am 

* 

^immcBselt? 3)ie Sinber sogen fid) ein toenig surüdE um 

fid) 3U Befinncn. $att€ ntdit ber Seigrer in ber ©cl)ule baöon 

gefl^rodöen? ©ie erinnerten fid) bunfcl,^ bafe er zttoa^ ö^fagt 
6 fiattc, aber ber Heine ^abe I)att€ fid) ju ber S^it gerabe mit 

einer fummenbcn Sliege amüficrt, unt> ba^ fleine 9Käbd)cn tüar 

ein lüenig eingefd)Iafen. 

3)a befam ber Snobe ^^löfelid^ einen guten ©infall, ben erften 

an biefem unglüdlid)en 2;agc: „SBir tooHen tüarten, bi§ bie 
10 ©ternc Jöerau^fommen, bann tocrben toir fie ääl)len!" „'^a, ia^ 

n^erben tüir tun, aber ii} tann nur bi§ I)unbcrt 3äI)Icn!" „^ä)a- 

bet^ nid^tö! Sd) fann bi§ taufcnb 3äI)Ien unb nad) taufenb 

fommt gleid) im 33ud)e eine SJHHion; ba^ ift je^r, fel^r biel. 

aSer^ eine SRillion I)at, I)€i6t ÜJZiHionär, ber ift bid unb fäl)rt 
iB bierfpännig, aSefferci^ gibt eö'* gar nidöt in ber aSelt." S)aö 

aKäbd}en tüunbcrtc fid^ über biefe SBei^löcit ifjreö guten Slame* 

raben unb fagte nidE)t§ mel&r. 

Stun festen fie fidE) unter bie alte ©id^e unb njarteten auf 

bie Sterne. S)od^ bie famen nodE) lange nidjt. 35a finb fie ein- 

20 gefd^Iafen, erft ba^ 3Wäbd)en, bann ber Snabe. ®ie I)atten äße 

beibe einen h)unberlid)en 2!raum. 
(gortfelung folgt) 

34 1 * ^mttl = f aintly . 

^ fdlabtt = )lfl9 fd^lriltt — cx>lloquial Omission of neuter subject. 

8 \gffx = he who. See App. 169a. 

*%\bi e8 = thereis. ü§ gUit (sing, and plur.) takes the accusative 
and denotes the existenoe of an object, or objects in general, as: 
118 ditt Hielf Bottme. tS^ i^ and its plural H finb denote the existenoe 
of an object or objects within certain local or temporal limits, aS: 

(t» f^nt btri Bänme in biefem harten. 



136 



342 



ELEMENTS OF OERMAN 



[1142-845 



Stronq Verbs 



towithdraw fid^ gurütfjtel^cn jog pd^ jurücf 
toreceive bcfotttmcn belaiti 



to soive (d Jen 

tosound.be IctutClt 



fid^ jürüdEöcjogcn 
belommen 



Wbak Verbs 

to buzz f ummcn 

to amuse oneself ftd^ CmÜfteren 



EXERCISES 

343 1. äBad toax jetn erjter Sinfair? 

2. äSie loeit fonnte bai» SRäbd^en nur gölten? 

3. aäa« tft bic näd^fte 8^)1 im Sud^c nad^ 100? 

4. 9Bie bejd^retbt ber fönabe ben fUtiüioxxax? 

344 Translate: 1. The first riddle was very difflcult. 2. The 
second thing that the children did was to go to sleep. 3. A 
millionaire has a great carriage (bcr SBagcn) and drives a four- 
horse team. 4. The children will withdraw and the first child 
will receive an Inspiration. 5. The girl will go to sleep. 



LES80N 36 



FRACTIONALS 



345 J = bQg 2)rittel 

i = ba« Siertcl 
i = ein fünftel 
i^Y= «tn ©ed^SunbgtoanjigftcI 

Note that the suffix el is added to ordinals to form f ractionals : 
bad 2)rittel, bad Viertel, bad ^fünftel, bad ©ed^dunbitoanjijgfteL 

An exception to this is: bte ^^älfte (the half). The adjectiye 
form of this nenn is J^alli/ wbiob has the regulär adjeotive 
decleiMiiou» 



346-B49] REFLEXIVE VERBS 137 

346 ^^^^ ^^ apple the half of an apple 

ein falber 9[))fet bte ^älfte eine» "üp^tU 



ff 



eine» falben äpfete ber „ „ 

einem ^albc^n 3(f;fel ber „ „ 

einen l^atben SCj^fel bie „ h ^ 

l^albe tp\ü bie ^ölften eine» 9(pfel» 

falber %f\t\ ber ,, 

falben Äpfeln ben ,, 

^albeäpfel bie „ 



H n 



347 Sei) l^obe feinen ganacn 3lt)fel, idö &öbe nur ein drittel. 
aSie t)iele Siertel madien ein ©onge^? 3Benn man ein aSiertel 
nimmt, toie biele bleiben? !Erei SSiertel bleiben, ^aft \ü\x einen 
öanscn 2tt)fel? 9?ein, \i) l^obe ijw^ einen I)alben. SBo ift bie 
anbere $älfle? aWeine ©d^tüeffer l^at bie anbere $älfte, id^ l^obe 
fie \fyi gegeben. 

348 Sie Serirrteit 

(gortfclung) 

Sm Slroum erfcfiien il^ncn^ il)r olter ßel&rer. 3lber er l^atte 
fid^ öerönbert. @r tt)ar ätüeimal fo bidE qI§ getoölönlidö unb 
anftatt eine§ ^yxit^ trug er eine grofee SRedöenmofdiine auf 
bem Sopfe. 2)orQuf ftonben oH bie S^i^Ien, au bie Srüd^e, unb 
5 \^a^ gan3e ©inmaleinö. J^er Seigrer ful&r bierft)ännig, tüie ein 
SKiHionör, aber anftatt ^Pferbe l&atte er atüei Kometen mit 
feurigen ©d^toönaen, unb fein SBagen irar ber grofee 93Sr. 

STui) feine ^leibung n^ar fefir fonberbar. 3^^^ ^älfte^ flei* 

349 ^ i|lltlt. In the inverted order the subject immediately foUows 
the verb, but an unemphatic pronoun or adverb niay intervene, ^f^ 

freute 94 ^a9 Heine Räbiliett. 

2 eine« f^XiM, gen. with unflott. See App. 126. 
^gW|^älfte = onehalf. 



138 ^ ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [850 

bete er fid) in @oIb unb 3ur anbeten ^älfte in ®iI6er. Xdbex^ 

10 toar fein l^albcr ^opf mit ©ternen he[dt 2)ie Sinber hjunber^ 
tcn [xä) fef)r über tl^n. • S^od^ freuten fie fid^, aB er freunblid) 
läd^elte unb Qan^ lieb^ mit il^nen fprad). „92un, fönnt if)r nic^t 
rechnen?" fragte er, „\^v l)aU bod) fo tüd)tiGen Unterridjt 
geljabt, befinnt eud) bod)!" 

15 3lm qai er il^nen ®i'emt)el auf, unb fie redjneten fie aüe 
au§. „3Bie biel ift brei ftebaelintcl öon neun I)unbert unb neun* 
unbneunaig? 3Benn ein üöniq brci SWiHionen ©olbaten I)at 
unb er berlicrt crft bie .^älfte, bann ein Xrittcl unb jule^t'nod) 
ad)t I)unbert adjtunbad^taig, tüie Diele bleiben übriö?" Sic 

20 Sinber tüunbcrten fid) fclbft über bie 3d)neIIiöfcit, mit ber 
fie ba§ allc^o auörcd)neten. * 

®a Iäd)elte ber 2ef)rer, nal)m fid^^ bie golbcne'^ 93riIIc ab, 
3og fid)^ bie filbernen ©d)ul)e au§ unb l^olte barau§ ein mädötig 
grofee§ ©tüdE ^apiev, S)arauf ffanben unääf)Iige fünfte. 

85 Sicfe bilbetcn lange SWeil^en. S)ie erfte $Reif)e toav nod) gan3 
beutlid), bie siucite lonntc man faum Icfcn, aber bei ben anbcren 
üerging einem .§örcn unb Seljen.^ „^o", fagte ber Seigrer, 
„ba il)r cud) nun fo fd^ön auf ba^ Äot)fred|nen t)erftel)t, fo tüill 
xä) cud) l^clfen. ®ebt bieg ben SBalbiDeiblcin, fagt il^ncn, „fo 

30 Dick fünfte auf bcm 5{5at)ier ftel^cu, fo Diele Sterne gibt e§ im 

§immel." 
(@(^ru6 folgt) 

350 * hüM = in addition. 

5 {\if^ =z lovingly, kindly. 

^{Idj bie . . . ©rille = his glasses, dat. of possession. See App. 144. 

^ 0Olbett — note Suffix m to form adjectives from nouns of material. 
Cf. {illbmi. In analogy with fll^mi are formed %JS\ittVL (wooden) and 

glafmi (giass.) 

^Heroittd . . . 8cint = onegrewdizzy (literally, aU sense of hear- 
ing and of sight passed away.) 



351-^58] REFLEXIVE VERBS 139 



351 


Strono Verbs 




to appear erf e^cincit 


erjd^ien 


erfd^ienen 


todrawofl aud^te^eit 


m (^^ 


ausgesogen 


to Widerstand t^erfte^eit 


))erftanb 
Weak Verbs 


Derftanben 



I 

to change fic^ öerönbem to smue löd^eln 

to sow bef äeu* to b« awe f önnen, lonnte, gef ontit 

to be astonished jlC^ tüUUbcni to count reC^lteU 

torejoice ftc^ freueii toform bUben 

EXERCISES 

352 1. aScfd^reiben Sie ben Sel^^cr! 

2. SBarum erfd^ien er ben ^nbern aB aKißionär? 

3. 33cf(f|reiben ©ie feine ^ßferbe unb feinen SBagen! 

4. SBq§ f)at er bie ^nber gefragt? 

5. 3Sq^ für 6jemt)el f)at er il)nen aufocgebcn? 
G. aSie red^tteten bie Sinber? 

7. SBorüber l^oben fie fidE) getrunbert? 

8. 3Bie ]&at er fie belolint? 

9. Sefd^reiben ®ie ha^ Rapier, ba^ er I)crau§3og! 

10. SBa§ toav bie erfte 2lntoort? 

11. 3Bie tDar feine »riHe? aSa^ für ©d^ul^e l^atte er? Sft ein 
^Keffer golben ober filbern? SBqS ift Ijölsern? 3Ba§ ift 
tooUen? 93ilben ©ie 3tbieftibe au§: ©eibe, Rapier, §ol3, 
®oIb, ©ilber, @Iq§. 



Translate: 1. He wore bis silver spectacles arid golden 
shoes. 2. The chüdren will be surprised at (über) bis 
appearance. 3. He took off bis glass sboes and bis golden 

spectacles. 4. Tbere are as many stars in the sky as tbere 

■ ■ ■ .....■■■■■ ■ .. ■ ■ ■ ■ 

* tefat = studded 



140 ELEMENTS OF GEKMAN [854>35o 

are silver dots on this half of the paper. 5. Do the diligent 
little children know the multiplication table? 6. Which half of 
bis hat was silver and which half was golden? 7. The old 
teacher of the lost children had changed very (much). 8. He 
smiles kindly, and gives theni examples. 9. He came in a 
wagon, which was the Great Bear. 10. He was driving four 
borses. He had driven a long way. 



LE880N 87 

354 Sie Serirrteit 

(@(^ru6) 
2)te SBalbtneiBIein tüaren fef)r erftaunt barüber. S)a rief 
ia^ etne^: „®§ faßt mir ein,^ \^a^ ton noä) ein SRätfel 3u 
\mtn l&aben. 2lIfo,3 ha^ giüeite Slätfel ift folgcnbe^: „2Bie 
lange bauert e§, um bie öonge SBelt gu reiten?" 2)iefe alueite 
* Srage fcl)ien ebenfo fdjtner tnie bie erfte, bodE) haä)itn fie: „6§ 
gibt^ h)of)I nod) einen Sluöinea/' Sie sogen fid) tnieber nad) 
bem SBalbe äuriidE, legten fid) nieber unb ftrengten fid) an, um 
red)t gut nad^äubenlen. 25od) e§ fiel il^nen nidöt^ ein. 

®o fielen il^nen enblid) bie luglein gu. 3lud) bieSmal träum* 

10 ten fie ettnaS fel)r ©onberbore^.^ 2)od) tnar e§ nid^t ber ®döul- 

lel^rer, fonbern eine ]öerrlid)e grau mit einer golbenen ^rone, 

bie äu if)nen fom. 2)aB tnor grau ©onne. 25ie erfannten fie 

355 ' bal eine = one. Note weak inflection of ein after def. art. 
See App. 43) 44. 

^el fiVt mir ritt — note impersonal verb with dative. See App. 
249. 

> itf i = well then. 

^ el |ilt tiO|l = there is surely. 

* SilbcrftareS— note strong declension after tbe indeclinable pro- 
noun ctttlll, with which it is in apposition. See App. 48^ 4. 



856-857] REFLEXIVE VERBS 141 

foöleid), beim fo eine flil^t ^'^ «ur einmal in ber äöelt. ©ie 
fagte: „(S^ tut mir totrflid^ fel&r leib^ um enäj, if)t ^nbcr. 

15 S)od^ id^ njiQ cucf) l^elfen. SBifet il^r, tvk t»iele ©tunben e§ 
bauert Bio tdö einmal um bie 3BeIt reife?" „Sa!" fdirieen Beibe 
^inber laut. „®a^ l&at un§ ber ßel&rer craäl^It. 3ltte bicrunb- 
Stoansig ©tunben fal^ren ©ie einmal mit gieren fd^onen 5ßf erben 
um bie Söelt, ad|, nel^men ©ie un§ bod^ einmal mitl" ©a 

ao ladite bie ©onne unb fang ilinen ba^ folgenbc 2ieb bor: 



I)ie ücinen ©ternitin 

Unb bie ©onne, fie mad^te ben ipeitcn 9litt 
ItmbieSBelt; 

Unb bie ©ternlein f).irad()cn: ,,3Bir reifen mit 
Um bie SBcIt!" 
25 Unb bie ©onne, fie fd^alt fie: „S^r bleibet m $aus^, 

S)enn id) brenn' eud^"^ bie golbencn Äuglein an^, 
Sei bem feurigen JRitt um bie 3BeIt." 

Unb bie ©ternlein gingen 3um lieben SKonb 
Sn ber 3laäjt; 
30 Unb fie f^rad^en: „35u, ber auf SBoIfen tl^t^ont 

Sn ber 9?ad)t; 

Safe un§ tranbeln mit bir, benn bein milber ©dfiein, 
(St brennt un§ nimmer^ bie ^ugelein!" 
Unb er nal&m fie, ©efeHen ber 9iad)t. 



357 ^ t% tttt mit Iri^ = I am sorry. See App. 249. 
^ fttdl — possessive dative, See App, 144« 

® nimmer — poetic form of nie or itirmod- 



142 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [358-360 

36 9iun lüiüfommen Stcrniciu imb guter ÜDJoub, 

Sn ber 3laäjtl 

SI}r berftcl^t, tDOö^ ftiH in bcn §cr3cn tüoljut 

Sn ber ^aä)t 

Stommi unb aünbet bie ^immlifdöen Sid^ter an, 
40 S)a6 idö luftig mitf(i)tüärmen^^ unb fpielen fonn 

Sn bett freunblid)en St)iclen ber 9iaäjt 

Darüber ftnb" btc föinbcr txtoad^t @ie liefen ju bcn SSäoIb- 
toeiblein unb riefen auS: ,,SBer^2 mit ber ©onne fä^rt, ipirb in 
24 ©tunben um bie SBeft reiten!" Sie l^atten eä rid^tig geroten 
45 unb bie SEBalbn^eiblein jeigten il^nen nun ben SSeg nad) ^an\t. 

358 Strong Verbs 

toseem fc^eiueu fc^ieu gefd^ienen 

to withdraw fic^ ^urücf jiel^en 50g fic^ jurüA fid^ ^urücfgejogen 

to ciose ^ufaüen fiel ju ^ugefaüen 

Weak Verbs 

to make an effort pd^ auftreugeu ftreugte pd^ an fid^ angeftrengt 
torecognize erfeunen erfannte erfannt 

to raeditate uac^beuf eu to kindie an^üubeu 

359 ' EXERCISES 

1 . ßernen ©ie ba^ @ebid)t ausipenbig ! 

2. aSefd^reiben Sie bie Sonne, toic fie hon Sinbern erfd&ienen ift! 

360 ^liial = )ia§, toad. 

^^ mitf dltoärmtll = to wander along. This word offers great difficultj 
in translation ; it means, to dream day dreams or to indulge in fan- 
tastio musings. 

" flltll moaiilt — note the transition of condition implied. Bad|fn 
(to be awake) would take |a6(tl, since no transition is implied. Cf. 
Waftn and eittfdjlafnt. See App. 70. 

12 mer = tier, tier. See App. 169. 



361-3tt2] REFLEXIVE VERBS 143 

3. SBie IiQtten bie fiinber t)crfudE)t, ftdE) gu befinnen? 

4. SBfe toar ber stDeite 2;rQ«m berfdiieben bon bcm erften? 

5. 3Bie t)iele ©tunben bauert e§, Bi^ bie ©onne um bic S8eK 
reift? 

7. 3Bie bielc 2)?inuten finb in einer ®tunbe? n)ie biele ©efunben? 

8. Um toiebiel Uijv qe^t bie ©onne je^t auf? Ungefälir um fed)§ 
UIÖ^. Um toie öiel Ul&r gelöt ffe im ©ommer auf? Ungefälöi* 
um t»ier Ul^^. Um toie öiel Ul^^ föngt bie ©diule an? Um l&alb 
neun^ Ul&r fangt fie an, unb um ein Ul^^ f(i^Ue§t fie? 9lBer 
lüir finb immer fdf}on ein SBiertel auf neun Ul^r l&ier, unb fom* 
men erft um brei SSiertel auf ätoei Ul&r fort. Um toie biel Ul&r 
föngt bie Äird)e an? ha^ Sl^eater? Um toie biel Ul&r gel^n 
@ie au«? SBann finb Sie getüöl^nlidö ba? 3Bann fommen Sie 
nacf) .§aufe? 



361 Translate: 1. The beantiful lady with the golden 
crown will appear to the little children in their sleep. 2. At 
fiv'e o^clock they will have come home. 3. Their mother said: 
*'When did the sun rise?" 4. They answered: **It rose about 
[at] 6.30 and will probably set at 5.15. 5. Usually they 
come home about [at] six o'clock. 6. I am sorry for you. 
7. The children had fallen asleep and were dreaming of a 
beantiful lady. 8. The little stars had gone around the world 
with the gentle moon. 9. At eight o'clock little children go 
to bed, bat the old people go to sleep at half past ten. 10. The 
little children said: ^'Please take us along!" 11. The san 
laughed and sang them a song. 



362 ' Be careful to note the difference between the English and Ger- 
man methods of reckoning time. Thus: 10.30 = |aU fff: tO.lÖaseill 

Sitrttl auf elf; 10.45 r=krei Siertri anf elf. 



144 ELEMENTS OF GERM AN [363-365 

LESSON 38 
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 



3)er SRanu ift jicmlic^ Hein, bie grau ift Heiner, ba« Sinb ift 
am ffeinften. Sft &a^ ßüd)Iein ficiner ober oröfecr al§ bie ^enne? 
aSog ift am fleinften, ber §a^n, bie §enne ober ha^ Md^Iein? 
®a§ Siiiifein ift am fleinften, ber ^al^n ift am größten. Saäeld^ö 
ift am bidfften, ia^ braune, ha^ rote, ober ha^ lüeifee 93udö? SBel» 
d^§ ift bidter, ia^ beutfd^e ober ia% englifd^c 95udö? 



Sad groge S3ud^ ift beutfd^. 
®ad 0togere S3ud^ ift engßfd^. 
2)ad größte iBud^ ift lateinifd^. 



Predicate groß größer am größten 

j be 
1 eil 



Attributive ^ *^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ größere ba8 größte 



ein großer eine größere (mein) größte^ 

364 The eomparative and Superlative f requently have umlaut. 
Note that the eomparative and Superlative are inflected 11 ke 
the positive. But naturally the Superlative can not be inflected 
with the indefinite article. 

3G5 Reqular Gomparison 

With Umlaut 

lang länger längfl, am langftnt 

!ura fürjer HirgeP, am fürjcflttt 

att ölter älteft, am ältefien 

Without Umlaut 

Har Harrt Harfl, am Harflm 

laut lauter lauteft, am lauteften 

bidE bicfer bicfft, am bicfften 

flevu fleiner fleinfl, am Heinflen 



8B6-369] REFLEXIVE VERBS 145 

366 Sliqhtly Irregulär 

grog gröfeet grö^t, om gröfeteti 

^oc^ ^ö^er ^d)% am ^öd^flen 

nai) na^tt miß, am nääffitn 

367 Irregulär and Depective Comparison 

gut bcffcr bcft, om bcfteti 

öicl me^r meift, am mcifteti 

— — crft, am crften * 

— — Icfet, am legten * 

368 XtntJi(f}t& <Bd)ulm\tn 

®tc @(^ulcn in 2)cutfcl^Ianb gel^örcn ju^ bcn intercffon* 
tcftcn ©rfd^tnungen bc« ßanbe^, 3)te metftcn ©mrid^tungcn 
loeifcn auf alte l^iftorijd^ fBxänäft unb Irabtttoncn* jurüd, 
befonberd an ben Unit)erfttäten, aud^ ipod^fd^ulen' genannt, 
5 bcrcn äüefte, bic ^cibelbcrgcr* Uniöerfttät, fd^on feit bem ^a^vt 
1386 befte^t. 



* From these superlatives, comparatives, )iet trfittt, the former, 
and bct If^tetf, the latter, have been formed on the analogy o£ the 
regulär comparative. 

369 ^ gekürt gU = belongs to, i.e., is a part of. ®el|drett + dat. (with- 
out preposition) = belongs to, in the sense of is property ofy e.g., 

Saf Sttdi geprt mir. 

^Ztabitiott' — a feminine noun of Latin origin. Note that the class 
of nouns ending in Ü01I (pronounce i^iutt) are all feminine and all 
accented on last syllable, bie SfftiOtt', bie Station Mlie Xatiütt'. 

' 0o4ffl^ttlf — note differenoe in application from our ' *high sohool. " 
|^0difd|1tle is used to designate any institution above our high or pre- 
paratory schools. 

* f^eibettergtr—note suffix er to form adjectives (always. unin- 

flected) from nam^s Qf piti^S; e.g. Xetti ^orfet, Cdiriitoer, D^floiirr, eto. 



146 ELEMENTS OF QERMAN [870 

S)te mebrigfte @tufe bed Sd^ItDejend tft bie JSIetnfinberfd^uIe, 
tt)0 \xä) bic Süngftcn, im Älter üon bret W« jcd^d Salären, burd^ 
Spiel an Orbnung getoöl^nen. 

10 Xk näd^fle ©tufe bilbet bie aSoIf^fd^uIe, too bie etoaö 
älteren Sinber ben ©lementarunterricä^t auf ftaatlid^e Soften 
geniefeen. §ier lernen Snaben unb SKäbcä^en geteilt bie 6Ie- 
mentar«Sä(f)er, SDeutfcf), SReligion, StedEinen, (Sejdöidöte, @eo» 
grapl^ie, SKaturlel^t^e, aSoIf§tDirt|(f)aft, ©ingen, 3eiciÖnen, 2;ur- 

16 nen unb $anbarbeit. (ßefetere^ lernen nur bie 3KäbdE)en.) 
®er Unterridjt bauert meift öon 8 bi§ 12 unb öon 2 big 4, 
mit atoei $albfeiertagen, Tlxütooi^^ unb ©aniftog^. Stt bie 
SSoIf^fd^ufen gelten meiften^ bie Sinber, beren ©äiuIbefudE) mit 
bem bieraelinten '^af^xe fd^Iiefet. SBer eine toeitere SBilbung für 

20 feine ^nber toill, fdjidft fie bom neunten Sollte an auf ba^ 
@t)mnafium. $ier finbet I)au)jtfäd)Iid| bie SSorbereitung aum 
©intritt in bie Uniberfität ober bie ted^nifdöen §od)fdöuIen ftatt. 
grülier^ lag an allen ©timnafien'^ ber $au^)tf(i)n)ert>unft auf 
i^n flaffifd^en ©tjrad^en, ieljt legt man in ben fogenannten 

» Slealg^mnafien unb 9teformgt)mnafien toeniger ©eiüiäit auf bie 
alten ©prad^en unb mei)V auf bie neueren^ unb auf bie Sflatur* 
toiffenfd^aften. 

(Schluß folgt) 



370 *)lttt4 — preposition of means; cf. tlOlt — preposition denoting 
agency. 

* 8fft|e(*-a<iverb, literally, earlier, translate formerly, Note that 
adTerbs in G^rman are often simply umnflected ad jectives. 

^ •Umtaflnt— pl- of Stnmafinm— belongs to mixed deol. Obeerre 
the Lati^ ending ittQt changed to iftt in plural. Cf. 81S« 

*liC «eiirtni 9)ltll4ttt "= modern languages. 



871-874] 
371 



REFLEXIVE VERBS 



147 



todlrect, polnt 

toenjoy 

tosing 

toclose 

toezlst 



toetfen 

genießen 

fingen 

fd^Ue^en 

befte^n 



Strono Verbs 

tDted 

gcnofe 

fang 

beftanb 



gelDtefen 

genoffen 

gefungen 

gefd^loffen 

6eftanben 



to beioug gel^dren 
toexist ejiftieren 
toaccustom getDöl^nen 

to separate teilen 



Weak Verbs 

to draw 5eic^nen 

to take gymnastics tumen 

tosend fd^iclen 



EXERCISES 

SBoju gel^ören bie Sd^uUn 2)eutfci^lanbd? &tffitm bie 
Solf^fd^len jn ben ^oci^fd^ten ober ju ben glementarfd^Ien? 
SBarum? aSem gcFiören bie Sd&ulbüd^r? SBaS gel^ort ben S^ii- 
lern? aBa§ ift ber UnterfdEiieb stoifd^en einer l^iefigen^ $od^fd)uIe 
unb einer beutfdöen? SBorouf toeif^n lö^utige ©cBräud^e an ben 
Uniberfttäten oft surüdE? 

3lennen ©ie bie ältefte Uniöerfität Seutfd^Ianb^ ! Seit tüQnn 
befte^t biefelbe? äSad mad)t bad beutfd^ @(i^uttt>efen ^ö(^ft 
intereffant? 9tcnncn ©ie bie berfd^iebenen ©tufen ber ©dualen 
unb erf lärcn ©ie beren ?iufeen ! SBol^in gel&cn bie jüngften, n)oI)in 
bie älteren Sinbcr? 3Boburd) unterfd^eibet fidfi ber ie^ige Unter«' 
rid)t in ben ®t)mnafien bon bcm frül^cren? 

373 Translate: 1. The students in a Oerman school study 
very diligently. 2. A very interesting phenomenon in German 
lifo is the good System of Instruction. 3. Of all the scbools 
the gymnasium makes the greatest demand on the students. 



374 '|ir{ig=in this oountry; deriyed from adverb |{rr; so also 
Uta% (from kPrt), ir|ia (^m \f^), |r»Hg (from |r«U). 



148 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [375-376 

4. From tlie lowest to the highest grade of German schools, 
the children study the most difficult subjects (göd^r). 5. Usu- 
ally the Instruction lasts from early morning to (bt§) late in the 
afternoon. 6. The hardest work is in the gymnasium. 7. The 
technical schools and the universities are the most advanced 
schools. 8. More emphasis is placed on the modern languages 
than on the ancient. 9. But formerly the greater emphasis was 
placed on the ancient languages and less on the natural sciences. 

LES80N 39 

375 Seutf^eS @i|ttltiiefen 

(mm) 

2)te ©(f)üler Befu(f)en bie ©timnafien im !l)urdöfd)nttt t)om 

neunten bi§ 3um neunsel^nten Sa^ö^e. !Sn ben Iiöl^eren Maffen 

^ai ber ©d)üler meiften§ breifetg Itnterridit^ftunben bie aBodE)e, 

alfo fünf ©tunben täglid). SWan fiel)t, ia^ er fid) auf§ l^ö^^fte^ 

6 onftrengen mufe. 

®er (Staat ntad^t äufeerft^ ftrengc Stnforb^rungcn an tl)n, 
unb ha^ ©jamen, iromtt ber Shtrfu^ fdiliefet, ift I)5d^ft^ fd)lt)ie» 
rtg. SSiele ©tubenten, bie toälö^enb ber ©diuläett auf§ an- 
geftrengtefte^ ftubiert l^öBen, lönnen bie ^Prüfung für ^^a^ 
10 fogenannte SReifeseugni^ nid^t fieftel^en nn^^ faHen alfo burd). 
^a§ ift ))o6)\i Befd^ämenb für fie unb il^te 3tngel)örigen. 

Söenn aber ha^ ©jamen glüdlid^ öorüBer ift, bann gel^t*^^^ 
luftig auf bie ttniberfität. §ier ftubiert man guerft Sufeerft^ 

376 Uttfl l|3ljflc = to the highest degree. This is called the 
absolute Superlative, since it does not suggest comparison as does 
the relative Superlative am P4fien. The phrase is adverbial. The 
ad jective (attributive) equivalent is seen in ftnffttfl fhrett(|e Vttf Orlimtlt0flt 
(most severe demands), where the absolute degree is shown by the 
Superlative adverb iittj^trfl (sometimes l^üdlfl). See App. 56. 
^tiontt 9r^t'# Ittftlö = then they start merrily. 



877] REFLEXIVE VERBS 149 

toenig, benn e§ l^cifet^ fid& mööliiift fd^neß unb grünblid^ in ba§ 
15 nmt Sebctt eittfinbcn. S)cr junge ©intretenbc Iieifet „Sud&§", 
ober and) ,,Scibfud^S/'* tocnn er einer SJerbinbung bettritt, toai 
geh^öl^nlid^ gleid^ nad^ feiner 9(nlunft in ber UnitKrfitat gefd^el^t« 
3?un lernt er ,,pau!en/' boS l^eifet, fi(i^ ouf ©äbel f(i^togen; trägt 
eine bunte &a)j>pz unb befud^t bie ^^fönei^jen". Snie nid^tftubierenben* 
20 SBürger feigen, ,,$^ilifter", unb für biefe ^at ber ,,5ud^«" äufeerft 
toenig Sld^tung« 

Sm britten ©emefter gel&t meift bo§ ©tubteren (in ber 
©tubentenf|)radE)e „od^fen" ober ,,büffeln") Io§. 3htn bereitet 
er fid) aur SJoftorprüfung bor, unb ba gilt^ e§ auf§ tüd)tigfte 
25 ftubieren. ©odf) bel)ält er immer nod^ Seit ficf) 3U amü* 
fiercn im SScrcin mit feinen ©enoffcn, fo ba^ für jeben 
2eutfd)en^ bie llniberfität^^cit 3ur glüdtlidöftcn S^it feine§ ße* 
benö gefjört. 3Benn er fdt)ciben mufe, fo fingt er traurig: 

ß alte ajurfd^enlierrlidöf eit ! ^ 
30 aSol^in bift bu entfd)iDunben? 

9?ie fel^t^ft bu lieber, golbne Seit, 

©0 frolö uttb ungebunben! 

9Sergeben§ \pä^e id^ uml^er, 

Sdö ftnbe beine S^jur nid^t melir. 

ierum, ierum, iernm, o quae mutatio rerum !• 



377 ' e« (teilt (= t» %\Ü) = now it is important. 

^StiUftt^S — soinewhat equivalent to the^'^fag^' of EInglish schooLs. 

^ n\ä^9ti^\tttnhtn = who are not at the university. 

•fät Irlim Smtfijni— note that bmtfili bas always tbe adjeotiv© 
inflection. 

^ Biivf 4nt|rrrl{4leit » joll; student lif e. 

'Such ^ Latin r#(mio oopun wltb man^ aimilmr itudent tongt, 



150 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[87g-879 



378 

to pass (ezam- 
Ination) 

tofaU 



to enter 

to joln 

to flght a duel 

to Start, begln 

toretain 

topart 

todisappear 



Stbono Verbs 



beftel^en 

burc^faUen 
j jtd^ einftnben 
( eintreten 

beitreten 

fid^ fd^Iagen 

lodgel^en 

beizeiten 

jd^eiben 

entjd^toinben 



beftanb 
fiel burd^ 
fanb jtd^ ein 
trat ein 
trat bei 
fd^tug ftd^ 
ging log 
bel^ielt 
fd^ieb 
entfd^toanb 



beftanben 

burd^gefaUen 

ftd^ eingefunben 

eingetreten 

beigetreten 

ftc^ gefd^lagen 

losgegangen 

behalten 

gejd^ieben 

entfd^tonnben 



Wkak Verbs 



to flght 
to "dlg" 



panttn 
i od^f en 
1 bfiffeln 



toprepare 

to enjoy oneself 

toretum 

to look about 



vorbereiten 
ftd^ amüfteren 
toieberfel^ren 



379 EXERCISES 

1. SBo ftubieren bie ©d)üler auf§ angeftrengtcfte, iinb tüarurn? 

2. 33€fd)reiben Sie bie erften ©emefter be§ Uniberfitätöleßenö ! 
Mc fräteren! 

3. SBa^ für Slnforberungen maäjt man an bie ©tubenten im 
S)oftorcjamen? 

4. aSie benft ber Stubent an feine Uniöerfität äurüdE? 

1. A most difficult examination closes the course at the 
gymnasium. 2. [The] studying begins in the third semester 
and is carried on most severely. 3. The student now makes the 
greatest efEort of his school life. 4. He prepares himself for 
the difficult doetor's examination. 5. Bat he amuses himself 
also, so that his university life belongs to the happiest time in 
his life. 



8801 REFLEXIVE VERBS 151 

LESSON 40 
380 GRAMMAR REVIEW 

1. Reflexive Verbs require as object a reflexive personal 
prononn either in the accusative or the dative. This pronoun 
is often untranslatable. Many reflexives take a secondary 
object in the genitive case. (See App. 124. ) 

2. The numerals are uninflected except eilt, which is 
inflected like the indefinite article. 

3. Ordinals are formed from cardinals by the addition of 
the suffix t from the numbers 1-19. From 20 on, the suffix is 
fl. The ordinals are inflected like any other adjectives. 
(Bt^'j btitt- are irregulär in the formation of their stems. 

4. Fractionals are formed from ordinals by adding the 
suflBx cI. The fractional is a neuter noun of the first class, 
streng declension. §alif bie i^ölfte^ and baS drittel are 
irregulär. 

5. Adjectives of material are formed from nouns by the 
addibion of the suffix ttt (sometimes ertt). 

6. The comparative degree of adjectives is formed by adding 
er, and the Superlative by adding {t)% to the positive stem. 
These Suffixes often produce umlaut in the stem of the adjec- 
tive. Some adjectives are compared irregularly. (See App. 
60-62.) 

7. When used attributively, the comparative and Super- 
lative are declined according to the regulär adjective declen- 
sion. Predicatively the Superlative phrase üM — ett is used. 

8. The absolute Superlative, which represents a very high 
degree of the quality and no comparison with other objects, is 
formed attributively by means of the adverb !^iil|fl or ätt^etfl 

+ the positive ; predicatively by the phrase aufS C (See 

App. 66.) 



152 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [381-882 

REVIEW EXERCISES 
38 1 Pill in: 

S)ic äiüet fiinbcr l^aben — im SBalbc Dcrirrt. S)tc 

SWänuer amüficrcn — in bcn crft — Scmeftern be§ Unit)crfität§* 
lebend. 2)ie llniderfttäten ^tlyiim — bcn $o(f)fd)ulcn bc§ San* 
bcö. 2)ie ©onne fd^int I)€ute auf§ — . Sie ©onne fcf)cint — 
im ©ommer. 25cr Hein — Snabe ^at ha^ \6)Xott — ©jemt^el im 
Sopfe QuSgeredinet. ®er fleinfte Snabe toirb am — red^nen. 
3>ie lieben fleinen Sternlein gelien gern mit bem — 3)?onb, fein 
Sicf)t ift biel milber al§ — ber ©onne. 



Translate: 1. The small boy and the smaller girl had 
lost their way iu the exceedingly dark forest. 2. "Shame on 
you!" Said the queer wood-nymph tothe lostchildren. 3. The 
children rejoiced at the riddles, and their cid teacher helped 
them with their mental arithmetic. 4. "In how many hours 
does the sun go around the world?" asked the first wood- 
nymph. 5. "In 24 hours," replied the little boy, who boasted 
of his mental arithmetic. 6. The first half of the riddle was 
hard to guess, bat the second half was easy. 7. This half- 
page (bte ©eitc) is füll of little dots, the other half-page is 
golden. 8. The silk gown of the beautiful lady was most 
gorgeous. 9. The Universities of Germany are most inter- 
esting. 10. The most interesting universities are the oldest. 
11. The boys study hardest in the gymnasium. 12. The de- 
mands are the most severe in the last two years. 13. The 
children in the kindergarten are the youngest. 14. The chil- 
dren enjoy themselves exceedingly. 



B83-a$5] PASSIVE VOICE 153 



CHAPTEß VII 

PASSIVE VOICE 

LES80N 41 
AcnvE Passive 

;3^ \t^t il^n @r tQtrb Don mir gefeiten 

3<$ fa]| il^n @r tnurbe Don mir gcfe^en 

3ci^ ]|afee il^n gefeiten @r ifl Don mir gefeiten toorben 

^ä) l^atte i^n gefeiten @r mar Don mir gefe^en toorben 

^ä^ toetbe il^n fel^eu @r toirb Don mir gefe^en toetben 

3d^ merbe il^n gefeiten l^aben @r toirb Don mir gefeiten toorben feilt 

The passive voice of any transitive verb is composed of 
some form of the verb tuerbeit and the perf ect passive participle 
of the required verb (see App. 78). In the perf ect tenses 
of the passive, the augment of the participle getnorbeit is 
omitted. 

The German preposition of agent is tion (by) and it 
takes the dative case. Slir^ is the preposition of means. 
For complete passive inflection see App. 78; for syntax, App. 
?18-222. 

384 ^etttfc^Ianb 

S)cntf(i^tonb toirb jöl^rlici^ Don Dielen %xtm\>tn befuc^t, 

bie Diel SReueS nnb S^^^^^ff^"*^^ i" S»^wb unb ©itten 

finben. Slnd^ feine natürlid^en Slnlagen finb oft betounbert 

toorben. äRan ftnbct* in bem Keinen Sonbe (eg toirb 

5 b^red^net, ha^ ö^ng S)eutf(I)Ianb nid^t fo grofe ift toie ber ©taat 

385 ^ Ii04|i Interrffttttte— see App. 56. 

^ntatt filtbft— translate there is found: See App. 220. 



154 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [886 

3!eja§) erftaunlidö öi^ofec Unterfd^iebe im Älima unb öielfad)en 
SBedöfel ber ßanbfd^aft. 

Sm Sßorben fireitet ftcf) ba^ üanb in meilenlongen, janbi« 
gen gläd^en an^, bie fogenannte 3KarP, beren^ 5ßoefie unb 

10 l^erber 9iei3^ öon norbbcutfd^en S)i(i^tcm befangen werben ift. 

®iefc grofeen Slädjen finb t)on einanber burd^ mäßige 

©rJ^ebungen getrennt. Sc^' tüeiter füblid) man fommt, befto 

I)öl)er liegt ba^ 2anb über bcm SDteere^fpiegel. §ier befinbcn 

\xäf bie großen SBälber (ber (Säjtvax^tüalb, ber S^Ijüringer* 

15 n^alb, unb, weiter öftlid^/ ber SSöl^merttJalb^), jdo ba§ Ol^r 
burdö ba§ 9iaufd)en ber Staunen, Sinben unb ßid^en entäüdt 
tüirb, unb JDO ber Sinn t)on bem 3BaIbäauBer gefangen genom- 
men lüirb. Stt biefen betoalbeten §ügellänbern befinben fid) 
tüunberfdiöne tiefblaue (Seen. 

20 3n ber 3Kitte be^ ßanbe§, an ben Ufern ber ©Ibe, h)o bie 
I)errlid)e Stabt 5Dre^ben liegt, ift bie fianbfcä^aft fo fd)ön unb 
großartig gefunben iDorben, ba^ man ber ©egenb ben 9?amen 
„bie fädififd^e Sdjtoeiä" gegeben f)at. 

S)urdö bie ©ebirge, bie ba§> ßanb burd)freu3en, tDerben 

25 3Safferfd)eibcn gebilbet, bon benen fid^ bie großen Ströme nad) 
öerfd^iebenen Seiten ergießen. 3)iefe Strome (ber JRlöein, mit 
feinen romantifd^en Ufern, bie breite ©Ibe, bie blaue 2)onau, 

386 ^ 3Rtttf— originally meaning boundary, territory, now specialized 
in connection with Brandenburg. 

« tierrn = whose— refers to SKarf . 

^ f^tXhtt Äeij = rugged oharm. 

^ if toeitet befio Pl|et=the farther the higher — both G^erman 

tieftO) and English the are remnants of an old instrumental 

case. 

^ (efittbtlt flfi^ = are found. See App. 220. 

* These forests are renowned in song and storj. Looate them on 
the map. 



887-888] 



PASSIVE VOICE 



155 



bie gefdE)Qftige SBefer nnb bte SB€t(f)feI) l^abcn Slnlafe gegeben 
äu bem ©rünben bon möditigen ©tobten unb reigenben 2)ör- 
30 fern. Siele biefcr ©tobte finb fcf)on bor '^af)vl)unt>evten gegrün- 
bet toorbcn unb finb Berül^mt tüegen ber ©röfee i^rer ^nbuftrie, 
ber ^rad)t il&rer &ei'dnbe unb ber Eigenart unb be§ SBertcä 
il^tcr ^nft. SDaä toirb in einer f^Jäteren Seition nod) beJ^^n- 
belt tt)erben. 



387 



to offer bieten 
to sing beftngen 
to rise em^orfteigen 
to 1)6 found ftd^ befinben 



to iwiir, 
empty 



ergießen 



Stbonq Verbs 

bot 

befang 
ftieg empor 
befanb fid^ 
ergofe 



geboten 
befungen 
em^jorgeftiegen 
pd^ befunben 
ergoffen 



Wkak Verbs 



to admire Betounbem 
tocaicuiate bered^nen 
tospread fid^ ou^breiten, breitete 
fid^ ani, ftd^ ausgebreitet 
toseparate trennen 



torustie raufd^en 
to deiight entjüdCen 
to form bilben 
to cross burd^f reujen 
to found grünbcn 



EXERCISES 

388 1. Sßon njem toirb SDeulfd^Ianb oft bejuiftt? äöarum? 

2. SRennen Sie einiget, toa§ barin gefunben tüirbl 

3. Sefd^reiben Sie bie Oberfläd^e be§ ÜanD^^l 

4. SBaS toirb bon bcn 2)id^tem getan? 

5. Sft ba§ fd^on lange getan tüorben? 

6. SBefäireiben ©ie bie SEBälber ©übbeutfdölanb§ ! 

7. SB03U I)aben bie grofeen ©tröme 2lnla6 gegeben? 
9. 2öa)P tonb an bep ©tobten gerui)mt? 



156 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [889-8» 1 

389 Trmislate: 1. Germany has been praised by many 

strangers, who have visited it. 2. Great divergence of 

climate is found in this little hind, which is smaller than 

Texas. 3. The rugged charm o£ the northem lowlands 
has been sung by many poets. 4. We were charmed by the 
beauty of the forests with their rustling oaks and firs. 5. By 
the beautiful rivers will be found pretty villages and mighty 
cities. ^ 

LESSON 4^ 

WORD ORDER 

390 I. 2)ie Sinber |aten jule^t bte SRätfel geldft 
II. dule|t %üttn bte ßtnber bte Slätfel gelöft. 

III. Sag bie föinber iule|t bte Stätfel gelöft fallen. 

Note that in 

I. The clause is independent and begins with the subject. 
Normal Order. 

II. The clause is independent, but begins with an adjunct. 
Inverted Order. 

III. The clause is dependent. Transposed Order. 

391 The verb (i.e., the inflected part of the verb) changes 
its Position according as the sentence is dependent or inde- 
pendent, and in the latter case according as it begins with 
subject or not. 

I. If a sentence is an ordinary statement and Stands by 
itself, there is no especial reason for emphasizing one word 
much more than another. Hence we say the order is normal 
and we mention first the subject, then the verb, then all the 
adjuncts. 

II. If, for the sake of emphasis, some part of a sentence 
outside of the subject is placed first (it may be an adverb or 
tue object, or, indeed, an entire dependent clause), then the 
natural or normal order is disturbed, and attention is called 



302-393] PASSIVE VOICE 157 

to this phenomeuou by an inversiou of subject and predicate. 
This is an extremely frequent usage in Grerman. The inverted 
Order is also found in questions and commands. 

©cl^cn @ic? Selben @te! 
©e^ftbu? ®e^e(bu)! 

III. Thedependent clauseis parenthetical in its nature, and 
in German is always set off by commas. A peculiarity of 
the German dependent clause is the position of the adjuncts, 
which are placed in between the subject and the verb, as if the 
adjuncts were to be thus protected and kept by themselves. 
The transposed order gives rise to a suspenso of the idea, 
expressed in reading by a Suspension of the voice. 

These main rules of order should be carefuUy studied since 
they are at the foundation of German construction. It must, 
howeyer, be bome in mind that sentence structure can be best 
learned by constant Observation of good German. 

392 (Sritiintr) 

SBer reitet fo fpät burd) 9?ad)t imb SSinb? 
@§ ift ber 9Sater mit feinem üinb ; 
@r l^ot ben ^aben tt)oI)I in bem 9lrm, 
@r fofet il^n fidler, er plt ilm toarm. 

5 „3Wein ®oIin, toa^^ Biröft bn fo bang bein @eficf)t?" — 

„©tel^ft 9Sater,2 bu ben ©rlfonig md)t? 
25en ©rlenfönig mit Ston' unb ©d^lüeif?" — 
„aWetn ©o^n, e§ ift ein Sßebelftreif." 

„2)u liebet Äinb, lomm, gcl^ tntt mir! 
jo ®at fd^öne (Spiele \pieV id^ mit bir; 

393 ^ ipa»? = ttarttm? Cf. Latin quid, 

* Pcifc »tttcr, Im— poetioal arrangement for SJtttfr, M9 *«• 



158 ELEMENTS. OF GERMAN [894 

Tlanä) bunte aSIumen finb an bem ©tranb; 
SKeine Tluttet {|at mandt) gülbcn^ ©etoanb!" — 

„aWein aSater, mein aSater I unb Iiöreft bu nid^t, 
SBa§^ ©rlenföntg mir leife derf^jridöt?" — 
15 „©ei rul^iö, bleibe xuf^iq, mein Äinb; 

Sn bürren 93Iätlern fänfelt ber 2Sinb!" — 

„aSiHft feiner Snabe, bu mit mir gel^ti? 
Sßeine SEö(f)ter foHen bid^ JDarten^ fd)ön; 
3Keine S^öd^tcr füliren ben näd^tlid)en SReil&'n 
20 Unb lüiegen unb tangen unb fingen bid) ein!"^ — 

„SWein aSater, mein aSaterl unb fielift bu nid&t bort 
®r Königs Xbijtev am büftern Ort?" — 
„aKein ©oI)n, mein ©oI)n, xä) fei)' e§ genau: 
®§^ fd^einen bie alten SBeiben fo grau." — 

s» "SdE) liebe bid), mid^ reijt beine fd&Sne ©eftalt; 

Unb bifi» iu nid^t iDiHig, fo braud)' iä) Oehjalt!" — 
,,aKein SSater, mein SSater, le^t fafet er mtd^ an! 
©rifönig ^at mir ein SeibS® getan!" 

394 ' (^Ibttt = golden — note poetical Omission of inflectional 
syllabla 

^ toad — see App. 170. 

^Mfl( ttiatttlt = wait upon you — a somewhat poetio uaa Gf. 
ttiartm + «en. App. 122. 

« ein— compounded with VAt%tU, tan^tn, J^U%m in analogy with 
tittfiiilafeit (to fall asleep) i.e. they will rook you, danoe to you and sing 
to you until you fall asleep. 

^ fg— introductory. Translate: It is the old willows that, eto. 

^ (ift bit — inverted because in this conditional sentenoe» the con- 
junction tutttll is omitted. See App. 188 

"ein 8fib§ detail = has done me an injury. Cf. ttfo^ai 3« bil 
tetfm* £eilld is an old genitive form. 



395-397] l>ASSIVE VOICE 15Ö 

3)em aSater graufcf ^,^^ er rettet gcj(i)tr)inb ; 
30 ®r l)'dlt in ben 3lrTnen ba§ ä(f)äenbe Sinb, 

©rreid^t ben $of mit aWüf)* unb 9?ot; — 
Sn feinen Slrmen ba^ fiinb — mar tot. 



Weak Verbs- 
torustie fäufeln touse braud^cH 

torock tDiegen togroan äd^gCH 

to dance tOH jcn to reach erreid^cn (cf . reid^en = 

^rovo™' ^^^^^" to reach for) 

396 EXERCISES 

1. 1. ©eben Sie bie SBortfteHung (sentence order) einer 

jeben Seile an unb 3^re (ärfinbe bafür ! 

2. SSeränbern (change) Sie bie stt)ei legten Seilen im erften 
9Ser§ fo, ba^ bie aBortfteHung gur ^nberfion toirb. 3WadE)en Sie bie 
SBortftettung in ber atoeiten Seile be§ britten Serfe^ äur nor- 
malen; audt) in bet Dicrten Seile be§ bierten 3Serfe§, unb in ber 
ätoeiten Seile be§ fiebenten aSerfe§. 

3. aSon tuem mürbe ber Snabe fidler gefaßt unb getragen? 
aBa§ ift bon bem Snaben gefelien morben? 9Son mem ift ber britte 
SSer§ gefungen toorben? SBaS toirb bem Knaben bon bem ©rien« 
fönig t)erf))rod)en?" aSon toem toirb ber näd^tlidie 2:ana gefül^^t 
merben? SBa^ toirb fonft nod) bon ben X'66)teTn be§ ®rlfönig§ 
getan merben? SBaS ttjurbe im SBolb bon bent SSater gefeiten 
unb toa^ bon bem Sö^nd^en? SBoburd^ mar ber Srifönig gereift 
morben? 3Bie ift ber §of bon il&nen erreid^t morben? 

397 *°bcm Sttter ^rattfet d— impersonal with dative. See App. 189. 
Related to e# graut mit. Translate: Tfae father shudders with dread. 

"Theactive form would be-2tr drlmfdttto tierf)iridit btm ftnabm 

etlliad; tittf)ltffl^t1t takes an indirect as well as a direct object 



162 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[403-404 



403 



bufc 



LESSON U 
CONJÜNCTIONS 
CooRDiNATE (FoUowed by Normal Order) 

aber — copulative. 

allein — adversative. 

jonbern — adversative after a negative statement. 

or ober and Ultb for beitlt 

SüBORDiNATE (FoUowed by Transposed Order) 



until 


bid 


while 


toä^renb 


as, since 


ba 


because 


toeil 


that 

in Order that 


bafe 
bamtt 


when \ 


toenn* 


whether 


ob 


If 


toenn 


although 


obgletd^ 


after 


nad^bem 


as long as 


jolange 








Adverbial Conjünctions 




(Followed by Transposed Order.) 


when 


toann 


whence 


too^er 


why 


toarum 


whlther 


xotü^xn 


wherefore 


toed^alb 


withwhat 


toomit 


how 


toie 


• for what 


toofür 


how much 


toieoiet 


in what 


toorin 


where 


too 


from what 


tooraud 



404 (S i c ö f r i e b 

STug längft öergangener ^di toirb bie folgenbc ®e}d&id&tc 
crgäl^It. ßinft toofinte im granfenlanbe ein mäditiger Söntg, 



* toientt is used to express present time or repeated action ; afö to 
express past time. 



405] PASSIVE VOICE ' 163 

namens ©iegmunb, bem^ ötele Sanbe^ Untertan tüaren. ?iun 
lüurbe bem .^önig ein ©olön geboren, ber fid) fdion al§ ^naBe 

6 burdf) aufjergetDÖlÖTtlictien 3Wut wnb bnvdj §elbenftärfe nn^^ 
äetd^nete. 

9n§ Sienfricb, beim fo 1)iQ% er, nod) ein o^nfftina tt)nr, 50a 
er fd)on in bie SBelt nadi Slbenteuern an^. SBäfirenb er 
einft burd) einen finftern SBalb 30g, in bem er bon aßen 

10 (Seiten öon totiben Stieren, Srad^en unb Ungetümen be= 
broI)t mürbe, tuarb er plö^Iid) einen mäd)tigen 25rad)en^ 
gelt)al)r, ber einen ©d^ofe I)ütete. ©ofort ftürgte fid) ©iegfrieb 
auf ba§ Stier imb Balb tüar ber Sradje mit bem ©dö^ert er- 
fd)IagenS ba^ bon b^m Reiben felbft berfertigt iDorben tnar, 

15 unb bag bon nientanb fonft getragen toerben^ fonute. 

Slber Beim SamtJfe mar ba^ ®rad)enBIut über ifjn .geflogen, 
unb too e§ il^n berül)rt Iiatte, tüar er unbertDunbbar geworben. 
Stllein eine ©teile toar berfd)ont geBIieBen;^ benn gmifdien bie 
Sd}ultern mar il^m ein Sinbenblatt gefallen, ba toav bie ©teile 

20 troden geblieben, toa^ ifim \pätet ba^ Seben foftete. Silber je^t 
merfte er nid)t§ babon, . fonbern gog fröljlid) toeiter, nad)bem 
er fidö be^ ©dia^eg*^ bemäd^tigt I)atte. STUein er bemerlte äu 
feinem grofeen ©rftaunen, ba^ ifim bie (3pxaä)e ber aSögel nun 
t)Iö^IidE) berftänblidö getoorben ftiar, benn ba^ Srad^enblut fiatte 

25 il^m biefe Tlaijt gegeben. 

405 ^ bem— dat. with adj. imtertait. See App. 145. 

^ Sanbf— the more Doetioal form for Sattbtt. See bad fBott, with 
its double plural, App. 25. 

' eltten — Starljett— »cousative with adj. detoaUr. 

^toat trfliiladttl = was killed. Is this ä passive? See App. 219. 
^ Note form of passive Infinitive. See App. 79. 

®ttlttt tierfAottt 0elilie6ett = had been spared. feleiliett is often iised 
where in English we use to be, to represent a stationary oondition. 
Cf. \A hUiUftt^tn, I stand still, i^ bleibe fl^ett, I keep my seat. 

^ M ®(ba1(e§ — gen. with reflexive verb. See App. 224. 



164 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [406 

golflcnbe^ Sieb eraäljlt bie @efd)id)te Don feinem vSdötüert: 

Snnö ©iegfrieb Ujar ein ftolaer ^t\ab\ 
@inö^ bon bc^ SBatcrg 93nrg [)erab, 
aSoßf 8 raftcn nid)t in SBater^ §an§, 

30 aSoHf ^ toanbern in alle SBelt Jöinau^. 

SSegegnet*^ U)m ntand^ 9litter ttjert 
2Rit feftem ©d&ilb unb breitem ©ditoert. 
©ieöfrieb nur einen ©teden trug;^^ 
S)a§ toat it)m bitter unb leib genug — 

35 * Unb aB er ging im finftern SBalb, 

Sam er au einer ©dimiebc Balb. 
S)a \ai) er Eifen unb ©talil genug; 
©in luftig^^ i^euet glammen Wuq. — 
„£) aWeifler, liebfter SWeifter mein, 

40 fiafe^^ bu miiiö beinen ©efeHen fein; 

Unb Iclir bu mid^ mit gleife unb ^ijt, 
aSic man bie guten ©d)tDerter mad^t!" — 
©iegfrieb ben Jammer tool^I fd)tt)ingen lunnt,^ 
Er fd&Iug ben 3lmBo6 in ben ®runb. 

45 @r fd)Iug, bafe 'toeit ber 3BaIb erflang 

Unb aHe§ Eifen in (SiMe f^^rang. 
Unb t)on ber legten ©ifenftang' 
SWad^t' er ein ©d)h)ert, fo breit unb lang. 
,,5Run ^aV id| gefd^miebet ein gute§ ©d^tüert; 

60 9?un bin id^ toie anbre Slitter ftjert. 

9?un fdE)Iag' id) toie ein anbrer $elb 
2)ie SRiefen unb Srad^en in SBalb unb gelb!" 

Stttmiig tUtlank. 



406 ^ ginn — ooordinate with tPaf , hence same relative posflion. 

^ht%t%ntt. In prose there would benoreason for Inversion. 

'^trna — such trans})osition is frequent in poetio usage. 

" ittntg — poetic Omission of inileotional syllable. 

'* Ia|....feitt = do let me be your apprentioe. 

^' fntttlt— archaio form of f omttr. For order see note 10. 



407-409] PASSIVE VOICE 166 

407 Strono VEMf 

topass Derselben t)ergtng oetgaugen 

tobear geböten gebar geboren 

toflow fliegen flofe gefloffen 

to resound erHtngen erllang erflungen 

Weak Verbs 

to threaten bebrol^en to rest raften 

tomake t)erferttgen to f orge f d^mteben 

to spare k)erf (l^onen 

408 EXERCISES 

I. 1. aSerönbern (Sie aDe normalen ©ä^c ber obigen 

©efd^id^tcjo ba^ bic SBortfoIge sur ^nöerfion toirb! ©teilen* ©ie 

• 

in aßen ©ö^cn, bie Snbcrfion seigen, bic normale SBortfoIge I)erl 
©direibcn Sic aUe JZcbcnfä^e an^ unb maäjen ©ie biefclbcn au 
^ouptföfeen! ©raäl&Ien ©ie bie aSaÜabe in 5ßrofo! 

II. Translaie: 1. The mighty king to whom many lands 
were snbject had become old, on which account he needed 
his son at home. 2. The boy did not remain at home, but 
went away in search of adventures. 3. When he became aware 
of the dragon in the dark woods, he rushed npon him and slew 
him. 4. A linden leaf feil between his Shoulders, so that this 
place was vulnerable. 

LE8S0N Ji5 

409 GRAMMAR REVIEW 

1. The passive voice is formed of loerbett and the past parti- 
ciple of the verb. When used as passive auxiliary the past 
partioiple of tDerben has no augment. 

2. The Substitutes for the passive are man + active and 

* lerffeKni = restore. 



166 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [410 

reflexive form of verb. These are used when the agent is not 
expressly mentioned. 

3. The preposition of agency is lion (with dative), of means 
is buri^ (with accusative). 

4. The brder of words in a German sentence is: 

(a) Normal — Subject, verb, adjuncts. 
(S) Inverted — ^Verb, subject, adjuncts. 
(c) Transposed — Subject, adjuncts, verb, 

a— Used in independent Statements beginning with subject. 

5— Used in independent Statements beginning with an 
adjunct (word, phrase, or clause) ; also in questions and com- 
mands. 

c — Used in dependent Statements. 

4 I O EXERCISES 

I. Write the third person sing, passive indic. of eittjttlfett^ 

fiefleigen^ feigen. 

II. Write three sentences in normal order. Change them 
to inverted order; to transposed order. 

III. Translate: 1. The cities of which much (öiclcö) has 
been said are situated on large streams. 2. Many men have 
been charmed by the splendor of German cities and the beauty 
of the villages. 3. By means of the mighty mountains great 
watersheds are formed. 4. The moaning child is held fast 
in his father's arms. 5. When the spring climbs the moun- 
tains the snow melts in the sun. 6. The zephyrs are soft 
and mild when the first flower of spring appears. 7, The 
dragon was killed by Siegfried, who had always distinguished 
himself by his courage. 8. Siegfried had been made invulner- 
able by the blood of the dragon in which (tüorin) he had bathed. 
9. The dragon was soon slain by the brave young knight who 
had made the sword. 10. Then he went out in search of adven- 
tures, although his father was old and feeble (fd^tuad^). 



411-412] 



MODAL AUXILIARIES 



167 



CHAPTEß VIII 



MODAL ATTXILIABISS 

LESSON Jß 

PRESENT TENSE 

41 I The modal auxiliaries express the mood of the actor 
toward the action. They are irregulär in form, since the form 
used to express the present is an old preterite of a strong verb, 
the other forms of which have been lost. There are six: 
tonnen (possibility), mögen (desire), muffen (compulsion), 
burfen (permission) , tnoOen (intention), foflen (desire from 
without). 



^ 


lann 


mag 


mufe 


barf 


toiH 


foa 


bu 


lannft 


ntagft 


mugt 


barfft 


toiaft 


fottft 


er 


!ann 


mag 


mug 


barf 


toia 


fott 


totr 


fönncn 


mögen 


muffen 


bttrfen 


tooHen 


fotten 


il^r 


fönnt 


mögt 


müfet 


bürft 


tüOttt 


fottt 


fie 


!önnen 


mögen 


muffen 


bürfen 


tooHen 


fotten 


Sic 


fönnen 


mögen 


muffen 


bürfen 


tooQen 


fotten 



Imperative 
lönne möge muffe bfirfe tootte fotte 

4 1 2 Observe that the personal endings are not those of the 
present but those of the preterite tense of strong verbs, as the 
correspondence below will show 



Present of Utttteit 

td^ fann 
bn fannft 
er lann 



Preterite of f)iitttteit 

id^ fpann 
bu fpannft 
er Spanw 



For fuUer discussion of meanings see App. 280-248. 



168 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[418-415 



413 The Infinitive without ju is used with the modal aaxil- 
iaries and with laff ett. This last verb, however, is not a preterite- 
present. Sßiffett is a preterite-present, but cannot omit the 
sign of the Infinitive, 

id^ toetg \Dxx iDtffen 

bu toctfet il^r tot^t 

er toct§ fic (Sic) tDtffcn 



414 mtt 

€ füfee SKutter, 
Sei) fonn niäjt fpinnen; 
^ä) tann ntd)t fifepn 
Sm ©tüblein innert^ 
Sm engen $qu§. 
e§ ftodft ba^ 9täbd)cn, 
e§ reifet bog göbdien; 
O füfee aKutter, 
Sd) mufe I)tnQu§.2 



an bie äRititer 

3)er grül^Itnö gu^^ct 
§ell burd^ bie ©d^eiben; 
SBer fann nun fifeen, 
SBer fann nun bleiben 
Unb ficifeig fein? 
O lafe nüdE) flel^en 
Unb lafe mid^ feigen, 
Ob id) fann fliegen^ 
aSie aSögelein. 



O lafe mtd^ feilen, 
O iQfe niidö laufd^en, 
aSo Süftlein tDel^en, 
SBo a3ädE)Iein raufd^en, 
SSo asiümlein blüii'n! 
Safe fie^ mid) t)flüden 
Unb fd)ön mtr^ fd^müden 
®ie braunen Soden 
SKtt buntem @rün! 



415 ^ itttifti — poetic tautological form. Translate : In the little 
room. 

^jmtj ilttaui—supply geint. See App. 280. 

^ fann llifQeit — note orden Cf. App. 90^ III. 

^(ai fie mi^ Jlflfidftn = let me pluck them. The objeot of |a| is 
midi, of )lflft|(ni is fie. Euphony decides this order. 

* mlt-*posses8ive dative with Soifftt- See App. 144. 



416-417] MODAL AUXILIARIES 169 

4 I 6 Strong Verb 

totear retten rife geriffen 

Weak Verbs 

to stop ftoden to blow, waft tOC^tl 

topeep gucfeu tomurmur raufd^eil 

to listen laujd^en to woom blü^n 

4 1 7 EXERCISES: 

I. S)a§ iunge Wäiä)en foß fi^en unb ft)innen, aber €§ tviU 
JÖinau^gel^en unb fjjielen. 2)Qrf e§ gcl)en? SBenn if)re ftrenge 
SRuttcr eg tüilL Slber bie SKutter fagt: ,,S)u mu^t 311 ^aufc bleiben 
unb bxd) an bie täglidic 3Irbcit mad^cn. Xu bift ein faulet SKäb- 
dien unb eine |d[)Ie(f)tc Xod)tcv." SBa^ tüill bie ftrenge SWutter 
nidfit? 2BaB fann ba^ 3Köbd)en nid)t? 3Sa§ foO fic? mu fie bo§? 
38a^ h)ia fie tun? 2Ba§ mag fic nid)t tun? S)arf fic r)inau§? ßäf]t 
bie ftrenge äßuttcr bie junge Stod^tcr im grünen gelbe fpielcn? 
üann fic gcljcn, toenn fie n)ill? 3Dfag fie gel&en? S)arf fie gel)en? 
2Saö foH fie tun? 

II. Translate: 1. You may go now if you wish. 2. Do 
you want to go out or to remain in the house? 3. Yoiing 
Siegfried wants to make himself a strong sword. 4. He says to 
the master: *'May I forge a sword on your anvil?" 5. The 
master answered: '*If you can use this heavy hammer, you 
may use the anvil, but you must not strike it into the ground.'* 
6. The young students at the German gymnasium are sup- 
posed to study thirty hours a week.* 7. We have to stay in 
the house, although all is green without. 8. While the little 
children are permitted to run about (umherlaufen) the older peo- 
ple must remain indoors and work. 

«SeeApp 100« 5. 



iro ELEMENTS OF GERM AN [418-420 

418 Caütion: German and English anxiliaries are cog- 
nates, i.e., they are from the same root. But in the course of 
time some have developed new meanings, so that they no longer 
correspond in the two languages. For instance, mag cannot 
usually be translated by may^ nor does shall usually translate 
foOen. The only safe method is to become acquainted with 
the general meaning and translate from it. When the Eng- 
lish Word expresses permission the German will be biirf, when 
the English expresses desire the German will be mag. Note 
especially the divergence of dare and borf. They are not 
at all related. The English dare is expressed ty the weak 
verb tnagen: He dared to go, er ttiagle ed, ju gelten. 

LE880N ^7 

PRETERITE OF MODAL AUXILIARIES 

4 1 9 The preterite is f ormed from the Infinitive stem on the 
analogy of the weak conjugation, but if the infinitive exhibits 
an umlaut, the preterite indicative does not retain it. 

Infinitive Preterite Infinitive Preterite 

lonnen lonnte burfen burfte 

mögen mod^te iDoUen xooVAt 

muffen vxvi^it joHen fottte 

In translation care must be exercised to find proper 
English equivalents, since the English language has not adopted 
these new weak formations to make up for the wearing away of 
old forms, but has left them defective. Thus the preterite of 
must is rendered by was oUiged tOy had to; fnOett is rendered 
by is to, fottte by was to, etc. 

420 ® { e g f r i e b 

(gortfefeung) 
9lun foÖte^ ©iegfrieb fein atoeite^ unb gröfeteS 2lbenteuer 
Befte{)€n. Sn bcr gerne fonnte er einen mäd^tigen geuerfd^ein 

^ fottte feefifllttt = was destined to encounter. 



421-422] MODAL AUXILI ARIES 171 

fe^en. Jteugieng ritt er borauf lo^\^ bamit er fe()en fonnte, 
tüa^ ba^ tvax. "Jtaäjbem er eine ®tredEe geritten lt)ar, tarn er 

6 an ein ftol3e§ ©d^Iofe, ba^ rino^um Don einer lobernbcn S^uer- 
niancr umgeben toar. Tlan lonntc nicl)t (jinburd).'^ Cbgleid) 
ba^ Jener fdEiredtlid^ gen §immel flammte, gab Siegfrieb, bem 
gurd^t unbefannt mar, feinem 9iofe bie ®t>oren unb tüollte fid) 
in bie glamme ftiirä€n. Slßein fobalb er bie lobernbe glamme 

10 berüi^rte, fanf biefelbe nieber, fo ba% ©iegfrieb ungel^ittbert 
I)inburd) reiten fonnte. 

SSor il^nx lag nun ba§> gd^eimmSöoIle ©d^lo§, toorin feine 
lebenbe ©eele 3u fein fd^ien. 3lIIein im ©aal foHtc er fein 
fd^önfte^ Slbenteuer finb^n. 3)a lag, in tiefem ©d^Iaf, eine 

15 n)unberfd)öne äRaib, gang in ^anser geiiüHt. Siegfrieb moHte 
fif; genauer fe{)en unb Büdtte fid^ su il)r nieber, nal^m if)r ben 
Sd)ilb unb loderte ben ^anser. ®r fonnte ii)re Stugen nid)t 
fei)en, ba fie feft gefd^Ioffen toaren. ©o' rief er: „3Bad^ auf, 
bu I)errlidöe SKaib, unb blide xnxäj an!" 

20 S)od) €r fonnte fie fo nid^t meden, fie fdjlief au feft. 2)a 
füfete er fie auf ben roten 3Kunb unb fie mufete bie I)errIidE^n 
Singen auffdjlagen, unb burfte il^m il^ten Flamen fagcn. 

42 f Stbong Verbs 

to Surround umgeben umgab umgeben 

tosink finfen fan! gefunfen 

to open (eyes) auffd^Iageu fd^Iug auf aufgefd^Iagen 

Weak Verbs 

toflare lobem toloosen lodfem 

toenvelop J^ÜUeU toawaken tOtdtn 

tobend ftd^ bfideu tokiss füffeu 



^ bataitf lo9=rode up to it. The adverb (ol (literally loose) is used 
in many Compounds to denote determined, sometimes violent action. 

'^Suppiy lommen. 



172 ELEMENTS OF GERM AN [428-426 

423 EXERCISES 

I. ©e^cn Sic bic obige @t^i)xä)it in ba§ ^ßräfeng um ! 

II. ©efeen @tc bcn erftcn Xtü biefcr ©efd^id^te in bag S^^P^^-" 
fe!t um! 

III. Ubcrfcfecn @te^ 1. He was to encounter a wonderfui 
adventure in the proud old Castle that stood in the dark forest. 
2. He had to ride through a flaming wall of fire before he could 
reach the beautiful maiden. 3. The brave youth wanted to see 
her face, but she was completely covered by her armor. 4. He 
may loosen the armor and kiss her red mouth. 5. He is destined 
to awakenher, if he will. 6. Shecannot tellhim her name, but 
must love the man who can ride through the fire. 

' LESSON i8 
PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT OF MODAL AUXILIARIES 

424 The perfect tenses of the modal auxiliaries are formed 
by means of the tense auxiliary j^abett and the perf . part. of the 
modal. If no Infinitive complement foUows, this participle is 
the ordinary weak form. 

With an Infinitive complement, however, the old strong 
perfect participle is used. This has no augment and is identica) 
in form with the infinitive. Hence we have : 

td^ ^abe bad gelotitit td^ l^abe bad tun fonneti 

id^ ^abe bad gemo^t id^ %aU bad iun ntiigen 

bu ^aft bad gemtt§t bu ija\i bas tun mfiffen 

er ^at \>ci^ geburft er ^at ba^ ivin biirf en 

mir l}aben baS getDoDt xoxt f)Qbeu bad tun moflen 

i^r ^abt bad gefiiDi il^r l^abt ba§ tun f offen 

425 $ i e g f t { e b 

C@4lu6) 

3lun l&ai fie il^m eraä^Ien muffen, lucr fie tuar unh luie fie 
in biefc Sage ftatte fommen fönncn.^ 

426 ' Note that in transposed order, the tense auxiliary is placed 
just before the two complements, instead of, as usual, at the very end. 



427-428] MODAL AUXILIARIES 173 

/fSd) I)eiJ5C.33run()iIb, unb bin frül)er eine SBalfürc gelDefeu. 
3Mit meinen S(I)lt)eftern I)abc läj buvi) bie ßüftc^ fal^ren 
5 bürfen, unb J^abe ben tapferen gelben auf bcn ©(f)la(i)tfelbern 
I)elfen bürfen. SQSenn fie ober fielen, I)abe id) il)re ©eelen bon 
bcn ®dölad)tfelbern Idolen unb fie mä) SBoKjoHa,^ Jüo bie ©ötter 
tr)oI)nen, bringen muffen. 

Da foKte \ä) emmal einen tajjferen gelben Idolen, aber id^ 
10 f)ab^ nici)t öert)oIIt, benn er n^ar mir ju lieb. 3^ ^oie itin nid^t 
tüoUen fterben laffen, fo l)abc iä) if)m gel^olfen, gegen ben 
aSinen aSobon^^ 

Slber ben ©öttern^ barf man nid)t trogen, fie fönnen fidft 

furdötbar räd^en. SBoban I)at nid)t getüoHt, ia% jener §elb 

15 leben foHte, fo f}at er ilön felbft getötet unb mid^ l^at er furdE)tbar 

geftraft. ^aljx^unbcvte^ Iiabe iä) fd[)Iafen muffen, mäl^renb 

meine Sd[)iDeftern mit ben SBoIfen reiten burften, unb einem 

SWenfdien mufe id) nun angclöörcn, id), bie ftolae SBalfüre! 

Xodb eine öunft l)at mir ber SfHdater gen)äl)rt. Sd) I)abc 

20 feinem Sd)n)äd)Iing angel)ören mögen, fonbern nur bem ftärf- 

ften ber SKänner, unb biefer ftärf fte bift bu ; brum ^aft bu mm 

bie 93runf)ilb tuedfen bürfen, ©iegfrieb, §errlid)fter ber 3Ken- 

fd)en!" 

427 Weak Verbs 

to beiong to angehören to punish ftrafen 

todefy trogen togrant gctoä^rcn 

428 * Note plural form of ^ie Sitft, not easily translated. One might 
say, through the cUmds. 

' SBnIl^alla-'according to G^rmanic mythology, the abode of the 
gods, where they meet for drinking bouts after days of happy hunting, 
and whither heroes that die on the field of battle are brought by the 
valkyries. 

*iirtt ««ttem-dative with tt0*ftl. Cf. App. 188 

' 3ll|t|lt1lfefrte — acc. of duratlon of time. 



174 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [429-481 

429 EXERCISES 

I. @c|cn Sic bieje Ocjd^id^tc in ba8 gmperfcft um! 

II. ©eftcn ©ic bie ©efc^id^tc auf Seite 171 in ba^ 5ßerfeft um! 

III. Translate: 1. The proad valkyrie had been obliged 
to become subject to a mortal, bnt she was permitted to 
choose the bravest for her master. 2. She had not been able 
to defy the gods, for these can avenge themselves dreadfully. 
3. The father of gods and men had not wished to let the hero 
live, but the valkyrie wanted to save him. 4. She was com- 
pelled to sleep for centnries, and could not be awakened except 
(au^er) by the bravest of men. 5. She was destined to kill the 
hero, but she would not, hence she had to suffer (leiben). 

LE8S0N Ji9 

FUTURE AND FUTÜRE PERFECT MODAL AÜXILIARIES AND 

PASSIVE INFINITIVES 

430 The f uture tense of modal auxiliaries is f ormed regularly : 
id^ iDerbe fönnen, ic^ tuerbe geben !önnen, etc. 

The f uture perfect shows the same Variation that we have 
observed in the other perfect tenses: i^ merbe getonttt l^akett; 

i^ merke ijalien gellen fönnen. 

In the last example laben precedes gelten and finnen 

instead of following them. Note this tendency to end the sen- 
tence with the modal auxiliary. 

Saffen is used like the modal auxiliaries, with the meaning 
to have {something done). It may be substituted for the passive 
voice. See App. 84 and 220, 221. 

43 1 The modal auxiliaries may take a passive infinitive com- 
plement: 

id^ fann gefeiten tnerben 
bu magft gelobt ttcrben 
er xoxVi bergeffen merben 

Observe that the passive infinitive is simply the perfect par- 
ticiple of the verb and tnerben. 



482 488] MODAL AUXILIARIES 175 

432 Äricmftiftcjg Xxanm 

^m 93urgunberlanbe^ lebte bamal^, aB ©iegfrteb 99run* 
l^ilb an^ ben lobernben glömmen I)atte retten bürfen, ein 
tounberfd^öne^ ßönig^Iinb, namens ^riemfiilb. ^^ve bret 
Vorüber toaven Sönige unb alle biet lüol^nten fie, Bufammen 

5 mit ifirer SWutter, gu SBormS.^ 2)a gefdEial) e§ einmal, ba^ bie 
^rinseffin einen Xvaum Iiatte, ber if)r nid^t au§ b€m ßo^jf 
tüoßte.^ 3)en mufete fie tl^rer SOtutter ergälilen. 

„3nt 2;raume I)atte id) einen n)unberfd}önen Salfen, ber mir 
fefir, fel)r lieb toar. ^dE) tooHte il)n immer Befialten, bodö atoei 

10 STare famen unb töteten il^n bor meinen STugen. SJa§ tat 
mir furd^tbar lüel^!"^ 5Da fagte il^re 3Kutter: „®er 2;raum 
bebeutet, ba^ bu einen SRitter lieben lüirft unb il)n bein gan^e^ 
üehen^ tüirft bei bir beiialten iDoHen. Sludö toirft bn lüicber 
bon il^m geliebt. Slber befjalten toirft bn i^n nid^t fönnen, 

15 benn et tüxxb auf 3lbenteuer au^gel^en tcoHen. ©dEiIimme 
gcinbe werben il^n ergreifen, unb bn tüirft il^tt berlieren 
muffen." 2)ie S^tigfrau aber ftjrad^: „(Sije mir fold^ ein Seib 
gefdicl^en foH, toerbe id^ niemaB lieben!" „Sei", fagte bie 
lüeife grau Ute, bie 3Kutter ber Jungfrau, „ob bu toillft ober 

20 nid^t, tüenn bie 3eit fommt, toirft bn fd^on lieben muffen, 
ba§> tüirft bn nid)t berl^inbern lönnen!" ttnb fo fam c§ anä). 
S5enn ©iegfrieb, ber bie fdE)öne Srunl^ilb berlaffen Iiatte, um 
mef)r 2lbenteuer au fud)en, fam nad) 2Borm§. 



433 ^ S^ttrOttltbtrlaitbe = land of the Burgundians. 
^ jtt ÄormS— observe the izse of the preposition. 
^ tootttr— supply gc|Ctt. See App. 280. 
^ )ia§ tat mir • . . . toe( = that hurt me. 
^ What acousative construction is this? See App. 159. 



176 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [484-486 

grau Ute liefe xf^n einen Saubevtvant trinfen,^ hen fie üon 
28 einer Wla^h I)atte Brauen laffen*^. S)iefer maä)te, ba% feine 
erfte Siebe bon ifim öergeffen toerben mufete. S)ann fal) er 
Srieml^ilb. ©ie l&at bon ilim geliebt werben bürfen. 2lber 
Befialten tüivb fie ilin nid^t lönnen; benn er iDirb t)on il^ren 
eigenen SSrübern getötet toerben. 

434 Strong Verbs 

tohappen gcfd^e^en gefd^at) gefd^cl^en 

tokeep behalten bel^ielt behalten 

toieave öcrlttffcn öcrücfe öerlaffen 

Weak Verbs 
tomean bebeuten tohinder öerl^ittbem 

435 EXERCISES 

I. 1. aSag lüirb Sriemiiilb nid^t tun toollen? aSarum nid^t? 

2. aSirb fie e§ berl&inbern fönnen? SBer fagt ha^? 

3. SBen toirb ^riemf)ilb Verlieren muffen? SBie? 38a§ toirb 
ifim gefd^el^en? 

4. aSirb fie ifiren treuen Jftitter behalten bürfen? 

5. SBie toirb eä il^m ergel^cn? 

6. aSon lüem foß ©iegfrieb getötet tüerben? 

7. SBoburdö ^at SSrunl^ilb bergeffen Serben fönnen? 

II. Translate: 1. Siegfried will have to forget his first love. 
2. He will be allowed to marry the beautiful Kriemhild. 3. 
But he will be killed by her three brothers, who are the eagles 
of whom (tootjon) Kriemhild dreamed. 4. Bninhild will be 
forgotten by her lover. 5. Kriemhild will not be able to keep 
her lover. 

436 ^ ließ Ijtt. . . .trlttfCtt= had him drink. 

^ (atte brauen laffen = had had brewed. Note difference in the two 
coDstructions just noted. In the second, the J^tHtteit has a passive 
meaning. See App. 248. 



487-488] MODAL AUXILIARIES 177 

LES80N 50 

437 GRAMMAR REVIEW 

1. The six modal auxiliaries are preterite-presents, i. e., the 
present forms are lost and are replaced by the old preterites 
whicli retain the streng preterite endings. New preterites and 
participles are formed on the Infinitive stems in analogy with 
the weak conjugation. For fall inflection, see App. 81. 

2. The perfect tenses have two forms accordiug as the 
auxiliary is used with or without an Infinitive complement. 
See App. 83. 

3. 8Bif[tn is a preterite-present, bat cannot omit the sign of 
the infinitive. See App. 83. 

4. Saffen is not a preterite-present, bat takes the same 
constraction as the modal aaziliaries and has an idiomatic pas- 
sive meaning. See App. 84. 

5. The modal aaxiliaries may have a passive infinitive 
complement, which is composed of the perfect participle of the 
verb and tottbett. 

438 REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. Translate: 1. The mother of the princess had a potion 
brewed. 2. She will let the yoang knight drink it. 3. Brnn- 
hild will have to be f orgotten by her lover becaase of this potion. 
4. The brave valkyrie cannot ride throagh the cloads with 
her sisters. 5. She mast lie asleep for centuries antil the 
bravest of the knights can release her. 6. She had wanted to 
disobey the father of gods and men. 7. One may not defy the 
gods; they can punish dreadfally. 8. Siegfried was destined 
to awaken the most beautifal maiden with a kiss. 9. He was 
destined to be killed by her brothers. 10. They were per- 
mitted to kill bim. 

II. Belate the last story in the preterite and perfect tenses. 



178 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [489-440 



CHAPTER IX 

THE STTBJTmCTIVE 
LESSON 51 

PRESENT THIRD PERSON SINGULAR 
Indirect Discourse 

439 The subjunctive is used in German to express not a 
fact but a supposition. This supposition may be based on 
fact or not, but if the Speaker implies the slightest shade of 
doubt or indirection as existing either in bis own or another's 
inind, the subjunctive is used. The most frequent use of the 
subjunctive is in indirect discourse. 

Fact— Indic Supposition— Subj. 

er gel^t fic glaubt, ba§ er gel^e 

er ifl ba fie fagte, ba§ er ba fei 

er fott ge^en fie badete, er fottc gelten* 

er toirb ge^en fie ^atte get)offt, er n?erbe ge^en 

er \fii e§ fie l^atte geglaubt, bafe er e^ t|abe 

440 2)ie Sonne nnb ber SBinb 

©tnft ftritten fid£) bie ©onne unb ber SBinb, luer bon if)nen 

am ftärfften fei. ©ie famen überein, berjenige^ foQe bafür 

gelten,^ ber einen SSanberer oxix erften nötige, ben 3WanteI 

obsulegen. 

5 3^er SBinb badete, er tüoHe redjt ftürmen, bann lücrbe ber 

* The indirect clause may be introduced by baff (transposed order) 
ör niäy be without any conjunctiori (normal order). 
^ bcrienlöe— see App. 35, 167. 
2 Translate : That he should be accounted (the strenger). 



441-442] 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE 



179 



SKann fd^on naäf jeinem SBiHen tun. Xoä) aU er fo ftilrmte 
unh blie^, meinte bet 3Kann nur, ba^ e^ bod) re(f)t falt fei unb 
ba% er feinen 3KanteI nur immer fefter umtun tDoHe. (£r f lagte, 
e§ friere ilin fo fel^r^unb ber Xaq fd^eine immer^ lälter äu toer- 

10 ben. SDabei gog er ben aWantel immer fefter an fid^, 

3iun baäjte bie ©onne, e§ fei bie SReil^e an il^^,^ ober fie 
tüoUe e§ ganä anberS mad^en. aWit milber unb fanfter ®lut 
liefe fie il^re ©traf)Icn l^erabfallen. §immel unb ©rbe irurben 
l^eiter unb alle§ meinte, ba^ SBetter mad^e fidö ia ganä ij^vxliäf 

15 unb ber 2;ag fei gar nid)t fo übel. 3^er SBonberer glaubte, fein 
SRantel fei il^ni tDofil gu tuarm, er nel)me il^n leidster auf ben 
2[rm. ©r nal^nt ii)n ai unb erquidEte fid^ in bem ©d^atten 
6ine^ 33aume§, inbeffen fid) bie Sonne freute, bei bem Oeban- 
fen, ba^ fie mit il^rer aWilbe mel^r Sraft 3eige aU ber 3Binb mit- 

20 feinem ®etöfe. 



441 




Strong Verbs 




to qnarrel 
to agree 


fid^ ftreiten 
übereinfommen 


ftritt fic^ 
fam überein 


fid^ geftritten 
übereingefommen 


to iDe worth 
to blow 


gelten 
blafen 




galt 

blieg 


gegolten 
geblafen 


to wrap around 


umtun 




tat um 


umgetan 


to f reeze 


frieren 




fror 


gefroren 






Weak Verbs 




to compel 
to take off 
to Storni 


nötigen 
ablegen 
ftürmen 




to think meinen 

to refresh oneself fid| erquidfeu 



442 ^ tta^ feinem SBillen = according to his desire. 

* immet fälttt p mevbtll = to be getting colder all the time. Note 
that the adverb immet gives the idea of the progressive tense. 

^ e9 il^t = it was his tum. 

^ ba§ Kettet J^tttlilll = the weather was tuming out beautif ully 



180 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [443-444 

443 EXERCISES 

I. ©e^en ©ie bie obige ©efd^id^te in bie birefte 9!ebc um! 
Seifpiele: ©inft ftritten fid^ bie ©onne ünb ber SBinb : „3Ber bon 
urtö ift am ftärfften?" ©ie famen üBerein: „3)erj[emgc joH bafür 
gelten, ber u. f. w." 

II. ©e^en ©ie folgenbe dieben in bie inbirefte 9?ebe um: 
„aSarum I)at ber SD^onn nur feinen 3KanteI fo feft um?" „®§ 
ift entfe^Iid) lalt, id) tuiH meinen 3KanteI fefter umtun, e§ friert 
midE) fo fel^r, ba^ id) mir gar nid^t ntel^r l^elfen fann!" „^äj lüiü 
e§ gang anberg mad)en, ber SWann mufe feinen 3KanteI abtun, ob 
er toiH ober nidit." „^ij loiQ ein ©diloert fiaben, fo gut unb ftarf, 
loie anbere SRitter, bann gel^ß i^ öuf Stbenteuer au§." „^annft* 
J)u mir eine S^öt nennen? S^ toiH fie auf bie ^afel fdE)reiben." 

III. Write the foUowing verbs in third person sing, indic. 
and subj. Remember that the subjunctive is always formed on 
the Infinitive stem. 

geben nel^men foUen tragen laufen 

^aben fein tüerben füllten ge^en 

ftel^en tun benfcn n)iffen laffen 

njoHen foHen fönnen mögen lernen 

LE8S0N 52 

PRESENT AND PRETERITE 

Indirect Discourse 

444 The personal ending oi the third Singular we saw differed 
in the subjunctive (e) and the indicative (i). In the first and 
usaally the second Singular and in all the plurals the endings 



''^ The indirect question will be introduced by the conjunction ot 
(whether). This takes the transposed order. 



445] THE SUBJUNCTIVE 181 

of the Bubjunctive are identical with those of the indicative 
(e, % tn, et, en). Hencewehave: 



Indicative 


Subjunctiye 


iä)^t^t ' 


ii) ge^e 


bu ßCl^ft 


bu gel^eft 


er %t^i 


er gel^e 


tDtr gelten 


toir ^e^en 


l^r gel^t 


t^r ge^et 


fte gel^n 


fte ge^en 



Notice that only one form sliows the difference between the 
modes. The so-called thematic vowel e, in the second person 
Singular and plural is too nnemphatic to be heard distinctly 
though it appears to tbe eye. 

Spoken langnage distingnishes the Bubjunctive from the 
indicative by using the preterite subjunctive for the present 
wherever the subjunctive forms are not distinct from the 
indicative. In actual usage the paradigm of the present sub- 
junctive reads: 

iä) ginge instead of iä) gel^e 
bu gingeft *' " bu gel^eft 
er gel^e 

toir gingen ** '* toir gelten 
il^r ginget " " it|r geltet 
fte gingen " '* fte gelten 

445 This shifting has resulted in a weakening of the feeling 
of time difference between present and preterite tenses in the 
subjunctive, so that they are used interchangeably without 
difference of meaning. Observe that there is no such thing as 
sequence of tenses in German. The ten«e of the quoted sen- 
tence has nothing to do with that of the leading verb. It is 



182 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [446 

simply a question of the tense of the action at the time it was 
described. 

Thus the Speakers in the last story all used the present 
indicative at the time of utteranee. In quoting them the pres- 
ent subjunctive was employed. It would be equally correct to 
sabstitute the preterite subjunctive in every case, as has been 
done below: 



446 Sie Sutitte itttb ber SBinb 

©inft ftritten fidö i>iß ©onne nnh ber SBinb, toer bon il^nen 
am ftärfften lüäre (fei). Sie famen üBeretn, bcrienige follte 
(foße) bafür gelten, ber einen Säanberer am erften nötigte 
(nötige), ben 3KanteI abäulegen. ®er SBinb badete, er lüoHte 

5 (lüoHe) re(f)t ftürmen, bann täte (tue) ber SWann f(f)on nad^ fei» 
nem SBiUen. 5Docf} aB er fo ftürmte unb BIie§, meinte ber 
3Kann nur, ha^ e§ bod) red^t lalt luäre (fei) unb ha^ er feinen 
aWantel nur immer fefter umtun lüoHte (n)o][Ie). ®r flagte, e^ 
fröre (friere) il^n fo fel^r, unb ber Zaq fd^iene (fd^eine) immer 

i fälter 3U lüerben. SDaBei äog er ben SDZantel fefter an \xä). 

9?un badete bie ©onne, e§ tt)äre (fei) bie ^eii)e an it)r, aber 
fie tüoßte (lüoHe) e§ ganä anber^ mod)en. Tlit milber unb 
fünfter @Iut liefe fie il^re ©tral^Ien l&erabfaHen. ©immel unb 
©rbe lüurben l^eiter unb alle§ meinte, ba^ SBetter mad^te 

15 (madEje) fidE) ja gang fierrlid) unb ber ^ag tüäre (fei) gar nidEjt 
fo fd£)Iimm. 2)er SBanberer glaubte, fein aWantel n)äre (fei) 
il^nt tüof)l 3U lüarm, er näl^me (nefime) il^n leidster auf ben 
3Irm. ®r nal^m il^n ab unb erquidEte fidE) in bem ©d^atten eine^ 
Saumes, inbem fid} bie ©onne freute, bei bem Oebanfen, ba^ 

20 fie mit ilörer äRilbe mel^r ^aft geigte (geige) aB ber aSittb 
mit feinem @etöfe. 



447-448] THE SÜBJÜNCTIVE 183 

447 



PRETERITE 


(8rd Sing.) 




Strono Verbs 




Subjunctive 






[ndicative 


hjöre 






tnar 


täte 






tat 


fröre 






fror 


fd^iene 




• 


fd^ien 


näl^nte 






ndf)m 




Wbak Verbs 




foHte 






foöte 


nötigte 






nötigte 


iDoate 






tooUte 


ntad^te 






mad^te 


aeigte 






aeigte 



The preterite subjunctive of strong verbs is formed on 
the preterite indicative by the addition of c and the umlaut 
when the stem-vowel permits it. The preterite subjunctive of 
weak verbs does not differ from the preterite indicative. For 
a slight exception, see App. 81. 

448 EXERCISES 

I. ©d^reiben @ie bie ©ö^e auf Seite 180 nun mit beut Äon* 
junftit) gm^erfeft anftatt beg 5ßräfen8 aug ! 

II. Write the paradigms of the present and preterite sub- 
junctive of the following verbs: 

fein l^aben werben motten fotten fönnen 
mögen faüen lieben laffen gelten bleiben 

III. Translate: 1. The sun said that it took (bauem) 24 
hours to ride aroiind the world. 2. Thechildren told the wood- 
nymphs that they could guess the riddles. 3. The teacher 
asked the children whether they did not know (fönnen) the 
multiplication table. 4. The little girl asked her mother 



184 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [449-450 

whether she might go ont into the green fields. o. She said 
she could not stay in the house. 6. We want to know whether 
we may not listen to the birds. 7. The little stars wanted to 
know whether they might not go with the sun. 8. But the 
sun told them that they should go with the mild moon. 9. 
The Wanderer thought his cloak was too warm. 



LESSON 53 

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 

Indirect Discoubse 

449 The perfect tense is formed by the present tense of 
l^aien or f citl + perfect participle, the pluperf ect by the preteri te 
of Italien or fein + perfect participle. The rule for the Substi- 
tution of preterite forms for present forms learned in the last 
lesson applies to the pluperfect forms and perfect forms also. 
But in use, they are not differentiated and both tenses are used 
indiscriminately for indirect quotation in past tense. See App. 
184. Hence we have : 

id^ l^ätte getan instead of id^ {)abe getan 

bn l^abeft getan^ 

er l^abe getan 

toir l^ätten getan instead of toir l^aben ** 

il^r l^ättet getan '* it|r tjabet " 

fie l^ötten *' fie l^aben 



(( 



Perfect 
\6) fei getoefen' xoxt feien getoefen 

bu feieft getüefen i^r feiet getoefen 

er fei getüefen fie feien gemefen 

450 ^ Because bU l^aft is irregulär. 

^ Since the subjunctive and indicative forms in this tense are not 
identical, no Substitution is necessary. See App. 62. 



461-452] 



THE SUBJÜNCTIVE 



185 



Pluperfect 

ic^ tpäre getoefen toir toären getpefen 

bu tpärcft gelDcfen i^r toäret getpefen 

er loäre getoefen fie tuären gctoefen 



id) l^ötte getan 
bu l^ötteft getan 
er l^ötte getan 



n)tr l^ötten getan 
i^r l^dttet getan 
fie tjätten getan 



Past Time 
Fact SupposmoN 

xä) Um, id) Hin gelommen t^ fei or toäre gelommen 

iä) iat, iä) ffaiit getan id^ inte ^or ^itit getan 

ic^ gai, 16) l^ate gegeten iä) ^ait or l^fttte gegeten 



451 



10 



Xa^ treue 9tog 

S4) l^oB* ntein Slofe berloren, 
aWdn at)felöraue§ SRofe; 
@^ tDor fo treu im fieben ; 
^ein treu'reö fann c§ aeben^ 
Önt ganaen 3wö in^ö S^rofe.^ 

Unb aB e§ iDoHte^ fterBcn, 
3)a blidCf c§ mid) nod) an, 
31B ft^rädö'^ mit feinen SRicnen: 
„Sann^ bir nid)t tüciter bienen; 
5Ibe,^ mein 9teiter§mann!" 



452 * fann e§ gcüen = can there be. 
'^ 8llg Itttb Stoff = in the whole camp. 
' tOODte fterlieit = was about to die. See App. 245. 
* fann — note poetio Omission of personal pronoun. 
fi Hilf = adiem farewell (popularized Frenoh adieu). 



186 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [458-455 

Unb aB e§ tvat geftorben,^ 
S)a ötuB id)'^ el^rliii) ein 
aSol^I «nter grünen 3Katten 
Sn eine^ Sinbbaum^ ©diatten; 
15 SDa§ joK fein Senintal fein. 

S)a fi^en bie Ileinen SBögel 
Unb l^alten ba^ ^otenamt 
S^r 6raud)t nid)t erft gu lefen, 
aSie treu mein SJofe getoefen'^ ; 
20 ©ie fingen'^ in^gefamt. 

^offmattn tiott ^aUetlleien. 

453 Verbs 

to bury eingraben grub ein eingegraben 

to serve bieueu (w) 

454 In indirect discourse the poem would be told as foUows : 

1. 2)er SReiter ergäfilt, er l^obe (l^ätte) fein a:pfeIgraueB SRofe ber« 
loren; e^ fei (lüäre) fo treu im ßeben gen)efen; lein treuere^ 
fönne (lönnte) e§ geben im ganaen 3wg unb Xxo%, 

2. Unb aB e^ fiabe (bätte) fterben lüoHen, ba ^dbe (i^ätte) e§ ibn 
nodE) einmal ongeblidt, unb b^be (bätte) mit feinen 3Wienen 
gefprodEjen, ba% e§ ibm niijt lüeiter bienen fönne (fönnte). 

3. Unb qB e§ geftorben H)äre, b^tbe (bätte) er e§ ebrlitf) unter 
grünen Statten in eine§ SinbbaumeB ©d^atten eingegraben; 
ba^ foHe (foHte) fein ^entmal fein. 



455 ® Note incjorrect order for the sake of the meter. 

^ Hetoefttt (ttiar)— often in dependent construction the auziliary is 
understood. 



456-458] THE SUBJÜNCTIVE 18? 

4. 2)a fäfecn^ bie fletnen Söget unb f)iclten ba§ Jiotcnamt. SBtr 
' Braudöten nid^t erft au lefen, trie treu fein Siofe fletoefen fei 
(tDäre) ; fie fangen e^ in^gefamt. 

456 EXERCISES 

I. Ghange Brunhild's narrative (page 173) to indirect dis- 
course. 

II. Write the present, preterite, perfect, and pluperfect 
paradigms of the f ollowing verbs : 

Idolen rufen gelten folgen fingen laufen 
fein werben fagen lieben lefen laffen 

n^iffen mögen bürfen foQen tooUen 

LESSON 5i 

SUBJÜNCTIVE FUTÜRE AND FÜTÜRE PERFECT 

Indirect Discoursb 

457 Faot Suppositton 

@r toirb lommen. S)er äRann fagt, bag er fommen 

toerbe. 

@r mitb bid bal^in gefommen @ie meinte, hx^ bal^in toetbe er 
fein. getommen fein. 

2)u mirft fe|en. @r färd^tet, bu merbefl ed feigen. 

Sfäd^fte^ ^oijx wirfl bu eg ges ®r öerfpridit bir, ba§ bu eiJ näd^* 
fe^en l^aten. fte^ ^a^r gefeljen l^aien tuet:; 

lieft. 

We have seen that the present subjunctive is inter- 
changeable with the preterite, and the perfect with the plu- 
perfect. Likewise in the future subjunctive for toerbe +. inf . 

' ' ' ' ■ ■■< 

458 / {ajeit— could not be {il^eil becauseof identity withindicative; 

so also IjteUen, brant^ieit, fangen. 



188 



ELEMENTS OP GERMAN 



[459-461 



we may Substitute tourbe 4- inf . , which makes the form iden- 
tical that of the conditional mode. * 



Fut. SubJ. 

er tüerbc ge^cn 

Fut. Perf. Subj. 

er loerbe gegangen fein 



I. Conditional 

er mitrbe get)en 

IL Conditional 

er mitrbc gegangen {ein 



459 



Indicative 



id) tüevbe gel)cn 
bu trirft gelten 
et tüivb Qei)en 

trir tuerben gelien 
i^r tDerbet gelten 
fie tüerben gelten 

id) ttierbc gegangen 
bu tuirft 
er tüivb 

iüir tperben 



n 



ff 



xijx toerbet 
fie tuerben 



// 



ff 



ff 



PARADIGM 

FUTÜRE 

Subjunctive 

id) lüürbe gelten (lüerbe) 
bu toerbeft gef)en 
er roerbe gel^^n 

tx)ir würben gelten (tvexben) 
if)v rt)ürbet gelten (tuerbet) 
fie tDÜrben gelten (tüerben) i 

FüTURE PeRFECT 

fein id) tuürbc gegangen fein (tuerbe) 

bn njcrbeft gegangen fein 
er h^erbe gegangen fein 

tüir tüürbcn gegangen fein 

(tDerben) 

il^t: Jüürbct gegangen fein 

(njcrbet) 

fie mürben gegangen fein 

(tuerben) 



// 



ff 



ff 



ff 



460 2)ct Siiftafcr unb bct ©olbfd^tnieb 

m 

©in ©d)äfer fragt einen ©oIbfd)nti€b, loie öiel n^ol^I ein 
fo unb fo großer SllumtJen ©olbe^^ luert fei. 2)er ©olbfd^mieb 
l&offte, ber @d)8fer l^ätie einen foldien Mum}:)en gefunben unb 

46 i ^ ein . • • . ftlumbett Ootbe S — it is more usual to emplojr a noun 
In apposition, ).§t (ilt ft(ttm))ett Oolb. 



402-464] THE SUBJUNCTIVE 189 

tD€rbe (tüüvbe) iS^n gum aSerfauf Bringen, "^cs^^alh fietpirtete 

5 er il^n <3räd)tig, um if)n gefd)meibtg au mad^en, benn er badete: 

„Scr bummc Scrl bcnft flcmife, td) U)ürbe il^m eine grofee 

Summe bafiir Bieten, tucnn td) il)n aber gefd)meibig mad^e, fo 

i]t er aiid) mit iDentg aufrieben!" 6r bot il)m alfo öon feinem 

beften 38ein, in ber Hoffnung, bofe fie gu einem guten Ginöer» 

10 ftänbnig fommen ttJÜrben.^ ©nblid^, aU er baijte, ha^ ber 

Sauer nun nid^t mel^r fo Ilar im Slopf n^äre, fragte er il^n, n^o 

er benn ben SlumtJen gefunben l^abe. SBie grofe lüar aber 

feine ©nttäufd)ung, aU ber 93auer erflärte, er j&abe bi§ je^t 

itodö feinen gefunben; fobalb er aber einen gefunben l^öben 

)B lüerbe, lüürbe^ er il)n b€m lieben^lüürbigen Oolbfdimieb 

bringen. 

462 Verbs 

to offer bieten bot geboten 

tohope l^offen (tv) 

to treat, entertain betoirten (w) 
toezplain.declare erflÖren {w) 

463 EXERCISES 

I. Translate: 1. I thought you would oflPer me a largo sum 
of money. 2. We promised that we should have the work dono 
when you came. 3. They wanted to know (toiffen) whether 
you would come or not. 4. The charming goldsmith thought 
that the foolish fellow would become pliable after a while (bie 
SSJeile). 5. The fellow was not so foolish as the goldsmith 
thought that he would be. 

464 ^ Could toerbnt be used here? 

' Note that here, where the same form of the verb occurs in two 
places so closely ad jacent repetition is avoided by using the f uture 
perfect in one instance and the conditional in the next. They might 
iiave been interchanged without affecting the sense. 



190 ELEMENTS OF GhERMAN [466 

II. Put into indirect discourse (with and without ba§) : 
er fagte: 

SDiefer Tlaxin I)at einen Qio^en MumtJen @oIb gefunben. 

6r tüu^te nidöt tt)Q§ er bomit mad^en foHte. 

©r I)at il)n mir gebrodit, ttm äu feigen tüie biel er bafür Bcfom* 
men fönnte. 

^dj ^atte aiev fd)on bon ber ganzen ®ef(f)i(f)te gel^ört. 

©r tüirb naä) einer SBeile fd^on gefd^nteibig irerben, bann 
tüerbe id^ il&m eine fleine ©umme bieten. 

SBenn id^ il^m bie ©umme toerbe geboten fiaben, tt)irb er fel^^ 
frolö fein. 

III. Change the poem „^a^ treue SRofe" to future in direct 
discourse; then to future in indirect discourse. 

LE8S0N 65 

SÜBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE 
Indirect Discourse 

465 The use of the passive construction in indirect discourse 
does not differ in principle from the active. 

INDIC. Pass. Sübj. Pass. 

|tt)crbe ) 
or >■ gefd^Iagen 
tpürbe ) 

er tourbe gejd^Iagen t fei ) 

er ift gefd^lagen toorben er -1 or V gefd^Iagen toorben 

ertüar gefditagen toorben ( ^öre ) 

l tüerbe ) 
er tüirb gefd^Iagen toer* er •{ or V gefd^Iagcn toerben 
i>^« I tüürbe ) 

{»erbe ] 
or V gefd^Iagen toorben 
tüürbe ) fein 



Fast 



Future 



466-467] THE SUBJUNCTIVE 191 

466 Xa^ flcftol^Ictte 5Pfcrb 

@in 33auer erääl^Ite einem greunbe, ba^ i^xti^ bor einer 
aSod^e^ ein ^^Jferb an^ bem ©taHe öeftol^Ien toorben fei. ©r 
befdEirieb bo^ ^ferb Q^nau. ®a fagte ber greunb, er l&aBe ein 
foldöeg 9to6,^ gang genau tt)ie eB ber Stauer befd^rieben i^ötte, 

6 benfelben aWorgen auf bem ^öl&rmarft in ber näd^ften ©tabt 
gefelien; e^ fei öon einem gremben äum aSerfauf angeboten 
lüorben. 

SDer ©auer fdituang fiel) auf ein anbere§ $ßferb unb eilte 
nad) ber ©tabt. 9lidE)tig, auf bem 3Kar!t^Iafe fal^ er, H)ie fein 

10 5ßferb äum SSerfauf angeboten tüuxbe. @r eilte l&erBei unb 
erflärte, ba% ba^ fein 5ßferb fei unb ba% eB il^tn bor einer 
SBod^e geftol^Ien tüorben lüäre. S)er Tlann, ber ba^ 5ßferb ber- 
faufen tPoHte, erllörte, ba'Q ein grrtum borliegen muffe, benn 
er l&abe ba^ ^ferb fd^on ätoei '^ai)ve, S)amaB fei e§ il&m bon 

15 feinem SSruber berlauft tDorben. 

2)a fagte ber Sauer: %,3lnn, nienn ©ud^^ ba^ 5ßferb bor 
Stoei 3nl)ren ber!auft lüorben ift, unb S^t e§ fdE)on fo lange 
l^abt, fo müfet ^i)V anij triff en, auf lüeldjem 3luge e§ blinb ift." 
SDabei Iiielt er bem ^ferbe beibe 3lugen äu. S)er Tlaxin fagte 

20 fd^neU: „2luf bem redeten 3luge!" S)odö aU ber SSauer ladete, 
nioQte er fid^ berbeffern unb rief fd)nell: „9iein, id£) l)abe mid^ 
geirrt, auf bem linfen Sluge ift e§ blinb \" S)a gog ber SJauer bie 
$anb l^erunter unb alle Seute lonnten feigen, ba% ba^ 5Pferb auf 
feinem 2luge blinb tüav. 9?un irar e^ erfid^tlid^, ba^ ber Sauer 

26 bon bem 3Kanne beftol^Ien n^orben tüav. 

2)er Sauer ergäl^Ite bann feinem greunbe, ba% ber Tlann 
bor allen ßeuten überfüf)rt unb berfiaftet n)orben fei. 



467 ^ i|m— dat. of interest. 

^ Uor einet SBo^e = a week ago. 

' ein foll^eg fioi = such a horse. 

^ (Ia4 — note use of 3§r and ^tt4 instead of Sie. This is usual in 
countrj districts. 



192 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [468-470 

468 Strong Verbs 

to offer anbieten ioi an angeboten 

to vauit fid^ t^tDtngen jc^n)ang fic^ \id) gef(i^n)nngen 

to hold shut ^u^alten ^ielt gu mitgehalten 

Weak Verbs 
todeciare erflärcn toexpose überfül^ren 

to err fid^ irren to arrest öerl^ttf ten 

469 EXERCISES 

I. Change all direct discourse in the above story to 
indirect and all the indirect discourse to the direct. 

IL Translate: 1. The former saidthat the horse hadbeen 
Seen at the fair. 2. The friend told how the horse was stolen 
from the farmer. 3. The people did not believe that the large 
horse had been sold to the man bj bis brother. 4. The man 
declares that the horse will be sold to the farmer. 5. The 
farmer believes that the man is exposed and arrested. 

IIL 1. Sd)reiben ©ie a\x% 4t)aö bem gremben bon bem 
Sauer ersäfilt luurbe ! 

2. SBo luurbe ha^ 5Pferb gefunben? SBeId)c ©rflorung ift bon 
bem gremben gegeben Sorben? 

3. aSaS l^at ber Sauer feinem Rrcunb ersäi&Ien lönncn, als er 
l^eim fam? 

LESSON 56 

IDEAL CONDITION 

470 In the prevlous lessons on the subjunctive we treated of 
Indirect Discourse, in which the subjanctive was used to repre- 
present a thought or feeling without any reference to the 
actuality of the fact. There was nothing in the form of the 
verb to teil whether the quoted statement was based on fact 
or not. 

We observed further that, as the result of shifting the 
preterite to take the place of present forms, the time sense of 



it71-472] THE SUBJUNCTIVE 193 

the tenses had become weak and we no longer reoognized any 
distinction in time or meaning between the present sub- 
janctive and the preterite; the perfect and the plnperfect; 
the futnre and the conditioDal. 

In the nse of the subjnnctive now to be studied only the 
preterite and the plnperfect tenses are nsed. They express a 
condition contrary to f act ; the preterite expresses such a con- 
dition in present or futnre time; the plnperfect in past time. 

Present SBenu ed IqU toatt, ginge iä) tn^ ^au^ 

Past äSenn ed falt gemefcn märe, tiiäre id) ind ^aud gegangen 

47 1 2)cr ging ber SieBe 

SBenn id& ein SBöglein tDär',^ 
Unb anä^ gtoei glüglein ^'diV, 
glög' td^ 3U bir; 
SBetl ۤ aber nidEit fann fctn,^ 
SBIeib' tc^ aßliier. 

Sin xij flleidE}^ toeit bon btr,^ 
Sin id} bod) im SEraum bei bir, 
Unb reb' mit bir; 
SBenn id| ertoadien tu*, 
Sin iä) allein» 

®§ bergel^t feine ©tunb* in ber 3iad)t, 
S)a mein ^erae nid)t eriüad^t, 
Unb an bid) gebeult, 
35a6 bu mir biel taufenbmal 
2)ein $era gefd^enft.^ 



472 ^Wif, fUg'—poetio Omission of e. 

' f anit feitt-'poetio for fehl (anit. 

" gleldj (Okgleit) = although I am. 

* Note the indioative in real oondition throughout this stanza. See 
App. 189. Note also the inverted ord^r paused h^ the Omission of 
^eim. App. 188. 



194 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN JI73-476 

473 Verbs 

tofly fliegen flog Qt^o^tn 
toawake ertüad^cn {w) 

474 EXERGISES 

I. ©efeen ©ie obigem ©ebidjt in ^rofa um! 

II. aSa^ ift ber Unterfd^ieb älüifd)en ber Sebingung im erften 
tinb ber im atoeiten 3Ser§? 

III. Qv^ci^lexi ®ie bie^ Oebid^t in inbircfter SRebe, folgenber- 
mafeen : ©in 3Kann fingt feiner ©eliebten bor : SBenn er ein Sog- 
lein iDäre, unb atoei glügel l^ätte, toürbe er äu il^r fliegen, u. f. to. 

IV. ©e^en ©ie bie unmöglid)e 93eMngung im erften 3Ser§ in 
bic SSergangeni&eit um! 

475 GONDITIONAL 

I. xd) tüürbe fliegen id^ tpürbe fd^reiben 

II. id^ tüürbe geflogen fein id^ toürbe gefd^rieben l^aben 

SBenn ii) ein SSöglein tuare, flöge id^ ju bir. 

Sßenn td^ ein SSögtein tuäre, toitrbe id^ ju bir fliegen* 

SBenn id^ ein SJögtein gelüefen toare, toäre id^ ju bir 
. geflogen. 

j SBenn id^ ein 93ög(ein getoefen toäre, mürbe id) jn bir 
[ S^fios^n fein. 



Fast 



476 1. In the apodosis of an ideal condition the conditional 
mode may always be used instead of the subjunctive. 

2. There are two tenses of the conditional : 

Present time corresponds to the preterite subj. formed of 
mitrbe + present infinitive. 

Past time corresponds to the pluperfect subj. formed of 
toiirbe + perfect infinitive. 

Notice the use of l^aien and fein in forming the perfect 
infinitive. See App. 77. 



477-478] THE SÜBJÜNCTIVE 195 

477 2)cr Äöntß unb bcr fianbmann 

S)er Canbmann lefint in ber $ütte aßetn 
Unb blidtt l^inauS in ben äßonbenfdö^m 
Unb fd)aut em^Jor au be§ SönigS ^Palaft; 
Er hjeife nid)t, iDcIdö^ ein ©efiil^I ilin fafet. 

» „3ld), tt)är'2 ijj^ eii^ Sönig nur eine Sßad^t, 

!Dann tooßf td^ fd)alten mit meiner SKodit ! 
^ann ging' icf) uml^er bon ^an^ gu $au§ 
Unb teilte ben ©d&Iummernben^ ©egen au§! 

SBie ftral^Ite^ bann morgend fo mand^er 33IidE 
10 3)te ©onne gum erftenmal ^eU surüdt! 

SBte ftaunten^ einanber bie @lüdtlid}en an 
Unb meinten^: ha^ f)at ein ©ngel getan I" — 

2)er ^önig lel&nt im ^alaft allein 
Unb Blidtt f)inau§ in ben S)?onbenf(f)ein 
16 Unb fd^aut IjinaB auf be§ Sanb^mann^ §au§ 

Unb feufgt in ia^ toeite ©dfilDeigen^ löinauS: 

„^ä), tüäf iä) ein Sanbmann nur eine ^aäjt, 
aSie gern entrief idf) ber brüdtenben äßad^t!^ 



478 ^ tiirlil|— uninfleoted form usual in this construction. Cf. 

fol4 ein, ntaitij!! ein. 

3 Note Omission of ttiettit. This somids almost like a wish, but the 
following clause showing what he would do under the above stated 
circumstances indicates that it is an ideal condition. 

' btn ®fl|Ilt1ltlll(ntbeit == to the slumberers — ^a present participle nsed 
as a weak adjective, with the noun (Snttftt) omitted. See App. 217* 

^fhralittt — Bubj. pret of weak yerb, coordinate in construction 
with tOoSt' fdjaUen, line 6, above. 

^H% toeite ®i(tlieiont = thevast silence. 

• btr btftlfrttbeil Äa^t— dative with mtratrtt. See App. 188. 



196 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [479-481 

aSie lei)vV i(% mid^ fetter bie fd)tx)ere Sun[t, 
» Jiid^t irr' 3u gelten mit meiner Ounft! 

aSie lüoßt' idö in§ eigene $erä mir fel^n. 
Um trieber e§ offen mir fettft au geftel&n I"^ 
aBa§ taufenb ^änbe mir^ nid^t öoHbrod)!, 
2)qB tDoHt' idö geluinnen in einer ^HaäjtV'- — 

25 ®o fd^aun fie finnenb Beim ©ternenlauf, 

®er Sonig I)inunter, ber Sanbmann l^ittauf; 

S)ann fdEjfiefeen beibe ben müben SlidC 

llnb träumen Beibe bon frembem ©lüdC.^ 

3ot. mhtltl eeibl. 

479 Stronq Verbs 

tobesiient fd^tüeigen fd^tüieg gefd^iüiegeu 

to dispense witb entratcn entrict eiitraten 

towin getpinnen getuanu getDonnen 

tomeditÄte finuen fanit gefonnen 

Weak Verbs 
IQ reciine lehnen to ruie fd^alten 

togiance Blicfett toreflect jiirücfftro^len 

480 EXERCISES 

I. Write out in fuU'each of the two conditional stato- 
ments contained in the above poem, first with both parts in 
the subjunctive, then with the conditional in the apo4osis, with 
and without the conjnnction liieittt. 

II. Oiye these conditions in the past tense. 

III. ©rgal^Ien Sie bicfcS ®cbid^t tu 5ßrof a ! 

481 ^tt1it....Qefie)ll = to frankly face the secrets of my own heart 
again. 

•mit — dative of interest. 

•UOtt ftrmtinil ®lJW = of another's joy. 



482-484] THE SUBJUNCTIVE 197 

LE880N 67 

SUBJUNCTIVE OF WISH— UNFULFILLED 

482 This corresponds very closely to the protasis of the ideal 
condition. "Were I but king!*' suggests "I shonld be happy 
if I were king!'' which makes a correot Btatement of ideal con- 
dition. 

Prosent SBote td^ bod^ £5mg ! 

Fast gBJire td^ bod^ König gemefm! 

Present ^ttttc id^ bic SKad^t ! 

Fast glitte td^ bie SRad^t gcljati! 

Observe that the tense use corresponds ezactly to that in 
ideal condition. In fact, almost every wish of this kind could 
be made into a conditional sentence by adding the apodosis, 
and almost every conditional clause may become a wish, if the 
apodosis is omitted. 

483 2)ie ötcr aBfitiWc 

Jtönnt' id) bod) ber gclfcn fein, 
S;ief im ®runbe ha^ Urgeftein, 
S^oi) im §tmmcl ba% 9IngeftdE|t, 
@totg [teilen unb toanfcn nid^t! 

5 Äßnnt' xi) bod£) ia^ Srünnlein fein 

©prubelnb^ au§ fülöfeni ®runbe rein, 
®e]&enb^ burdE) grüne§ Ufergefd£)tdE)t 
©toig rinnen unb raften nidE)t! 

Sonnt* id^ bod^ ia% Säumlein fein, 
10 S)ie SBurjel geftredft^ in§ Ufer l^inein. 



484 ' ftimbeltlb and gelitnti— two present participles used ad jeotively 
with Orftttnlfitt, uninflected because they follow the neun. 

^ dffhtlft— « perfeot participle used like the present participles dis- 
cussed in note 1 ; modifies Sitrjfl. 



198 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [485-486 

Sie Stüexqe toiegenb^ im $immcBIi(I|t, 
©lütg blül&en unb toelfen ntd^tl 

Äönnt' tdö bod^ ba§ 5BöflIein fdn 
9luf ben S^iJctgen im ©onnenfd^ein/ 
15 ®Q§ ©timmlein tonenb aum $immel gcrid&t't, 

©toig tönen unb fcfjtoeigen nitfit! 

485 Verbs 

tonin rinnen rann geronnen 

to bubbie f ))rubeln {w) to sound tönen (to) 
torest raften (w) todirect rid^ten («;) 
' towitherioelfen (w) 

486 EXERCISES 

I. SBaö ftnb bie biet aBunfd^e, bie l&ier au§geft)rod£|cn finb? 
S)er aWann tüünfd^t, er fönnte ein gelfen fein u. f. to, 

II. Tlaäjen ©ie biefe SBunfiifQ^e 5u 93ebingung§fäfeen. SBenn 
xä) ein SSöglein fein fönnte, tcürbe id^ auf ben S^iö^n fifeen u4.to. 

III. SBeId)e SBünf(f)e l^atten ber Sanbmann unb ber König 
(©eite 195)? 

IV. ©e^en ©ie biefe§ ©ebid^t in 5ßrofa um! 

V. Translate: 1. Siegfried said: "Oh, that I were a brave 
knightl" 2. Then I would go in search of (nad^) adyentnres. 
3. If Siegfried had been a bold knight, he would haye gone in 
search of adventures. 4. He cried: "If I only had a swordi*' 

5. If he had had a sword he would not have gone to the smithy. 

6. Charles the Great exciaimed : "Oh, had the rieh men*s sons 
been as diligent as the poor men's sons!" 7. If the rieh men's 
sons had been as diligent as the poor men's sons, the school 
would have been much better. 8. What would the king have 
done, had he been a peasant? 9. If the peasant had been a 
king, he would have made everybody happy. 



' mlfjnti— see note 1. 



■^p*"#»»iV^'^""^^p*^^^"^'^'*^i^Bifc 



487-489] THE SUBJUNCTIVE 199 

LESS0N58 

SUBJUNCTIVE OF WISH— TO BE FULFILLED.—DESIRE OR 

PRAYER 
437 Fact— Indic. WisH— Subj. 

@r ift glüdüd^, @r fei glüdEttd^ ! May he De 

happy. 
@r gel^t (Sel^eer! Lethimgo! 

S)ein Sieid^ lomntt. 2)cttt 9icid^ fontmc ! Thy king- 

dom come! 

488 ®cr aWai ift gel ommcn 

S)er aWai ift gefommen, bie Säume fd^Iögen au^, 
S)a bleibe, toer Suft l&at,^ mit ©orgen gu $qu§* ! 
SBie bie SBoIfen bort iDanbern am ]&immlifd)en Seit, 
(So ftel^t oud) mir ber ©inn^ in bie toeite, loeite SBelt. 

6 §err SSoter, grau äßutter, ho!Q ®ott eud^ bepf l^ 
aSer toeife, too in ber gerne mein ©lüdE mir nod) blülöt?* 
®§ gibt fo mand)e ©trafee, ba nimmer id& marfdiiert ;^ 
©g gibt fo mand)en SBein, htn id) nimmer nod) tjrobiert.^ 

grifd) auf brum,^ frifci) Quf brum im l^ßQßn ©onnenftral^I, 
10 SBot)I über bie SSerge, tooiji burd) ba§ tiefe 2;al ! 
2)ie Duellen erllingen, bie a3äume raufcfjen qH'; 
SKein $era ift tüie 'ne ßerd)e unb ftimmet ein mit ©(f)QlI. 



489 ^ha MfHc, Hier 8ltjl Jat, etc. = let whoever desires stay at home. 

2 f — ®ltt1t = so does my mind turn to. 

'iia|. . . . ÜC^ftt'— supply idl mftttf^e before this. 

^@lnf! — lilfil^t = f ortune will smile upon me. Note the[figure; 
tlftl^ftt is a favorite word in German to denote a flourishing condi- 

tion, as bif (Inl^ettlir «Stabt; ein lil&lnilift ditttGlind, eto. 

^ l^aBr is omitted. 

• Sf ^^f t| auf bmm = Up and away I 



200 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [4490-91 

Unb Qbenbö im ©täbtiein, ba f el^r' id) burftig ein : 
,,$€rr aSirt, $err SBirt, eine Santtc blQtifen aBein! 
15 gröreifc bie i^iebel, bu luffger ©t)ieImQnn bu\ 
aSon meinem ©djafe ba^ Siebel,^ ba^ fing* id^ bosu." 

Unb finb'8 icf) feine ^erberg', fo lieg* id^ aur 9tad)t 
aSolÖI wttter blauem $immel; bie ©tcrne Ijalten aBad)t; 
3m aSinbe bie Sinbc, bie raufd)t mid^ cin^ gemad);^^ 
20 ©§ füffct in ber Srül}e baö äRorgenrot midt) ttjad). 

O aSanbern, o aSanbern, bn freie 93ur jd^enluft ! 
S)a ftjel^et @otte§ Dbem^^ fo frifd) in bie a3ruft; 
3)a finget unb jaudEiaet ba§ ^era aum $immel§3elt: 

aSie bift bn bod) fo fd)ön, o bu lüeitc, meite aSelt! 

Smanttrl 9riBe(. 

490 Stronq Verbs 

tusprout ausfc^tagen fd^Iug an^ ait^gefc^lagen 
to resound crf üugeu erf laug erflungen 

toseize ergreifen ergriff ergriffen 

Weak Vebbs 

to wander n^anbent torustie rttufd^n 

toguard bel^üten tojoin einftimntcn 

tomarch marfd^iercn to enter cinlcl^ren 

to try probieren 



49 I ^ 9>\tM — a South German diminutive form ; North German 

would be filtti^tn or Sieblein. 

^ Note the real condition with the llimil omitted. 
• rattfdjt ntilli ein = rustles me to sleep. 
" ^tmaä^—o\d form of gemädiHdl, comfortable. 
^ Cbent— old (poetic) form of 9t(llt. 



492-494] THE SUBJÜNCTIVE 201 

492 EXERCISES 

I. Translate: 1. Let his mind turn towards home (nad^ 
$aufe). 2. May God guard you! 3. Let the woods resound. 
4. Let the host bring me a tankard of wine. 5. Let him lie all 
night under the blue sky. 6. May the winds blow through the 
trees and sing me to sleep! 7. Let who will remain* at home, I 
shall go out into the wide, wide world 

II. ©cfeen Sie oBigeg ©cbid^t in 5ßrofa itm ! 

LE8S0N 59 

SUBJÜNCTIVE OF DOUBT 

493 Besides the subjunctives of indirect disconrse, condition, 
and wish, there are a number of subjunctive phrases and sup- 
positions which are not easily elassifled. Some are remnants 
of an older optative, others are parts of older conditional 
clauses which have become stereotyped. See App. 192. 

A very frequent use of the subjunctive is that after al9 QU 
or al9 liienn (as though). Note that the ob or meittt may be 
omitted with the usual result upon the order. See App. 188. 

@r tat, at§ ob e^ immer Sommer märe. 
®r tat, aU märe e^ immer ©ommer. 

494 I)cr gute fiamcrab 

Sd) l&att' emen i^ameraben, 
©inen beffcrn firtb'ft 'bn vxi} 
3>ic J^rotnmel f(f)Iug aum ©trcite, 
©r (jing an meiner ©eite 
5n ölei(i)cm ©d)ritt iinb ^ritt.^ 



S^ 



♦See App. 197, 198. 

* ttit — South German form for nid^t. 

* (Stritt ttttb Srltt = in step. 



202 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [495>496 

©ine ^gel fam geflogen;^ 
®tlt'^ mir ober gilt e§ bir?^ 
Sön ^öt e§ lücggeriffen; 
®r liegt mir^ bor bcn Süfeen, 
10 21I§ tDär*5^ ein ©tüd bon mir. 

SBiH^ mir bie §anb nod) reid^en, 

2)ern3eiP td) eben lab'. 

„^ann^ bir bie $anb nicf)t geben; 

Söfeib bu^^ im etu'gen Qehen 

16 3Rein guter Samerob!" 

enhttiig miaiiti. 

495 ^tt 6ift tote eine SBIunte 

S)u bift tüie eine S3Iume 
©0 I)oIb unb fd^ön unb rein; 
Sd) fdiau* bid) an, unb SBel^ntut 
©d)fei(f)t mir in§ §erä l^inein.^^ 

5 3Wir ift,i2 aU ob^^ id) bie §änbe 

2luf§ §Qut)t bir^ legen foßt', 
Setenb, ba% Oott bid^ erl&alte 
©0 rein unb fdf)ön unb l&olb. . 



496 ^ fllin 0(|lO0ttt — note adverbial nse of perf. part.with verb fontlltnt, 

cf. 198, 1. 

* gilt cd = does it mean. 

^ mit . . . )ien gttjeu— what dative is mit? 
^al§ lilät'§— What is omitted? 

'tt>m = etuiia. 

* betturll— modern literary form is iutirm. 

®fonn = li| ftttttt. 

'° 93(eiil bn — emphatic imperative. 

" ind 0ft) biltdll — note tautological use of adverb. 

" mit Ift— snort form of f § ijj mit = it seems to me. 

^' Goula ofe be omitted? What change would that make? 



497-500] THE SUBJUNCTIVE 203 

497 Stbono Verbs 

to tear away toegrei^CH ri§ tpeg tpe jgcrtffen 

toioad labcit lub gctabcn 

tocreep fd^lcid^cit fd^üd^ Qt\(i)lii)tn 

498 EXERCISES 

I. ©rjä^lcn Sic ben ^nl^alt beg obigen ®ebid^t8 in inbircftcr 
Siebe! 

II. SBie toat bem ^Rann jn 3Rnte, aU er feinen grennb tot \a^? 
III. 3Bertt)ar ßubtoig Ul^lanb? ^einrid^ ©eine? 

LESSON 60 

499 GRAMMAR REVIEW 

I. Form of subjunctive. See App. 72-83. 
II. Syntax of subjunctive. See App. 180-199. 

500 REyiEW EXERCISES 

1. Give present indic. and subj. active paradigms of fe|ctt^ 

flel^en^ biitfen, liirrben^ fein. 

2. Give preterite indic. and subj. active paradigms of 

gel^en^ l^atett^ feitt^ moDett^ faOett. 

3. Give perfect indic. and subj. active paradigms of 

laufen, gelten, leBett, muffen. 

4. Give pluperfect indic. and subj. active paradigms of 

burfen, l^aBen, fein, merfcn, tleiten. 

5. Give future and future perfect indic. and subj. active 
paradigms of lefen, %ti^vx, mögen. 

6. Give Synopsis 3rd sing, passive indic. and subj. of 

feigen, l^iiren. 

7. Write out conditional paradigm active and passive of 
feigen and liiiten. 



204 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 

II. Put into indirect discourse all the direct discourse in 
the stories on pages 189, 191. 

III. Teil the story on page 82 in indirect discourse. 

IV. Translate: 1. Once a rieh man was addressed on the 
Street by a beggar (l)cr ©eitler). 2. The latter said: "Brother, 
give me a penny (ber ^ßfeimig)." 3. Then the rieh man iasked 
how long they had been brothers. 4. The poor man re- 
minded him of the fact (baran), that we are all the sons of 
Adam. 5. The rieh man said that he was right and that he 
had forgotten that. 6. Then he gave the poor man a penny. 
7. But the latter thought that this was a very small present for 
a brother. 8. However, the rieh man said: "If all the sons 
of Adam should give you a penny, you would be the riebest 
man in the world!" 

V. ®eben @ic ein SBeifpiel für ben SBunfd^fonjIiinfttt), ben 
Sebingunggfonjunltit), ben Konjunftiö ber tnbireftcn 3lebe ! 



501-503] IMPERATIVE 205 



CHAPTER X 

IMPEEATIVE. COMPOUNDS. INFINITIVES. 

PAETICIPLES 

LE^SON 61 

IMPERATIVE 

50 1 Strong Verb 

äJiarie, gtt mir bein Sud^ ! 

äJiarte unb ^arl, gett mir eure 93üd^r ! 

Sröulein ©d^mibt, bitte getm Sie mir ^l^r 93ud^ I 

Weak Verb 

SSit^elm, mai^e bein ^\\S^ auf ! 

Sart unb äBill^elm, mai^t eure Sudler auf ! 

$err 93raun, malten Sie ^\)x 3)u(i^ auf ! 

502 Stronq 

gib gebt %titn @ie 

]^alt(e)* ^Itet galten Sie 

Iauf(e)* lauft laufen Sie 

Weak 

mad^e mad^t mad^en @ie 

Sliqhtly Irreoular 
^ei feib feien Sie 

503 2)eutfcftcr JRat 

SBor Qßem ein§, mein Sinb, fei treu unb iDa^r! 
2afe nie bie fiüge beinen aWunb enttDeil)*n! 
aSon altera F)er^ im b€utfd)en aSoIfe iDor 

S)er l^öd^fte JRul&m, getreu unb xoa))x gu fein. 

* * « 

*See 154. 

' Son alttri \tX = since olden tinies. 



206 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [504-505 

3uerft ein S'^^VQ, ein SRiefe f)intennad) ;^ 
®od^ bein ©etoiffen geigt ben geinb bir an, 
Unb eine Stimme ruft in bir: „©ei toaijV' 

Sann toaä) unb Tdmp^ ! ©§ ift* ein geinb bereit — 
10 SDie Süg' in bir, fie^ brol^t. bir ©efafir. 

Sinb, S)eutf(f)e fämpften tapfcv oHegeit; 
S)u beutfd)e§ ^inb, fei tapfer, treu unb tüdf)x ! 

Xollrrt Keittil 

504 2)ic aRaftnitng 

^ütet eure Sangen 
aSor 33eleibigungen ! 
Safet lein Böfe§ SBort l^eröor! 
©tofet ben SRiegel bor ba^ S^or! 
6 ©tofet ben SRiegel bor ba^ Stör! 

Safet fein böfe§ SBort l^erbor! 
aSor a3eleibigungen 
^ütet Eure Bingen! 

$ütet eure Ol^^^en 
10 Ober il^r feib Sporen! 

Safet fein böfe§ SBort barin ;^ 

©^ berunelirt euren ©inn! 

©^ beruncl^rt euren ©inn; 

Safet fein böfe§ SBort barin 
15 Ober il)r feib ^oren! 

§ütet eure Ol^ren! 



505 ^ an§ Pttl j^eran— notioe the tautology. See 496. 11. 

* ^intninaii^ = later. 

- ^§ i{l ein ^tini = there is an enemy. 

^ ® Ic Äitd' flr— poetic tautology. 

«>arttt instead of Ijiitriit. 



500-509] IMPERATIVE 207 

506 Verbs 

topush fto^en ftie§ öefto^en 

to desecrate euttüetl^en (w) lo üght föttt^pfeit (w) 

to point out anzeigen (w) to dishonor öerunel^ren (w) 
towatch toaä)tn (w) 

507 EXERCISES 

I. Express the imperatives in the above poems in singular 
and plural. 

SBenn man bteje Scfel^Ie in bei inbireften SRebe auSbrüden 
tDlH, mufe man ba§> aKoballiilf^inort f o 11 e n benu^en, 3. 93. 
S)er 2)id)ter ]aQt, ein Sinb foHe (foHte) treu unb tüai)i fein nnb 
foHe (foHte) nie eine ßüge feinen 3Kunb enttDeil^en laffen. 

II. ©efeen ©ie beibe @ebidE)te in bie inbirefte Sftebe um! 

508 In addition tb the regulär imperative there are three 
methods of expressing a command. 

(a) The present subjunctive — a command in the third 
person, as et iifft, let him go. 

(b) The perfect participle ) . , , 

/ N mi • n '^' >■ for brusque commands. 

(c) The Infinitive ) ^ 

509 SRuftffitcit 

Srifcf) getan unb nid£)t gefäumt! 
2SaB im 2Beg liegt, tüeggeräumt! 
aBa§ bir fel^Iet, fud) gefd)lrinb! 
Orbnung lerne frül^, mein ^nil 

9Iu§ bem Sett unb nid)t gefäumt I 
9?i(f)t bei l^cöem 5Cag geträumt! 
©rft bie Strbeit, bann ba^ ©t>iel! 
3taäj ber SReife fommt ha^ Siel! 



208 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



[510-512 



(SäjueÜ befonnen, nidöt ö<^trQumt! 

SRtditö bergeffen, nid&t^ berföunit! 

SRicf)t§ blofe obenl^tn oemad^t! 

SBa^ bvL tuft barauf gib ad}t! 

3r. Sttttfrrt. 

5 I O Weak Verbs 

to hesitate föunten to miss öet^äumeu 

to remove tücg räumen 

51 1 aWon fönnte auij \aQen: 

grifdö tun unb nicf)t fäumen! 
aSSoS im aSeg liegt, tDegräumen! 
SBaö bir fel^Ict gefd^tDinb fud)en! 
Drbnitng lerne ba^y Stinb friif)! 

That is, a command may bo expressed as foUows — 

gib! * gebe er! 

gebt ! gegeben ! 

geben Sie! geben! 

2)rüifen ®ie bie Sefel^Ic iwi obigen ©ebid^tc auf jebe mögfidöe 
SBeife an^l 

LES80N 62 



512 

Present 

Preterlte 

Perfect 

Pluperfect 

Future 

Fut. Perf. 



COMPOUND VERBS 
Separable 

äßic^el mei^i ^an^ m%. 

S)ie ajlaug pttgte ber Äa|c bie ©d^eße nid^t an, 

®ie SSögtein flnb im SBinter fortgefiiigcn* 

©iegfrieb l^tttte ben 3)rad^en totgef^Iagcn. 

%tx ®oIbfd^mieb mirb bem 93auer ba^ @)olb afenel^mett. 

®er ^nabe ttiirb }ttrtttfgcfommen fein. 



518-016] 



COMPOUND VERBS 



209 



513 

Present 

Preterite 

Perfect 

Pluperfect 

Future 

Fut. Perf. 



514 



Insepabablb 

3)er Kaufmann temerlt ba8 gattcn ber Sörjc nid^t 

3)ic .Sügc etttttiei]|te feinen SKunb. 

2)te $auf(eute Italien ben S3eutel tttUttn. 

SSiete ^afjxt ttiaren Hergängen. 

^ie Knaben merben bte ^rüfnng Befleißen« 

S)te ^inber toetben \\i) kefonnen ^nitn. 

SYNOPSIS 

er Vertiert 



er fliegt fort 

er flog fort 

er ift f ortgeffogen 

er toar f ortgeffogen 

ertoirb fortfliegen 

er toirb f ortgeffogen fein 



er berlor 

er f)at berloren 

er l^atte Herloren 

er toirb Verlieren 

er toirb berforen l^aben 



515 The separable particle, which is strongly accented, is 
always an independent word (adverb or preposition), which 
is closely associated with the verb. When it immediately pre- 
cedes the verb as in the participle, infinitive, and always in 
transposed order, the two are joined together as one word. 

The inseparable particle cannot be used independently, 
hence is always attached to the verb. In the latter case, the 
augment of the perfect participle is omitted, since more than 
one initial short syllable is unusual in Oerman. 

516 A f ew Compound verbs are both separable and insepar- 
able with change of meaning. 



nberfe^en, fe|te u^tt, iibergefe^t 
to ferry 

nnterl^alten, l^ieft nnter, nnters 
gel^alten to hold nnder 

bttrdjfanfen, lief bttrdj, bnri^ge^ 
laufen to run through 



nberfe^en, überfe^te, ttberfe^t 
to translate 

nntetl^aften, nnterl^ieft, nniets 
l^aften to entertain 

bnri^ taufen, bnri^fief, bnrdjfau^ 
fen to peruse hastily 



210 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [517^18 

Separable Compounds more often express the original meau- 
ing of the two parts, inseparable have more often taken on a 
figurative meaning. 



öi7 gitt JJricb^ofiggana 

Seim Zotenqvabex t^odöt e^ an: 
„Tlaäj aul maä) auf, bu greifet Tlannl 

Zu aufi bie Xüv unb nimm hen ©taB, 
äßnfet^ aeigen mir ein teurem @rab!' 



)n 



5 ein grember^ \pxiä:jV^ mit ftrut)t)'gem 93art, 

aSerbrannt unb raul^ «ad) Stiegerart. 

„3Bie l^eifet ber SCeure,^ ber Qnä]^ ftarb 
Unb fid) ein ^füf)I bei mir ertDarb?" 

,,S)ie äßutter ift e§, fennt S^r nid&t 
10 5Der mavtf^a ©olin me^r am ®eficf)t?" 

„$ilf^ ©Ott, tüie grofe, tüie Braun gebrannt! 
§ätt'^ nun unb nimmer ©ud^ erfannt. 

2)ocf) fommt unb felit! $ier ift ber Ort, 
9?adE) bem gefragt^ mid) Euer SBort; 



518 Mtt Ottf tllc ^ttt— prose order would be in hie Sttt ttltf . 

^mttgt = hn ttttt^t. 

'diu Stewbet— note the Substantive useof the adjective frrmb. 
* ßttdS — ethical dative, cf. App. 143. btt and l|r are used inter- 
cliangeably — not uncommon in dialectic and poetle usage. 

'^I^ilf @att for @ott IJelfe, the pres. subj. of pleading or prayer. 

^I^iitt' — what subj.? what is omitted? See App. 192. 

^ gefragt— observe irregulär (poetle) order. What Is omitted? 



519-520] 



15 



20 



COMPOUND VERBS 

§ter tDol^nt, berl^üllt bon @rb' unb ©tein, 
9?un eu€r toteö aKütterlcin." 

5Da ftel&t ber Srieger lang unb fdött^etgt, 
5Ca^ $au^3t Iiinob aur 33ruft geneigt. 

©r fielet unb ftarrt gum teuren &vab 
Tlit tränenfeud^tem 93ItcI l^inab; 

S)ann fdjüttelt er fein §aut)t unb f^jrid&t: 
„^^v irrt; l^ier tDol^^t bie ^ote nid^t. 

aSie f(f)Iöff*^ ein 9?aum, fo eng unb Hein, 
SDie Siebe einer SKutter ein?" 



211 



519 



Vkrbs 



toopen 


auftun 


tat auf 


aufgetan 


to procure 


ertocrben 


ertoarb 


ertoorben 


to knock 


anpo6)tn 


^od^te an 


angepod^t 


toopen 


aufmad^cn 


ntad^te auf 


aufgemad^t 


to buru up 


öerbrennen 


Verbrannte 


verbrannt 


to recognize 


erlennen 


erfannte 


erfannt 


tohide 


öer^üHen 


tjer^üHte 


tjerpUt 


%xedV™ l^inabftarren 


ftarrte l^inab 


l^inabgcftarrt 


to shut in 


einfteigen 


ftteg ein 


cingeftiegen 


520 




EXERCISES 





I. aSa^ Verlangte ber grembe bon bcm Totengräber? aBa§ 
h^oßte ber 2;otengräber tDiffen? SBa^ fagte ilim ber grembe? 
aSarum I)ätte ber ^Totengräber hen gremben nidE)t erfennen lönnen, 
tvenn berfelbe feinen ^ftamen nidE)t genannt Iiätte? 

IL ©€feen ©ie SSerfe 7, 8, 11, 12 in inbirefte ^ebe um! 



® fdjlüffe— dubitative subj. See App. 192. 



212 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [621 

LESSON 63 

INFINITIVES 

52 1 The main uses of the Infinitive have been obseryed 
iiicidentally in the preceding reading lessons. They fall under 
three main groups: 

I. Part of the verb, 

II. To modify noans or adjectives. 

III. Substantive (when the Infinitive takes the place of a 
nonn or a clause). The German Infinitive is a verbal noun. 
As such it translates sometimes the English infinitive, some- 
times the English present participle. 

Ex. — To be or not to be = ®eitt ober 9tid|t{eiti. 

Walking is wholesome = SaS ®el§en ift gefttttb. 

I. As part of the verb it is used (without ju) in forming 

{(i) The futuro tenses. 

{h) The conditional mode. 

(c) The complement of modal auxiliaries and a few verbs of 
similar construction. 

Examples 

(ß) Future— 3ci^ tocrbc auSgei^en. 

{h) Conditional — @r tüürbc eS tun, Xotxvx er lönnte. 

(c) Modais — @ie totU nid^t f^rei^en. 

Verbs like the modals— Sa^t mxä) gelten! 

II. With nouns and adjectives the Infinitive always takes ju : 

gg ift fd^njer, bag ju tun. 
3)ie Äunft gut ju lef en ift fetten. 
The art of reading well is rare. 



522-523] INFINITIVES 213 

III. As a Substantive, the Infinitive is used either with or 
without jtt. When used for a clause, it always has jtt« 

Ex.—{a) 3)cutfci^ lefeti ift leidster afö 3)cutfd^ f^ted|en. 
Or gut %t\xi\i^ jtt lefeti ift nid^t jo fel^r teid^t 

(h) @ic gcl^t in bcn ©arten, um Slumcn 5U fifittifen (= bamh 
fic SStumen ^flürfe). 

For complete statement, see App. 205-213. 

522 '^ 2)tc beutfr^Ctt Stäbtc 

9ln ber ^fte bcr Sßorb« unb ber ßftfce,^ an ben m8d)tigcn 
©trömen unb an bcn Iieblid)en Slüffcn, bie in festere münben, 
finbet man grofee $anbel^>ftäbte, gefd^äftige ©ctoerböftäbte \xk\\^ 
rciacnbe oltertümlidic Ortfd)Qftcn liegen.^ SSicIc bcrfclben 
6 laffen fidö bi§ 3u mittelolterlid^en Sitten ä^urüdffüfircn,^ unb 
loffen an il^rem 93auftil unb an bielen ©inrid)tungen bie 6nt- 
tüidtlung bcr Sal)rf)wnbcrtc crfenncn.^ 

®in großer Untcrfd^icb ift ju bcmcrfcn 3tDifd)en bcn $an« 

bcBftäbtcn be§ 9torbenö (93rcmen, ßübedE unb $amburg^), bie 

10 burdf) iliren Umgang mit ©nglanb unb bcn anbcren benadf)* 

Barten fiönbcrn ettDa§ ^o§mot)oIitifd)e§ an fid) l^abcn, unb 

bcnen be§ ®üben§, bie ein cinl)eitlid)ere§ Slu^fel^cn l^abcn. 

Serlin, bie $au^3tftabt be§ Saiferreid^eö, ift eine ber gröfe» 

ten SBcItftöbte. SDa§ rafd)e Slntoadifen ber ©intüol^neräalÖI, ha^ 

15 fd)neHe aSergröfeern be§ SofalbcäirB imb ha^ rege aScrfcI)r§» 

523 ^ 9torb0 Ittlb C^fee — ^note the manner of placing the hyphen to 
form a double Compound — in English we say the North Sea and the 
Baltic. 

^ matt f Ittbrt .... Uegetl = are. See App. 205 and 220. 

Maffeit {Idl Sttrftlffttl|rett = can be traced back. See App. 220. 

* loffetl erfettttett = show. See App. 212. 

<^^o liegen biefe ©tobte? 



214 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [584-526 

toefcn erinnern an bie itjeftlidöen ®täbte bcr ^Bereinigten ©tao» 
ten 9?orbQmerifQ§. SRitten in ber ©tobt ift ba^ Söniglidie 
©d&Iofe aw fel^en^ — ein mäd^tiger SBau, ber ungef äl&r 700 ©Sie 
unb 3intmer umfdiliefeen foß.^ 25ort nimmt bie Berül^inte 

20 ©trafee, „Unter ben Sinben", il^rcn Slnfang; fie crftredtt fid} bon 
bem mäd^tigen 2)enfmal S^icbrid&S be§ ©rofeen ungefäl^r eine 
cnglifd^e SWeile toeftlidE) unb enbet am „SranbenBurger Xot," 
S)iefe§ ift eine§ ber fd^önften ^nftn^erfe a3erlin§. 2)ie barauf 
fidE) Befinbenbe Statue tourbe 1806 bon 9?apoIeon naä) Jßari^ 

26 gefül^rt, aBer 1814, Befonberg burdE) a3IüdE)er§^ ©infdöreiten, 

toieber gurüdEgeBradEit. 

((Schluß folgt) 

524 Verbs 

to grow ontoad^fcn, tontS)^ an, angc^ to interfere einfd^reiten, fd^ritt ein, 

toad^fcn eingefd^ritten 

toempty ntünbcn (w) to recognize crf ennen (w) 
to increase bergrö^cm (w) 

525 EXERCISE 

Translate: 1. Älong the coast of the Baltic Sea are 
situated many busy commercial eitles and many large indus- 
trial eitles. 2. Mighty streams and large towns are to be found 
in Germany. 3. The customs of the people and the style of 
architecture of many of these cities can be traced back to 
medieval times. 4. A more nniform appearance can be observed 
in the cities of the south than in the northern (ones). 5. A 
rapid growth of population and a great increase in area is to 
be observed in Berlin, the capital of Germany. 6. The capital 

•ift. . . Jtt fcim. See App. 212. 
^ tt1tlfli|Ue(en foll = is said to contain. See App. 242. 
^ 8(älliet — the Prussian general in the Battle of Waterloa 



687-628] INFINITIVES 215 

of the empire is said to resemble the large eitles of western 
America. 7. By the intervention of Blücher, the splendid 
work of art was brought back to Germany in 1814. 

LESSON 6Ji. 

527 Sie betttfdien Stäble 

3)ic füblidien ©tobte tragen im gonsen ein einl^eitlicfiereg 
®et)rQge, inbem fie weniger ben auSIanbifdEjen Einflüffen^ au^* 
gefegt tcaren, aB bie, bie ber Mfte^ näi)er liegen. 

aKünd)en, bie ^Qu^^tftabt be§ Sönigreid^g a3at)ern, ift bor 
6 allem bie ©tabt ber ^iinftler. ©§ mögen^ ia tooiji einige 
^ai^fenb^ Siinftler (SKaler, 33ilbl)auer, Snt)ferftedE)er u. a.^) 
tDol&nen. $räd)tige ^irdfien unb ^aläfte, I)errlicf)e 35enfmäler 
unb grofee äWufeen finb ha au finben. S!önig SubtDig I. l^at 
bie gröfeten ©ummen auSgegeBen, um SKündEien gur erften 
10 ^nftftätte ®eutf(f)Ianb§ äu mad^en. 

Slnftatt eine Sünftlerftabt äu l^eifeen,^ tDie SWündien, l&at 
Sfug^burg am Sed^ jeit "^a^ti^VixAtxitn h^n 9?amen einer ber 
größten §anbeBftäbte ©übbeutf(f)Ianb§. Snt Söl&re 1500 tDar 
Slug^burg burdf) feinen SSerfel^r mit Stauen bie Berül^mtefte 
15 unb t)rä(f)tigfte ber ^anbeBftäbte, unb niemanb Bereifte 
®eutfdE)Ianb, ol^ne biefen 3KitteIt)unft be§ §anbel§ au Befid)- 
tigen,^ 



^ bm anMittbifftttt ©Ittflitffttt— dat. with adj. See App. 146. 
^ mäoetl — expresses possibility. See App. 234. 
' tittifit Xanfttlb = some thousands. Observe the Singular form. 

^ n. a. = ViXL^ anbtre. 

^ anflatt • . • . jU jeiften = Instead of belng ealled. ol^ite. ... liff{d|ti0nt= 
without visiting. See App. 217. 



216 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [529-530 

Sm fübtüeftltd)cn SSeile öon 3)eutfdölanb ift bic hetüf)mte 
©tabt ©trofeburg 3U finben. $ler liegt ber toeltbefanntc 
20 ©trafeburger SRünfter, ber toeit über boB ganae ßanb fd^aut, 
unb ber ein Qu^geaeid^neteS SSeifpiel ber Qltbeutfdöen (fogettQnnt 
gotifd}en) Sauart bietet. 2ludö fann tnan l&ier bie toun* 
berbore Ul^r bcfidE)tigen, bcren SQuen einem SKenjcfien ba^ 
üeien gefoftet I)aben foll. 

529 EXERCISE 

Translate: 1. In order to make Munich the greatest art 
center of the world, King Ludwig I. expended vaat sums of 
money. 2. Without having seen the southern cities one does 
not know the heauty of German art. 3. Augsburg was known 
for centuries as a commercial city. 4. In Munich were to be 
found great museums and splendid statues, 5. The building 
of the Strassburg clock is said to have cost a man's life. 
6. The southern cities are less exposed to foreign influence; 
therefore they are more uniform in their style of architecture 
and in the customs of the people. 

LESSON 65 

PARTICIPLES 

530 As the infinitive is the verbal neun, so the participle is the 
verbal adjective in German. As such it conforms to every rule 
of adjective declension. It usually cannot be compared, and it 
may have its object or adverbial modifiers with it. These are 
always placed first. (See App. 214-217.) 

The present participle is active in meaning: 2)te boö ^inb 
rufcnbe SKnttcr, the mother who is calling her child. 

The perfect participle is passive: S)aS öon jeiner SRutter 
gerufene ffiinb, the child that is called by its mother. 



5Bl-ü82] PARTiClPLES 217 

53 1 ^ie beutf(^e @cf(^i(^te 

®ie ältefte unB befanntc^ @cfcf|id)te ®cutfd)Ianb§ finbet 
fid)2 in ber „©ermania" beö 2xicitu§ (gefc^rieben im Söl)J^e 
98 n. El^r.^). Zacitn^, bcr ein genau beobod^tenber 93efud)cr 
in 2)eulfd)Ianb tüax, berid)tet öon ben einfädln ©itten, bem 
ß ta^jferen Tlnt, ber tüunberboren Staft ber S)eutfci|en. ©eit ber 
3eit Eäfor^ toaren bie S5eutfd)en in 93erü]örung mit ben ilincn 
überlegenen SRömern^ gefommen, oijm ftd^ jebod^ unterjochen 
3u laffen.^ 

Sm Sö^i^e 9 ti. El&r. I^attc ber fluge unb befonnene $er- 
10 mann ben f ülincn ober leidet berfül^rten aSaru§ im S^eutoburger 
SBalbe gefdE)lQgen. 

S)a§ nädilte au beridfitenbe^ Ereignis ift bie fogeuQnnte SBöI- 
lerlDanberung — biefer mä^tige 3w9 öon Sßorben nad) 
©üben, tDoran gange aSoIferftämme teilnal^nten. SJiefer mädj* 
1» tige, nie gang crflärte 3wg in bie grcmbe bauertc ungefähr 
tn)m bierten bi§ gum fedt)ften Sal^rl^unbert unb beränbertc bie 
ganäc biSl^er bcfter)enbc Sage*^ ber europäifdien SBöIfer. 

3u einem aufommengefügten SSoIfc mürbe SJeutfd^Ianb erft 
n)ieber burdö bie ©rlöebung Statin bc§ Orofeen, ber im ^at)vo 
20 800 n. ßl^r. Saifer be§ berül^mten ^eiligen SRömifdien 9lcid)e§ 
rt)urbe. 35od^ balb nad) feinem tief betrauerten 2;obe gerfiel ba§ 
öon il^m Vereinte fianb unter ben unbermögenben $änben feiner 
fd^tDäd)Iidöen ^lad^fommen. 

(8d|!u6 folgt) 



532 ' tttti^ kefamite = known to us. 

^ finlltt fidl = 18 found. See App. 220o. 

*ii. (Il|r.=iia« etHüo (A.D.) Cf. II. ddr. (B.C ) 

*brtt IJttett tttAt^tntn MmtXn = the Romans, who were superior 
to them. 

'See App. 217 and 280b. 

* gtt btrl4ttllbe = to l« related. 

^Ütdtrr bfftellfttbe Saoe = the Situation as it bad existed previously. 



218 ELEMENTS OF GERM AN [5d8-53o 

533 EXERCISE 

Translate: 1. The oldest extant* German history is found 
in the "Germania" of Tacitus. 2. Tacitus was a keenly 
observant visitor in the Germany hnown to the Romans. 
3. By him the bravery and simple eustoms of the Germans 
were made known to the Bomans. 4. The Bomans, who were 
superior to the GermanSj were not able to defeat them. 5. 
Varus, bold but easily misledy was defeated by Hermann in the 
year 9 A. D. 6. Whole families, including meriy women, and 
childrenj took part in the Tribal Migrations. 7. This migra- 
tion, never quite explained^ lasted for two centuries. 8. Not 
until (erft jur) the time of Charles the Great did the Germans 
become a united people again. 9. His death, mourned deeply 
by all^ caused (Ue^) the land that had just been united to fall 
to pieces. 

LE8S0N 66 
534 Sie betttf^e @efditdite 

((Schlug) 

@rft mit bem @mt)orfommen^ be^ ^olöenftaufifdöcn^ ^atfer* 

IjQufeg (1138 Bi^ 1254) feierte ber berloren gegangene^ Olana 

tDenigftenö auf eine SBeile aurüdE. 2)od& tourbe burd^ Me 

^euaaüge unb bie Sämt)fe atüifcfien ben ^atfern unb htn ^q\>- 

5 [ten bte Sroft b€§ ßanbeS erfcf)öt)ft. 

25te näd^fte grofee @}30ci)e, bie man in a3etradE)t sielten foH, 



* Translate all italicized expressions by participles. 
535 ' @rfi — @iti))or!ommen = not until the rise. 

^ |^Ol|tttfiattfifii^en— note adjective formation from the stem f^o|f1t< 
fiaitf(etl) — ^the name of a Castle in Swabia, from which this imperial 
family came. 

'bev titrlotm gedattgeite @Ian3 = the ^ost glory. Note thetautolog- 

ical expression Herlorm (|f)ett = to become lost, i.e. to be lost. 



Ö30] PARTICIPLES 219 

tft ba^ fe(f)ael)nte ^aijt^nnheü, mit ber alte ©itten unb tau- 
fenbiäiirigc ®inrtd)tungen umftüraenbcn Sieformation. 

SBieber tourbe ber erft* eroberte ©lang gebämpft. €I)ne fid^ 

10 boH aufleben äu f önnen,^ tourbe bie neu ertoorbene Sraft burd) 
ben fürdE)terIidE)en SDreifeigiäl^riöen Srieg (1618 — 1648) 
erfd&öpft, toobei Sanb unb ßeute foft äu @runbe gingen.^ 

^aäj ber lefetgenannten ^ataftro^jl&e fam ha^ t)reu6ifd)e 
^önigreid), ba^ ft)äter ganj 3)eutfd)Ianb aur 33Iüte berl^elfen 

15 foQte,^ langfam in bie ^öl^e.^ 35er erfte Berül^mte unb toal^r* 
I)aft grofee ©t^rofe biefe§ $auf€^ tüar jener ^rfürft SriebridEj 
aßilfielm bon Sranbenburg (1620—1688), bon beffen evpvöb- 
tcr (Strenge unb 5ßfli(f)ttreue toir in ber ©efd&idöte bom ^ßringen 
bon $omburg gelefen l^aben. 

20 ©ein bircfter SRadEifomme toar jener gnebridi, ber am 
beften beäeidE)n€t toirb burd) ben Slamen, ben if)m fein aSoIf 
gegeben, „ber alte grife". 5Diefer berl^alf bem lange gebemü« 
tigten SBoIfe guerft toieber au ©ieg unb ©l&re, ba er bie ftolacn 
Slrmeen SubtüigS XV f(f)Iug (©djlacijt Bei Jftofebad) in ©ad&fen, 

25 1757) in bem toolilbefannten bon 1756 bi§ 1763 bauernben 
©icbeniäl^rigen Kriege. 

9?o(f) eine bemütigenbe ©pod^e l^atte 2)eutfd)Ianb burdÖ3w* 
madöcn. 5Die UnterbrüdEungen be§ ftegenben 9?at)oIeon§, a^^i' 
fd)en 1795 unb 1813, brad)ten ba^ ßanb an ben SRanb be§ SBer» 

30 bcrben^. Sie berlöängni^bolle Stieberlage aw S^na (1805) 
brol^te ben gänaIidE)en Untergang. S)odf) langfam em|)orftrebenb 
crI)oB e§ fid) nad) ber ©efangennal^nxe be§ UnterbrüdCer^ au in- 

536 * etfl — translate newly. 

* o^ite . . . . gtt fiiitnen. See 528, 5. 

• Jlt ^ntttbt dingen = perished. 
^ Mit = was destined. 

^ in bie Pi^t = to the front. 



220 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 

buftrießer unb polttifd^er ©röfee, um fdöltefelid^ in bem bent\ctj* 
franaöfifd^en Stiege (1870 — 1871) 3U betoetfen, ba^ e§ ani^ 

36 fremben 3WQdE)ten getoad^fen ift.^ 3>er ©ieg bei ©eban (1870) 
rnaäjte bie obengenannte Sßieberloge bei ^ena (1805) toieber 
gut. 3ßit ber barouffolgenben fitönung be§ beutfdjen Süifer^ 
SBil^cImg 1 3U »crfaiHc^ im Sal&rc 1871 toar ha^ burdf) So^r* 
l^unberte geteilte beutfd^e 2anb äu einem dereinten 2)eutf(i)Ianb 

40 erflärt. SBie unfer $eimatlanb, fud)t e§ je^t feine ©tärfe in 
feiner @inl)eit unb bem frieblici)en EnttDidEeln feiner Stäfte. 

3ur Seit bcg eben genannten föricge^ tourbc bad int ^dffvt 1840 
gejd^riebene ©ebid^t ^3)ie SBad^t am Sll^ein'' oft nnb begeiftert 
gefangen. 3)iefed fel^r beliebte beutfd^e Sieb lautet: 

Sie ^adtt am 9l$ctn 

e§ brauft ein Stuftoie 3)onnerI)aII, 
SEBie ©d)n)ertgenirr unb SBogenl^raH : 
„S^m SRl^ein, äum Sil^ein, äum beutf(i)en 3ll)ein! 
aSer loia be§ ©tromeS ^üter fein?" 
6 Sieb aSaterlanb, magft rul^iö f^in : 

geft ftefit unb treu bie SBadjt, bie SBad)t am SREiein ! 

SDurcf) $unberttaufenb m^ e§ fd)neH, 
Unb aller äugen bli^en l^ett: 
S)er beutfd^ Süngling, fromm unb ftarf, 
10 $8ef(f)irmt bie Iieirge fianbe^marf. 

Sieb aSaterlanb ac. 

®r blidtt ]&inauf in $immel§au'n, 
aSo $elbengeifter nieberfd^au'n, 
Unb fdjtoört mit ftolaer Samt)f eSluft : 
16 ,S)u, SRl^ein, bleibft beutfdE), toie meine 35ruft!" 

Sieb aSaterlanb zc. 

« fremllfn 9ta4teit gettiadif en = able to cope with f oreign po wers. 



537-538] 



PARTICIPLES 



22 



20 



25 



„©oIoTtö' ein Siropfen 93Iut nod) glül^t, 
9?o(f) eine gauft ben 'S)eQen äiel^t/ 
Unb nodö ein 3Irm bic Süd^fe f^^annt, 
betritt fein geinb l^ier beinen ©tranbl" 
Sieb SSaterlanb 2c. 

S)er ©d^tour ex^ä^aUt, bic SBoge rinnt, 

Die Salinen flattern ^oij im SBtnb: 

„3wm SRl^ein, äum 9ll)ein, äum beutfdöen SRI^ein! 

aSir alle tüollen $üter fein!" 

. Sieb SBaterlanb 2c. 

9Ra| 6il|neileitlittr0er. 



537 



Verbs 



torise 


cm^orfontmen 


to gain 


ertoerbcn 


to asslst 


üer^elfen 


to raise 


ergeben 


toprove 


betoeifeu 


to swear 


fd^tüöreu 


to set foot OS 


L betreten 


toflow 


rinnen 



to exhaust erfci^ö|)f en 

to overthrow untftÜr Jen 

to conquer erobem 
toextinguish bSntf)fen 



to live f reely 


fid^ aufleben 


tötest 


erproben 


to deslgnate 


bejeid^nen 


to humble 


bemütigen 


to strlve 


enH)orftreben 


to resound 


braufen 


to thriU 


Juden 


to flash 


btifeen 


to Protect 


befd^irmen 


to glow 


glül^en 


tohold 


f))annen 


to resound 


erfd^oBen 


to flutter 


flattern 



2. 



3. 



EXERCISES 

I. 1. Säl^Ien ®ie bie obengenannten epod&en ber beutfdöen 

® efd^id)te auf ! ' 

5Renncn ®ie bie berül^mten SKänner ber bentfdE)en @efdf)id)tc 

unb fagen Sie, tüe^tüegen ieber berül^mt toar! 

erjälilen ©ie etn)a§ bon iebem ber oben genannten .Kriege! 



222 ELEMENTS OF GERMAN [589-540 

4. SBie l^ctfet baS berül^mte beutfd^e Sieb? SBann tnurbc cö ge» 
f daneben? SBann ift c§ tüteber btcl öefungen toorbcn? 

5. ©efeen ©ie bie fünfte 3<^ile wnb bte fecfjfte 3etle in h^n Snt- 
-perotit) um! 

II. Translate: 1. Before Germany was able to recover, the 
land was exhausted by a new war. 2. The exhausted conntry 
was humiliated by the proud conqueror. 3. The reformation 
which revolutionized many old customs occurred in the six- 
teenth Century. 4. The Prussian Eingdom was destined to 
raise the humiliated country. 5. The Watch on tne Rhine 
is of ten sung by Germans. 

LES80N 67 

539 GRAMMAR REVIEW 

1. Imperative— See App. 200-204. 

2. Compound Verbs — See App. 80. 

3. Infinitives— See App. 205-213. 

4. Participles— See App. 214-217. 

540 REVIEW EXERCISES 

1. 1. Let the Bhine be the boundary of united Germany! 

2. Go, German youths, and fight for your native land ! 

3. Look at the beautiful cities, with their famous works of 
art. 

4. Without having seen the art of south Germany, one has 
not seen the country. 

5. The often praised scenery of the Bhine is said to be the 
most romantic in the world. 

II. 1. S3cf d^reibcn Sie bie fübbeutf d^en ©täbte I 

2. ©e^en Sie „®ie SBad^t am 8t^ein" in Jßrofa um ! 

3. Sernen ©ie "2)ie SBad^t am SR^eiu" au^lpenbig! 



APPENDIX 



GERMAN ALPHABET 



» 5^ 6 ^ bay 




g; X, C .„-^ tsay 



@ ^ t -^5^ ay 



3 .y^ f / 





§ ^ 1| ^ Lull h 




eff 



a 



day (l 



® ^ 9 -^ gay g 



3 ^ l 

Ä ^:::;^ i ^ kah k 

8 ^^ \ ^ eil 1 

®l ^%^ "• -:^^^^ emiu 111 

O ^ ^<5^ oh o 



824 



GERMAN ALPHABET 226 



? ^ * ^ 






pay 



Cl ^ H -^ koo q 



ess 6 



^ t V tay t 



tt .-^^ 00 u 






8» ^^ » "^^ 



vay w 



% yy^ ^ -'-**?-^ ipsilon 



3 ^ } ^ tset z 

MODiriBD VOWBU3 (ttittUttte) DIPHTHONGS 



" ^^ I ^ — ff <^ 



For the pronunciatlon of modifled a|j fy^J* fti ^^^^^^^^ 

vowelsanddiphthougs.se^App.^-!. tll lyiyf^ »* ^^X^c^'^^ 



22^ 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 




CJOMPOUND CONSONANTS 






'/ 



APPENDIX 

The foUowing Statement of the essential facts of Grerman Gram- 
mar falls under the heads (a) of Inflections, (h) of Syntax. Bare 
usages, poetic forms, and complicated constructions have not been 
treated, as this Appendix purports to be, not a complete reference 
grammar, but a concise statement of those facts which are basic in 
their nature and which should be committed to memory by every 
Student of German. 

Inflections which resemble each other, as definite article and 
demonstrative pronoun, indefinite article and possessive pronoun, etc., 
are placed side by side. Wherever actual usage differs from tradi- 
tional forms (as found in most grammars) the former is given prefer- 
ence. This is especially noticeable in the inflections of the subjunctive. 

FEONUNCIATIOir 

VOWELS 

Qnantity 

I Vowels are long and short. Gare must be taken to distinguish 
quantity. Long vowels are drawn out to greater length than in Eng- 
ilsh, Short vowels are more decidedly clipped. 

A few rules can be given for the quantity of vowels, but in most 
cases the student must rely upon the authority of the teacher or the 
dictionary, and must endeavor to train his ear to the correct sound. 

(a) Vowels are always long 

[1] when doubled— ^aar, ERcct; 
[2] when foUowed by silent | — ^Ci\^x, mel^t; 
[3] i when followed by silent e— l^ier, lieb« 

227 



228 APPENDIX 

(6) Vowels are alwaya short when followed by a double oonso- 
nant — f oücn^ ^acf en. 

(c) Stressed vowels are generally long in an open syllable, i. e. 
one that does not end in a consonant (remember that a 
Single consonant always goes with the foUowing vowel in syl- 
lable division) — hü, f)ü^hen, le^gen. 

(d) Stressed vowels are generally short in a closed syllable — t>ü^, 
^pttlinq, totQ (before t, m, and tt in the pronouns, the vowel is 
long though the syllable is closed, hti, tx, htm, ben). 

(e) Unstressed vowels are gcneraUy short — bin, mit, ^d'nig, tlblrt. 
(/) Diphthongs are long, 

quaUty 

2 Vowels are termed front or hack-vowds, aocording as they are 
articulated in the front part of the mouth (the hard palate), with 
the tongue pushed forward, or in the hack part of the mouth (the 
soft palate), with the tongue dravm hack. A fundamental difference 
between German and English lies in the fact that German abounds in 
hack vowels, and that such front vowels as exist are pronounced very 
decidedly in the front of the mouth, with the tongue pushed far for- 
ward, whereas in English, the tongue is more fiaccid and the vowel 
much more neutral. The effect upon German vowels is to make them 
much fuller, clearer, and more sonorous than the corresponding Eng- 
lish Sounds. 

3 It is impossible to present through the eye an adequate idea of 
the Sounds that make up a foreign tongue. An approximation is here 
attempted, but it must be used with great caution. 

Long Towels 

4 Long Vowels resemble the sounds that we give to Latin long 
vowels according to the so-called "Roman pronunciation.'* Remem- 
ber always to articulate the vowels clearly, keeping the tongue more 
tense and the lips more active than in English. 

a resembles a in art 
e resembles e in eight 
i resembles i in pique 
resembles o in slow 
U resembles oo in swoon 



APPENDIX 229 

Short Yowels 

5 The Short vowels resemble the long ones in quality but are clipped 

very Short. . ^-x, . , 

a resembles a in artincial 

e resembles e in yellow 

i resembles i in tin 

has no equivalent in English. Very muoh 

like Grerman long shortened. Not at all like English ö. 

u resembles u in put. 

Diphthong 

6 Diphthong is the combining of two vowels to form one sound. 
There are three of these in Grerman: 

ai and ei resemble i in bind 
QU resembles ow in how 

eu (au) resembles oy in hoy (with greater stress 
on second part of diphthong). 
All diphthongs are long. 

Umlaut 

7 Umlaut is the fronting of a vowel produced by anticipation of 
the front vowel i in the following syllable. The mind visualizes the 
whole of a long word before a single syllable of it is uttered. If a 
later syllable contains something remarkable, the fact is apt to so 
attract the attention, that the tongue involuntarily seeks to form the 
required sound before the right time. This may lead to a decided 
modification of sounds by anticipation. 

A front vowel immediately following a back vowel naturally 
attracts the attention. The vowel nearest the front of the mouth is i 
If, therefore, an i is anticipated in a word, all preceding vowels are 
drawn forward to meet it. For this reason 

a becomes ö 

becomes ö 

u becomes ü 

QU becomes öu 

8 Observe that these vowels remain modified after the i sound that 
caused the change has disappeared, hence the prevalence in modern 
Gterman of umlaut without visible cause. These sounds have no 
exact counterpart in English (except Qtt which, like eit, is pronounced 
like oy in English). Hence they must be leamed by continuous 
practice. A few helpful suggestions may, however, be given. 

a — very much like German c Ovs in they) 

ö — round the lips as though to whistle and articulate German e 

Ü — round the lips as though to whistle and articulate German i 



230 APPENDIX 

CONSONANTS 

9 With a few ezoeptions, German oonsonants are pronounced as in 
English, only with more vigor. The Ups are used more f orcibly, the 
glottis is closed more energeticaliy. Especially is this true of finals, 
whioh are rendered with a complete stopping of the breath so as 
to produce a total break between word»— the very opposite of French 
liaison. For this reason the mediale, b, h, are pronounoed like 
t, p, when they are found at the end of a word. 

Illtll is pronoimced like itllt, QU like 0)1, eto. 

10 SPECIAL DEVIATIONS FROM ENGLISH 

(o) 4 — This has two different sounds according to the kind of 
vowel that precedes it. 

1. After the bao- vowels 0, 0, 1^ IUI» it is guttural (far 
back). 

2. After the front vow Is t, \, i, i, i, in, fit, C^ and af ter 

all oonsonants, it is palatal (farther front). 

A practioal hint for pronouncing this difficult sound is as follows: 
Sound the preceding vowel very distinctly, then suddenly bease vocal- 
izing and continue breathing. The right soimd will always follow. 
{Caution — Do not pronounce df like 4. The former is simply R, pro- 
noimced as in Ekiglish bacX?, but more forcibly.) 

ip) % — At the beginning hard as in go. Medially and finally it 
approaches the d| sounds, with the variations noted in (a). 

(c) i resembles y in ^oung. 

(d) H resembles /. 

(e) to resembles English v (but more loosely articulated). 

(/) ffl| resembles sh in 8^uld. 

ig) f — At the beginning like English 2r, medially and finally like 
escaping steam (so also |) In oombination with i, p, it 
approaches fd| (but not quite so forcibly). 

(Ji) ) = f s (this must be caref ully observed, as the English z sound 
is used for initial [ in German). 

(«) ttQ is nasalized as ng in sin^er, never like ng in hunger, ezoept 
in a few proper names. , , 

(i) tiotl (from Latin) pronounoed as though |iim, i.e., tsion. 
(Je) ^9 = x as in f ox. 



APPKNDIX 



231 



SECLEHSIOV 



THE ABTIGLE 



in. 



Deflnfte. 
Indefinite* 



II 



I« Deflnite— (a) Every case has a characteristio ending. 

(b) Like the def . art. are declined the cEemon^ffo- 
tive, relative^ interrogative and indefinite 
pronouns and strong adjectives. 

(c) The def. art and these pronouns are followed 
by the wedk declension of the ad jectire. 



Definite Article 
SiNGüLAB Plural 





m. 


f. 


n. 


m. f. n. 


m. f. n. 


NOM. 


ber 


bie 


bad 


bie 


biefcr biefe biefeg 


Qbn. 


bed 


ber 


bed 


ber 


biefeS tiefer biefrS 


Dat. 


bem 


ber 


bem 


ben 


biefcm biefcr biefem 


Aoo. 


ben 


bie 


bad 


bie 


biefett biefe biefeS 



Demonstrative Pronoun 

Singular Plural 

m. f. n. 

biefe 
biefcr 
biefctt 
biefe 



12 II« Indefinite— (a) Three forms (nom. masc.^ and nom, and 

acc, neut) are uninflected. 

(p) Like the indef. art. are declined the pos- 
sessive pronouns ^d f citt. 

(c) The indef. art. and the poss. pron. are 
followed by mixed adjectives» 





Indefinite Artide 


Possessive Pronoun 




SiNGUTiAR 


Singular 


Plural 




m. f« n. 


m. f. n. 


m. f. n. 


N. 


ein eine ein 


mein meine mein 


meine 


G. 


eines einer eine? 


meines meiner meines 


meiner 


D. 


einem einer einem 


meinem meiner meinem 


meinen 


A. 


einen eine ein 


meinen meine mein 


meine 



232 APPENDIX 

NOÜNS 

GENDER 

13 Aß a rule the gender foUows the natural sex. Ex., bft ^Btoxm, 

We grau, )ia§ ßinb. 

EXOEFTIONS: — (a) All nouns in f|nt and Idtl are neuter, regard- 
less of their meaning: t>a& Wtahd^en, t>a^ ^x&uiein, bad aßannd^en 
(the little man). 

(5) Oooasionally one word forms an ezception, as bad SBeib (the 
woman). 

14 Endings deterviine gender: 

(a) Maao. : er, liilQ, ii^, l(| — bcr ©öder (baker), bcrgrüljlinö (spring), 
bet Sßüterid^ (tyrant), ber ^öftg (cage). 

(5) Fem. : Ir, el, ||flt, Mi, f«aft, iiitt, t* itt, \l iott - bic Partie 
(Company), bie ©öderei (bakery), bie ^reil^it (freedom), 
bie ^anlbarfeit (gratitude), bie greunbfc^aft (friendship), 
bie SBol^nung (dwelling); bie ©lunte (flower), bie ^öd^in 
(woman cook), bie S^rif (lyric poetry), bie ficftion 
(lesson). 

10 But few additional rules can he given. Most nouns must be 
studied with the proper artide tvithout regard to rule. 

(a) Maac. : 1. Names of seasons, months, days of week, ber f^ftül^ 

ling, ber 3<tnuar, ber ^onnerftag. 

2. Monoey Ilabio nomis derived from thestems of ströng 

verbs. ber ^ng (from ge^n=walk). 

(b) Fem. : Names of trees, flowers, most German rivers, bie Sic^e 

(oak), bie ffio\t, bie SBefer; but ber Klein. 

(o) Neut. : Substantive infinitives, and collectives formed with 
prefix ge: baiS ©el^en (seeing), t>a^ Gebirge (themountain 
System). Almost every word ending in iti9 and fal: 
baS ©el^eimnid (secret), bad ©d^idfal (fate). 

16 A few nouns have two genders with difference of meaning 

ber ©anb (volume) ber ©unb (league) 

M ©anb (ribbon) ba§ 93unb (bündle) 

ber 6ee (lake) ber Seil (part) 

bie @ee (sea) ba8 Seil (share) 

^Vct masculines In t ct. S3 c 



APPENDIX 233 

DBCLENBION OF NOUKS 

GENERAL 

f Tf (a) All feminines are uninflected in the Singular. 
(&) All nouns end in tt in the dat. pl. 

18 NUMBER OF DECLENSIONS 

SlNQ. Pl. 

I. Strongr Gen. (e)« l^^^^^ 

II. Weak G. D. A. (r)« All oases \ (r)tt 

III. Mixed Gen. (e)d ( (r)lt 

19 I* Strongr Deelension 

Endinga: Qen. Sing. | 

Plurals — , t, er 

^ 1. Pluralj no ending (umlaut rare) 
ClassesjS. *' r ( *' more f requent) 

(3. " er ( " always) 

Membership: (a) Polysyllabic Masculfnes and Nenters ending In 

t\, tn, er. 

(b) Polysyllabic Neuters ending in Üj^tn, Irin, and r. 

(c) Two Feminines, bie SO^utter and bie %oä)tex, 

Examplea 

(a) (h) 

SiNQ. Pl. Sinq.* Pl. 

NoM. ber ©arten bie hörten* bai» g^autein bie gcäulein 

Gen. bed ©artend ber hörten bed gfräuleind ber fjröulein 

Dat. bent ©arten ben ©arten 'btm gräulein ben gräulein 

Aoc. ben ©arten bie ©arten hcA gtöulein bie gfröulein 

(c) 
Sing. Pl. 

NoM. bie äRutter bie äRütter 

Gen. ber ä^ntter ber SWütter 

Dat. ber SÄutter ben SÄüttent 

Aca bie SU^utter bie ä^Atter 

* A number of nouns in tbis class take the umlaut In the plural. No mle 
can be glven. Observe each noun carefully. 



2ä4 



Al'PENDir 



21 



tlass » I Plurals e 



Meznbership: (a) Monr.syllabie Mascnllnes. 

(&) A few monosyllabic feminines and neuters, as Me 

$anb, bie SSanb, bie fßtam, bie (Stabt, bad ^a^r, bad 

$aar, bad $f erb. 
(c) A few polysyllabio masculines in ig, ing and UttQ 

and neuters in n\i and fal/ ber S^ngling; ber ^önig, 

bai» O^el^eimnid; bad ©c^idtfal. 

ErampZesJ 

Pl. Sing. Fl. 

bie @o^ne bie SBanb bie SBönbct 

ber @ö^ne ber SBanb ber SBönbe 

ben (Bohnen ber SSanb ben SBanbett 

bie @ö^ne bie t&anh bie ^önbe 

The Omission of this t is a 



NOH. 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Aco. 



(a) 
Sing. 

ber ©o^n 
bed ©o^ned 
bem (Sol)n(c)* 



*Monosyllab]es may take an t in the dat. sing, 
matter of euphony. 

tAU feminines and many masculines of thisclass take the umlaut to form 
the Plural. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 

22 



Sing. 
bad S(^i^t 

bed S^^^^^S 
bem 3a^r(e) 
ha» 3a^r 



Fl. 

bie ^Ci^tt 
ber ^a^re 
ben ^a^ren 
bie ga^rc 



Sing. 

ber Jüngling 
bed Jüngling? 
bem ;3üngling 
ben Sii^G^iiiQ 



(c) 




Fl. 

üngltngr 
"ünglinge 

ünglinöcit 
ünglingr 



tlass S j Plurals er 



Membership: (a) Monosyllabic Neuters« 

(f>) A few monosyllabic masculines as ber ^ann, ber 

W^aVt, ber (^eift, ber SBurm. 
(c) Npuns in ttUII (mostly neuter, sometimes masculine). 



(a) 

Sing. 

NoH. bad ^ud 

Gen. bed Saufe? 

Dat. bem ^auf c 

Aco. hai ^aud 

Fl. 

NoM. bie ßäufer* 

Gen. ber Ȋufer 

Dat. ben »auf mt 

Aoo. bie ^öufer 



Examplea 

(P) 

Sing. 

ber SJ^ann 
bed äJ^anneS 
bem Spanne 
ben äJlann 

Fl. 

bie SÄönnet 
ber äRönner 
ben SD^ännem 
bie ajiänner 



(c) 
Sing. 

bad Rittertum 
be? Altertums 
hem Altertum 
bad Altertum 

Fl. 

bie Altertümer 
ber Altertümer 
ben Altertümmt 
bie Altertümer 



* Plurals always have the umlaut if thestemvowel permits. This class oon 
tains no feminines. 



APPENDIX 235 

II« Weak Dedension 

Singular (e)it (ezcept in nom.) 
Plural (t)n 

Mambenhip: (a) Polysyllabic Feminines (except fßbittev, Slod^tet)« 

(5) Some monosyllabic feminines — bie Ul^r, bie grau, 

bie ^rt, bie mi^n, bie »utg, bie ^flid^t, bie @aat. 
(o) Masculines in t, ber ^nabe^ ber ^i^i^d^/ ^^^ ^tte, ber 

diahe, ber ^afe, ber ßöwe, ber §cibe. 
(<2) A limited number of masculines that have IcNst'this 

t, ber SKenfd^, ber ^Ib, ber ^irt, ber gürft, ber ®rof, 

ber $err, ber iflaxt, ber Dd)^, ber 93är, ber Xor,ber ^rin^. 
(e) Masculines of foreign origin with tbe accent on the 

last syllable, as ber @tubent, ber @Ief ant^ ber ^amerab, 

ber SÄuftlant. (Names of living beings.) 
Examplea 
(a) (6) (c) (d) 

SlNQULAR 

NoM. bieSfeber biefjrau ber^nabe berSU^enfci^ 

Gbn. bergeber berf^rau bei^ Knaben bed iDlenfd^eit 

Dat. ber f^eber ber (Jrrau bem Knaben bem SD'^enfd^nt 

Aoa bief^eber biefjrau hen^mhtti ben aJlenfd^eit 

Plural 

Nom. biegfebem biegfraum'^ bie^nabejt bie ajlenfd^nt 

Gen. ber fiebern bergfrauen ber Knaben ber äT^enfc^nt 

Dat. ben Sfebem ben f^rautn ben Knaben ben äJ^enfc^eit 

Aoo. biegfebent biegfraum bießna^nt bieaRenfd^eii 

*The weak nouns never take the umlaut to form the plural. No neuters 
areweak. 

Singular (e) Plural 

Nom. ber ©tubent bie ^tubenteu 

Gen. bed ©tubentm ber @tubenteit 

Dat. bem @tubenten ben Stubenten 

Acc. ben ©tubenten bie ©tubenten 

^er $ecr (the gentleman or the master) takes it to form the G.. 

D., A. Singular and en to form all the cases of the plural. 

ber ßerr bie öerrm 

beS l^errn ber öerrm 

bem ^errn ben Serrnt 

beni&emi bie&enen 



236 APPENDIX 

24 III« Mixed Deelension 

SiNQULAR Strong Gen. Sing. (e)9 
Plural Weak Plural (e)it 

25 Membership: (a) Masculines in e that have becx>nie oontami- 

nated with Strong I., ber &lauhe, hex Partie, hex 

»ud^ftabc* 
(h) Some monosyllabic masculines, ber ©d^mer^, 

ber @ee, ber @taat, ber @tra^I. 
(c) Some neuters, t>a^ ^uge, hai Of^x, bad $ctt, 

bad ^etnb, bad @nbe. 

(a) (&) (c) 

Singular /-w*-.-n 

NoM. ber 92atne(fi) ber@c&mer^ bad^er^ bad^uge 

Gen. he^^amtvA* bed (Sd^meraef bed^er^ntS* bei^^uged 

Dat. bem ^amtn bem ©d^mer^ bem ^er^eil bem ^uge 

Aco. ben Tanten ben @d^mera bad ^ex^ ha^ ^uge 

Plural 

NoM. bie^^omeitt bie ^d^mer^eit bie^eraen bie klugen 

Gen. berißameii ber ©ffimer^ttt ber^er^ot berSCugen 

Dat. ben Flamen ben ©(^merjen benfier^m ben^ugen 

Aoo, bie 9lamen bie Sd^mer^m bie ^er^ot bie Sugeit 

*Note that the oontamlnatlon of these two classea haa produoed in all the 
notms under (a) a genitive in Itl. In the noiin C^ft), the genitive fonn is 
analoglcal with that of (a). 

tNo umlaut in plural; no feminines. 

A few nouns form two plurals with differenoe of meaning: 

bie SBortf &= (connected speech) bie IBänIr « (benches) 

bie 835rter <= (disconneoted words) bie Sanlrit = (banks far money) 

26 proper noüns 

JPlaeeB—Qea. %. 3)ie (Sintoo^ner 93erUnd (the inhabitants of Berlin). 

If the noun ends with §, i, or ( no case ending is afiäxed. The 
relation is expressed by means of a prepodtion — bie ^intoo^ner 
Hon l^ttril. 
Piersons — (a) With the Article—uninfleeted. 

^cr §einridb 
M %tnri(^ 
tiem^cinrid^ 
Hat ^etnrid^ 
^) Without the article— Oenifive in 9 or (e)tt8: ^inrid^ff, 
granjidfo«, Souifcitl, SWarieni, %xii^tnh ^anfwi.* 

*lf the noun ends iat,%,l, or f, (e)nd Is added to form the genltlTe, ia 
aU otber cases only 9. 



APPENDIX 



237 



27 



(b) 

(0) 



28 



PRONOÜNS 

Personal and Beflexive. 

Possessire declined like indefinite artiole. 

Demonstratiye 
Indefinite . . . 
Interrogati?e 
Belatiye .... 

The Personal Prononn 



declined like definite artiolo. 



Singular 
m. 



N. 14 bu 

G. meiner bcincr 

D. mit bir 

A. mid^ bid^ 



f. n. 

er fic c* 
feiner il^rer feiner 
il^m il^r i^m 
il^n fte ed 



Plural 

toir il^r fie(®ie)* 
unfer euer il^rer Ol^rer) 
und euc^ il^nen Qlftiten) 
und eud^ fte (@ie) 



* Used In conventional conversatlon f or 2d pers. sing, and pluraL 



Beflexiyes 



29 



NOH. 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Acc. 



Singular 
m. f. n. 



Plural 
m. f. n. 



mir 
mic^ 



bir 



fi* 



und eu( 
ftd^ und eu( 

30 The other pronouns may be divided into two classee, aooording 

as they foUow the declension of the definite or that of the indtfinite 

artiole (cf. 11 and 12). 

Possessives 

3 1 The possessive pronouns follow the declension of the ind^ 
nite article (cf. 12). 

f. n. 

unf(e)re unfer 

nn (e)rtt un[er(e)« 

unf(e)rtr unfer(e)iii 

unf(e)rc unfer 

* When two unaccented C's occur in sucoessive syllables, one may be omitted. 

32 The possessives are: mein, bein, fein, i^r, unfer, euer. In inflection 
they agree in number, gender, and case with the noun which they 
modify. For the possessive + noun may be substituted: ber, bie, bad 
meinige; ber, bie, bad meine; meiner, meine, meined. The declension of 
tbese forms is given under adjectives (cf. 43 and 44). 

33 Possessive Compounds— Vfith the prepositions Wtfltffi and |tttct 
and itm • • • ioinett (on aocount of , for the sake of) the genitive stem 
and the suffix fi forms a Compound: 

meinettt)eaen, meinetl^alber, um meinettoillen (for my sake). 



NOM. 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Acc. 



m. 

unfer 
un|er(f)d* 
unter(e)m 
unfer(e)ti 



PL. 

unf(e)re 

unf(e)rer 
ttn[er(e)ii 

unf(e)re 



238 



APPENDIX 



34 



BemonstratiTes and Indefinites 



The demonstrative and indefinite monouns are: ber^ biefet^ jeitet, 
felbet, fold^er^ mand^er, ieber, Üebtoeber, ieglid^er, einer. The only deviation 
irom the inflection of the def/nite articie is in btt which has taken on a 
distinctive suffiz m the genitive singular and genitive and dative pluzaL 



Sing. 



The Demonstratiye Pronoun 

PL. Sing. 



N. bie 

O. bie 

D. biefem 

A. bie 



^r *e *ei5 
eä »er *ed 

*et *eiu 
en n *e8 



biefe 



bie 
bie 
bie 



er 
en 
e 



ber bie ha& 

beffe» bereu beffen 

bem ber bem 

t>tn bie bad 



PL. 

bie 
bereit 
benett 
bie 



35 For regulär demonstratives may be substitated berfelbe, ber« 
ienige. In the declension of these Compounds the first part ti^es 
the declension of the articie, the second oi the weak adjective (of. 42). 

''Other indefinites are: jemanb (somebody), jebemtann (everybody), 
niemanb (nobody), man (corresponding to the French <m, not easily 
translated, man fagt^they^ say). These are generally uninflected, 
thou^h they ma^ take (e)d in the genitive (ezcept matt, whioh is used 
only m the nominative, taking eitteitt and rinett in dat. and aoa). 
Ex, —Gen. jiebermannS, niemanbed, iemanbed. 



36 



Relative and Interrogatire 

Relative: tt)eldber, toer, toa^, ber. 
Interrog.: toeld^er? toer? toad? toadfürein? 



SiNO. 

N. toeld^er toeld^e »eld^ed 

G. beffen beren beffen* 

D. toeldbem toeldber tt^eldbem 

A. toelcQen toeld^e toelqed 

Plural 
N. tueld^e 

G. beren 

D. toeldben 

A. toeld^e 



Relative 

Sing. 
m. & f. n. 

n)er toad 
toeffen (»effen) 
n^em toem 
toen toad 

Plural 



Sma. 



ber 


hie 


bad 


beffen 


beren 


beffen 


bem 


ber 


bem 


ben 


bie 


bod 



PLUBAIi 

bie 
beren 
benen 
bie 

. *The genitive of the relative toeld^er is not used; the genitive of the relative 
Her has taken its place. For other deviations from inflection of dtf. ort. ct. 34. 

Interrogative 



37 

NOM. 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Aco. 

NOM 

Gen. 

Dat. 
AOO. 



Sing. 
tocldier ^e *e8 
»clffie« *er *eS 
toeldbem ''er *em 
toelc^ett *c *eg 
PL. (m. f. n.) 

toelc^er 
njclAett 
toeldde 



toex and toah 
same as rel. 



toaS 
toad 

mad 



WiTHOUT NOUN 

tt^ad für einer t ^t% 
toad für eine§ «er *t% 
toad für einem 'tx «rot 
toad für einett t -^0 

WlTH NOUN 

*ür ritt, eine, ritt 
ür eines, *cr, *c« 
ür einem, ^tt, h 
ür einen. ^. ritt 



APPENDIX 339 

ADJEGTIYES 

r Strongr — when used without article or pronoun. 
8 Declencdons j Weak — af ter deflnite article or pronoun. 

( Mixed — after indefinite article or pronoun. 

30 Strong a^« — ivithout article; declined like definite artiele 

SlNGULAB 

N. guter i^ann gute grau guteS^nb 

O. gutei Wlannei* guter f^rau guteS tinbed* 

* D. 0^^^^^""^ guter grau gutem ^tnbe 

A. guten ä^ann gute Stau guteSßinb 

Plural 
N. gute a)2önner, f^tauen, fiinber 

O. guter äJ^önner, fjrauen, ^inbec 

D. guten 2Sl&nnexn, flauen, ^inbem 

A. gute äRänuer^ grauen, ftinber 

*In gen. sing. maso. and neut. the weak ending (eu) is often used instead of 
eS to avold recurrence of the Sibilant, ^x.— ft^Iet^tett SBafferd. 

40 Weak adj. — after definite article or pronoun (inflectional sjl- 

lables e or en)* 

Singular 

N. ber gute SO'^ann bie gute S^au bad gute ^inb 

G. bed guten Ttanne^ ber guten r^rau bed guten ^inbed 

D. bem guten 9Ranne ber guten fyrau bem guten ^inbe 

A. ben guten ä^ann bie gute ^tan ha^ gute ^tnb 

Plural 

N. bie guten Scanner, ffraueU; ^inber 

O. ber guten SDi^önner, grauen, ^inber 

D. ben guten aKännem. grauen, Äinbem 

A. bie guten SD>^änner, grauen, ^inber 

4 1 Mixed a^J« — after indefinite article and pronoun. (Weak when 

article is inflected, strong when article is not inflected.) 

Singular 

N. ein guter SWann eine gute grau ein gute« Äinb 

O. eined guten 3Jtarme^ einer guten grau eined guten ^inbed 

D. einem guten ^anm einer guten grau einem guten ^inbe 

A. einen guten Ttann eine gute grau ein gute« ^tnb 

Plural 

N. feine guten SJiönner, grauen, Äinber 

Q. leiner guten SJ^änner, grauen, ^inber 

D. leinen guten 972ännern, grauen, ^inbem 

A. teine guten Ttlxnmx, grauen, Sinber 



240 



APPENDIX 



42 The demonstrative Compounds that are composed of bet, bie, hai, 
plus the adj. felb or jenig are declined like weak adjectives. (Not in 
frequent use.) 

SlNOULAR Pl. 



N. 


berjcnigc 


bicjenige 


badjenige 


bieicnigm 


G. 


begjemgett 


berjcnigm 


beSjenige» 


berjenigetl 


D. 


bcmjenigett 


bericnigett 


bemjcnigcii 


benjcnigm 


A. 


beRjenigeti 


bicjenige 


ba^jenige 


biejenigm 



43 1. So also are declined the possessives ^tX, hie» bal Weilte or 
meinide and the indefinite her eilte. 

Singular 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 



ber meine 
bed meinen 
bem meinen 
ben meinen 



bie meinen 
ber meinen 
ben meinen 
bie meinen 



bie meinige 
ber meinigen 
ber meinigen 
bie meinige 

Plural (allgenders) 

bie meinigen 
ber meintgen 
ben meinigen 
bie meinigen 



ha^ eine 
bed einen 
bem einen 
bag eine 



bie einen 
ber einen 
ben einen 
bie einen 



2. Tlanö^ev, welcher, foldjer are occasionally used without the end- 
ing: man^, ttJefd), fold^. In that case the adj. following would have 
the streng ending. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 



Singular 

mand^ guter Ttann 
mand^ guteg(en) SJ^ionneS 
mand^ gutem SO^anne 
mand^ guten Tlann 



Plural 

mand^ gute äJ^onner 
mand^ guter Tlännex 
mand) guten SJiännem 
mand^ gute äJ^anner 



3. The strong declension is also used after a personal pronoun: 
idt armer Tlaxml SBa§ ^ot mon biTJ> bu armel Äinb, getan? 

4. Also after the indeclinable pronouns and numerals: eittIttS» 
nl^tS, allerlei, etc.: etwa« gutes SSaffer; allerlei fd^öne (Sachen; nic^t^ 



APPENDIX 



241 



44 The possessives and the indefinite pronoun rittet when iised 
without preceding article or following noun are inflected like the 
«trong adjective. 





Singular 




N. 


tncinet »r *e8 


einet 


eine eineS 


G. 


tncines *cr *c« 


eine« 


einet eineS 


D. 


tneinctti *er *citi 


einet» 


einet einem 


A. 


tnemrti *e n^ 


einett 


eine cintf^ 




Pl. (all genders) 


(No Plural) 


N. 


tneine 






G. 


tncinrr 






D. 


tneinett 






A. 


meine 










' bct, bie, ba3 meine 






ff ff 


„ meinige 



Thus: This is mine, etc.= 3)a3 ift 



meiner =e ^eS 

mein, bein, fein, unfer, euet 
^ (but never bad ift il^t). 



The pronominal adjectives aOetlei, Dielerlei, mand^erlei^ berief^ 
fo^etlei, aUerl^anb were ori ginall j attributive genitives (as the gen. 
ending et still shows). They are now used as simple, indeclinable 
adjectives or as substantive& Ex.^%Uttl^ ;8eute. ^^ l^abe UieletM 
Stttun* 



45 



1 eind 

2 §tt)ei 
8 brei 
4 t)ier 
6 fünf 

6 fed^d 

7 fteben 

8 ad^t 

9 neun 

10 je^n 

11 elf 

12 hm\\ 



Nnmerals 



18 breijel^n 

14 üier^e^n 

15 fünfjcl^n 

16 fed^sel^n 

17 fiebgel^n 

18 a^t^e^n 

19 neunjelftn 

20 ätoangig 

21 einunb^man^ig 

22 smeiunb^toanjig 
80 breißig 

40 bierjig 



50 fünfäifl 
60 fe^aig 
70 fiebrig 
80 ad^tjig 
90 neunzig 
100 l^unbert 

121 ^unbert einunbjtoanjig 
200 5tt)ei]^unbert 
1,000 taufenb 
1,121 taufenb einl^unbert ein* 

unbaman^ig 
1,000,000 eine SÄiKion 



242 APPENDIX 

40 The oardinal numerals are indeclinable, except fitlS^ whioh, 
when used adjectively, has tbe forma of ein, eint, fitt, the same as the 
indefinite article. (Occasionally gtoei and lirei are found inflected in . 
gen. : 5tDeiet ; and dat. : breifit)- 

47 ^unbert and taufenb m&y be used substantively and are then 
deolined. Ex.—^vaihtttt tuaren ba (Hundreds were there). (£r f^at Sau^ 
fenbtit unred^t getan (He did wrong to thousands). They are then 
deolined like the plural of the definite article (e, er, ftt, e)* 

48 Ordinals 

Ordinals are formed from cardinais by the addition of the suffix 
i to all numbers from 2 to 19 — ber neunael^ntr, and ß from 20 on — 
ber atDanaigße. 

The ordinal of finS is rrfi (ber erfte) 
" brel" Wtt (ber brittc) 



<l (C 



They may be deolined strong, weak, or mized, but can not be uaed 
without an inflection. 

Henry II = ^einrid^ ber S^J^ite 
^einrid^d he^ 8tt)etteit 
^einrid^ bem S^^^tttt 
^einrid^ ben B^^Ueti 

The ordinal adverbsare: erftmi^, itozittnf^, brittettd (first, seoondly, 
tiiirdly, etc.). 

49 ADYEBBS 

Adverbe donot differ in form from adjectives, except that they are 
not dedinable. Often they may be compared like adjectives. 

60 Comparison of Adjectiyes and Adyerbs 

The regulär comparison of adjectives is formed by adding et and 
(C)0 to the stem of the word, and is usually accompanied by umlaut. 



lang 


langer 


längft (ber löngfte^ am löngften) 


groß 


größer 


grögt (g omitted for euphony) 


Iura 


f ür^er 


füraeft 


tttübe 


ntüber 


mübeft 



APPENDIX 



243 



61 Without Umlaut: 

Ilat Harer 

fd^Iau fd^Iauer 

bunfel bunfler 

fro^ fronet 



flarft 
f(i^Iau(e)ft 
bunlelft 
fro^t 



62 Irregrnlar Gomparison 

(a) Change of 1^ and ||| (d^ is used fiually and before oonsonants, % 
is medial) : 

^odü Pier Pdift 
nQ|e nä^er nä^ft 

(5) Change in stem: 

gut beffer beft 

öiel mttß meift 



53 



Declension of Comparatiye and SuperlatiTe 



The Comparative is declined like the 
syllable being added to the er. Ex. — 



Strong 
befferrr äBein 
befieren(cS)SBeincg 
beffercm Sfficinc 
befferett SBein 
befferc SBeine 
bcfjcrcr SBcine 
bcffcrctt SBcincn 
beffere SGSeine 



Weak 
bie fd^önere grau 
ber fd^önerett Stau 
ber fd^önerm %xau 
bie fd^önere 5rou 

bie fd^önerm Stauen 
ber „ „ 

ben ;, „ 

bie „ » 



positive, the inflectional 

Mixed 
ein l^öl^ereS ^auS 
eined l^öl^erm ^aufed 
einem l^öl^erett ^aufe 
ein l^öl^errS ^aui^ 

pi^ere ^öufer 
^ö^ertr ^öufer 
^öi^eren ^öufern 
pl^ere Käufer 



64 The Superlative can be used regularly only with the definite 
artiole, hence is always weak. 

Ex.^htt näd^ftt gfrül^Iing bie näd^^en Srül^Iinge 

bed näd^flm Sfrü^lingd ber nöd^jlttt f^frü^Unge 

bent nöd^fiett f^rül^Ung ben nod^flm Sfrül^Iingen 

ben nöc^ftm grül^ling bie nödd^ett t^^l^Iinge 

55 In the predicate the phrase am — en may be substituted. 

Ex.-^^axl ift ber ftröjte 

or 

tarl ift am ordfitm 

Vm Ord^tett, originally adverbial, can be used only in the predicate^ 
netver attributively. 



244 APPENDIX 

66 Both bet firogte and am gti^tett are relative in meaning, i. a, 
they suggest a comparison with otlier objects of the same class. ^arl 
ift bet ||t9|ie or am OrS^tett means that he is larger than the other boys 
before mentioned. When the Superlative is used to designate merely 
a high degree of the quality, without definite comparison, we Substi- 
tute for the attributive Superlative ait|et{i or l^Sd^fi -f- the positive. 
(Esc— fiittgetß groffe 83öumc toad^fen im ©arten, or p^^ aufienelme Seutc 
toaxtn sugegen.) For the adverbial phrase am Befittt we Substitute attf§ 
(efie, but this can never be used adjectively. {Ex.—^ie fang aitf0 Be^e.) 

Hence we have four forms of the Superlative — 

Relati'oe Absolute 

AUrCbutive ber beftc öugerft (^öd^ft) gut 

Adverbial am beften aufd befte 

Relative 

(&v tft ber befle 8d^üler in ber klaffe (He is the best pupil in the class) 
@r tft am befittt (He is the best) 

Absolute 

dt ift ein att|ttil %nitt ©d^üler (He is an exceedingly good pupil) 
@r ftubiert attfd befie (He studies bis very best) 

Gantion 

It is to be observed that this difference is not so distinctly nsarked 
in English, hence great care must be taken in translation. 

Thus, "A most remar kable man appeared," becomes in Qerman: 

„(gltt ttttjrrfl merftDürbiger Si^ann crfd^ien/ 
But, **The most remarkable man I ever saw," is: 

Set merftti&rbigfte Ttann, ben id^ je gefeiten." 

The English '* She sings best of all," '* She is the best," and "She 

Bings her best " are carefuUy distinguished in German: 

;,(5ie fingt am beften/' 

;,©ie ift bie befte" or „am beften," 

;,(5ie fingt aufg befte/' 

**She sings most delightf uUy " is: 

„(Sie fingt auf§ l^errlid^fte/ 



APPENDIX 245 

67 YERBS 

r Weak — Tense change produced by suffiz te, t 
Two Gonjugations j Strong— *' ** " by vowel altera- 

( tion in stem 

58 PRINCIPAL PARTS op VERB are Pres. Infinitive, Preterite, Perf, 

Participle, 

Weak loben lobte gelobt 
Strong fingen fang gefungen 

(Note that In both conjugations the InfLnltlve ends with tVi suid the parti- 
dple begins with ge.) 

69 There are five modes: indicatiye, subjunctivb, conditional, 

IMPERATIVE, INFINITIVE 



60 There are siz tenses: 

le 



PRESENT jsi^pi^ 



PRETERITE 



PLUraM^CT ( Auxiliaries (aBeit or feltl + perfect participle of verb 

^Ze perfect S ^^^^^^^y ^^^^ + i^fi^i*^-« 

6 f Tense Anxiliaries 

Principal Parts 

l^ben l^atte gel^abt 

fein tüar getoefcn 

n^etben lourbe (marb) geworben 

1. (olitlt is weak, but slightly irregulär in the preterite, the 
stem oonsonant being assimilated to the following t. The same 
irregularity will be found in the 2d and 3d sing. pres. india (btt Ijaff^ 

tt l|at). 

2. mettiett has two forms for the pret. sing. ; tmtrlie is preferable 
in prose. 

8. All three verbs are used as independent verbs, or as auzili- 
aries. As verh8 they have füll infiection in all modes and tenses and 
mean respectively to have, to he, to hecome. 

4. Observe that %tAm (the verb) takes J^aBflt (the auziliary) to 
form the perfect tense, while fein and ttierbeit take fei« (cf . 62). 



8 

t 

I 

m 



Sr 










ft 









B a I 






ai 



B 



Bi5^;E 



Vi 
Mm»« 

g « 

fa ß S B V» 



Ol 



% • 






8 



OQ 

a 

M 

H 

CQ 

H 

o 
o 

M 

H 

-*! 

►» 
\^ 

o 



OQ ^ O TT fS 

I «'S-« ÖS« 

^ a s 1 s s I 

«■5 S a ^Ä 



fi 



o 
ja 

RS ^ 

_- St! s g S 
B aa ^ßB^BB'g 



B ^ 



ft ft 6 ^ 6 



«^ S M 

B p ^ 
Z ^ ö 



o 



B S 



B S. 



s 






B 



fe C: 



«a^ 






z^ ^"" H^ .«-» '«^ j_, lii. ** s rt 



fi 









2 « ö 

Bai 



Ss&i^ *e^g 






« s ** 

M 2i S p Ä 
§ 8 H ^ " 

S B 

B a^Ä 



6 « 



« ft 



** 5 ** **^"fi 

ö C «J -^ H 
^: a ^Bi 



gBBa 
SS S 






1** 




Ä B B a 


ö 


B ^'^ 





8 £i 



t-» 






>^v 

o 
o 



^ «3 SS 

B B g 

Ba^sä 



« ft 



ä ^ 



e^ 



St:« 

M "fr 'S S 



H 5^ »-» M o C >* 

g a a a S f s 
«■5 S as-Ä 



B« 



>8 



§£ 






« 6 « fe 6 

O .4^ SS 

,-** ^ '^ Ja 

g M 'S Äj^ 






S 















t-» 

o 






(4 



t-» 

O « % « ft ft 

fi 

C33 

- - S ^ift 

«i S=- ^ «j fiS 

** £i o Ü ** ** 



•rf ft » fe « % 



» « ft 






w fi 



** ß J 









M 

fi 



t-» 



»* M ^ r^ S S B 




•J2. o "** e 



C iB M >0 <^^ A 

Ö ^ 9 H ü -S 



«j 



o 



SS 



BS 



fe » ft fc 



'^^ 

.O 



^5 









o fi s^iS 




03 ß -« 

>0,OX M^iO EHiO.O 

'l'll Si'l'Slai 

il 

H fi 

g -g -e ^ *§ .g ^ 



ft k ^ 6 ft 



6 K K 6 « 



» « fc 









1| ?sf 



fi 



fi 

O -4-* t^ 

•** T? .•« tS— «I •*- 









>«^ 2? AI 



& 'S M ^ 

r?5 ö 



'S '» .«« 

fi et^ 






«> o o 

kO »O vO 

o ö « 

iO> ^^ ^S3^ 




kO 



» « « 



Q> 



■4 



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248 APPENDIX 

63 Ck)NDinoNAL 

L id) tofitbc l^abcn* ic^ toürbc fein (etc.) 

IL id) XDüxhe gehabt ^aben* i^ tDütbe getoefen fein (eta) 

I. ic^ toürbc tocrben (etc.) 
IL id^ toürbc gctoorben fein (etc.) 

54 Imperatives 

l^obc (bu) fei (bu) toerbc 

^ab(c)t (i^r) feib (i!|r) toerbct (i^r) 

^aben 8ie feien @ie tocrben @ie 

65 iNFINinYES 

Pres. l^oben fein tocrben 

Perf. gel^abt l^abcn getoefen fein gctoorben fein 

66 Pabticiples 

Pres. l^abenb feienb tocrbenb 

Perf. gehabt getoefen gctoorben 

67 üse of Tense ÄuxiUariea 

L ?ii^^" [ form perf ect and pluperfect tenses. 

i forms future and f uture perfect tenaes» 
II. tocrben -< passive voice, 

( conditional mode. 



68 Use of liafeett 

^1. All active transitive verbs. 
(ttÜftt ] 2. All intransitives, except those that ezpress 
\ transition of place or condition. 

69 Bepresentaiive Verbs that taJce frtii 

1. Transition of Place 

abreifen s=s to start on a joumey fliegen = to fly 

aufftcl^en = to get up jliel^cn = to flee 

begegnen = to meet flicken = to flow 

eilen = to hurry (but {{^ clictt folgen = to follow 

takes ^aben) gelten = to go 

erfd^einen = to appear gleiten (audg(eiten)=to glide» to slip 

f al^ren = to ride, to go flimntcn = to climb 

faSen = to fall (but the causative ftettern = to clamber 

f&Om takes l^abcn) f ommen = to come 

*The füll paradigm is: 

i(^ toürbc l^abcn (gehabt l^abcn) toir toürbcn l^aben (gei^abt ^aben) 

bu toürbcft n n M i^t toürbet » » if 

tt toürbe « » • fi^ toürbcn m » n 



APPENDIX :>40 

fricd^en = to orawl fd[)tt)immcn = to swim 

laufen = to run finfen = to sink 

reiten = to ride fipringen = to spring 

rennen = to nin fteigen = to climb 

rinnen = to flow jtürjen = to fall, to dash 

f(^Ieid^en = to creep treten = to step 

fd^reiten = to step »eid^en = to withdraw 

gießen = to wander (but jiel^en = to draw, takes fyihtti) 

70 2. Transition of Condition 

auftoad^en = to wake up (but tüa* gebei^en = to flourish 

d^en takes l^aben) gelingen = to succeed 

einfd^Iafen = to go to sleep (but genefen = to recover 

fii^Iafctt takes l^aben) glüdEen = to succeed 

cntblül^en = to burst into bloom fdjeitem = to fall 

(but Blitl^eit takes l^aben) fd^mel^en = to melt 

entfd^Iafen = to go to sleep, to die ft erben = to die 

ertrinfen = to drown öerarmen = to beoome impover- 

crtoad^en = to awaken ished 

erfrieren = to freeze to death öerl^ungem = to die of hunger 

ttjaiifen = to grow 

The verbs feitt and bleilbett also take the auxiliary feht, although 
the transition idea is not so plainly apparent as in the other verbs of 
the above lists. 

7 1 Inflectlon of Yerbs 

(a) The inflection of weak and of streng verbs is identical, ezcept 
in the formation of the preterite and of the perf. participle as shown 
above. The personal endings and tense auxiliaries are the same for 
both. 

(&) ExcEPTiON — Strong verbs with the stem vowel c change this 
e into i or \t in 2d and 8d pers. sing, indic. pres. and 2d im per. ; those 
with the stem vowel a change this to ä in the 2d and 8d pers. sing, 
indio. pres., but not in imperative/ So also au in verbs becomes ütt- 

72 SUBJUNcnvE Mode — The present subjunctive shows none of 
the irregularities of syncopation or umlaut that we have observed in 
the indicative. It is formed regularly upon the present stem. 

In the preterite a distinction is observed between the strong and 
weak verbs, the former taking the umlaut, the latter not (except in 

mit)' 

NOTB— On the foUowing x>ages will be found the Indlc. and subj. conjugation 
of weak and strong verbs side by side to emphasize the difference in ending; one 
Texb in eacb case illustrating the (aBttt verbs and one the fettt verbs. 



250 



APPENDIX 



73 Weak Verb 

Indio ati VE 

Pbes. id^ liebe 

bu liebft 
er liebt 

tDir lieben 
il^t liebt 
fie lieben 

Pret. id^ liebte 

bu liebteft 
er liebte 

toir liebten 
i^r liebtet 
fie liebten 

Perf. id^ l^abe geliebt 

bu iaft „ 
er f)ai „ 

tt)ir l^aben „ 

fie ^aben „ 

Plup. id^ l^atte geliebt 

bu l^atteft „ 
er l^atte „ 

toir l^atten ;, 
i^r hattet ;, 
[it Ratten „ 

Pur. id^ »erbe lieben 

bu toirft „ 
er tvirb „ 

toirttjerben „ 
i^x toerbet „ 
fie merben „ 

PüT. Perp. i^ »erbe geliebt l^aben 
bu »irft „ 
er tDirb „ 

tt)ir tverben „ 
il^r werbet „ 
fie »erben • 



SüBJUNCnVB 

id^ Heute (liebe) 
bu HeBtefi (liebeft) 
er liebe 

toir nettm (lieben) 
i^r HeBtet (liebet) . 
fie litittn (lieben) 

id^ liebte 
bu liebteft 
er liebte 

toir liebten 
il^r liebtet 
fie liebten 

td^ Q&tte geliebt (f)aht) 
bu l^abeft „ 
er fjabe „ 

toirljiUtetl ^ (l^aben) 
i^r (ättet „ (^abet) 
fie lütten » (l^aben) 

id^ l^ötte geliebt 
bu ^ötteft „ 
er l^ötte „ 

toirl^ötten „ 
il^r l^öttet „ 
fie Ratten ^ 

id^ tofirbe lieben (toerbe) 
bu toerbeft „ 
er toerbe „ 

toirioftrbett „ (toerben) 
il^r tourbet „ (toerbet) 
fie tiifirtien „ (werben) 

id^ to&rtie geliebt ^aben (toerbe) 
bu werbeft „ 

er toerbe „ 

toir toitrlieti » (toerben) 
i^r toitrbet „ (toerbet) 

fie tonrbett « (werben) 



APPENDIX 



251 



74 


Strong Verb with l^fAeit 




INDICATIVK 


SüBJÜNCTIVE 


Pbes. 


id^fel^ 
bu fte^ft 
et fielet 


itH mt (feHe) 
bu feHeft 
et feHe 




toit feigen 
i^t fel^t 
fie fel^n 


ttJit f&Hett (fcHen) 
iHr fttHet (feHct) 
fie fäHen (feHen) 


Pret. 


ic^fa^ 
bu fa^ft 

et fol^' 


i^ faHe 
bu fäHef^ 
et fäHe 




tDit fallen 
i^t fa^t 
fie fallen 


tt)it fäHen 
iHt föHet 
fie fäHen 


Pebf. 


id^ l^abe gefe^en 
bu Haft „ 
et Hat 


icH Hätte gefcHen (Habe) 
bu Habeft „ 
et Habe „ 




tDit Haben „ 
iHt Habt „ 
fte Haben „ 


tvit Hatten „ (Haben) 
iHt um . (Habet) 
fie Hätten „ (Haben) 


E*LUP. 


id^ Hatte gefcHen 
buHatteft „ 
et Hatte „ 


id^ Hätte gefeHen 
bu Hätteft „ 
et Hätte „ 




toit Hatten „ 
iHt Hattet „ 
fie Hatten „ 


toit Hätten „ 
iHt Hättet „ 
Tte Hätten „ 


FUT. 


\6) ttjctbe fcHcn 
bu n^itft „ 
et ttjitb „ 


id^ ttifitbe feHen (mctbc) 
bu »erbeft ^ 
et »etbe „ 




ttJitttjetbcn „ 
iHt loctbct „ 
fie toerbcn ;, 


toit tonrben „ (toetben) 
iHt ttiurhet ,, (metbet) 
fiemfittien « (mctben) 


FUT. Pbrp 


. id^ toetbe gefeHcn Haben 
hvi mitft „ 
et tDitb „ 


id^ tofttbe gefeHen Haben (ftetbe) 
bu metbeft ^ 
et wetbe ^ 




XDxx toetben „ 
iHt wetbet „ 
fie tuetben » 


tüit mfirtien « (»etben) 
iHt ttiÄtbet * (toetbet) 
{ie mürben » (toetben) 



252 



APPENDIX 



75 





Wedk Verb with feltt 




INDICATIVE 


SüBJUNOTlVB 


Pres. 


i* folge 
bu f olgft 
er folgt 

mir folgen 
i^r folgt 
fie folgen 


iä) folgte (folge) 
bu folQteft (f olrjeft) 
er folge 

mir foloten (folgen) 
i^r folgtet (folget) 
fie folgten (folgen) 


Prrt. 


i* folgte 
bu f olgteft 
er folgte 

mir folgten 
il^r folgtet 
fie folgten 


id^ folgte 
bu f olgteft 
er folgte 

mir folgten 
il^r folgtet 
fie folgten 


Perp 


id^ bin gefolgt 
bu bift „ 
er ift 


id^ fei gefolgt 
bu feift „ 
er fei ^ 




mir finb ;, 
i^r feib , 

fie finb „ 


mir feien „ 
i^r feiet ;, 
fie feien „ 


Plup. 


\6) mar gefolgt 
bu macft „ 
er mar „ 


id} mörc gefolgt 
bu märeft „ 
er möre „ 




mir maren ;, 
i^r mar(c)t „ 
fie maren „ 


mir mören ;, 
i^r möret ;, 
fie mören ;, 


Für. 


\ä) merbe folgen 
bu mirft „ 
er mirb „ 


id^ mürbe folgen (merbe) 

bu merbeft „ 
er merbe „ 




mir merben „ 
xfjx merbet „ 
fie merben „ 


mir mürben n (merben) 
i^r mürbet „ (merbet) 
fie mürben „ (merben) 


FuT. Perp. 


x6) merbe gefolgt fein 
bu mirft „ 
er mirb „ 


id^ mürbe gefolgt fein (merbe > 
bu merbeft „ 
er merbe „ 




mir merben „ 
il^r merbet „ 
(ie merben „ 


mir mürben „ (werben) 
il)r mürbet „ (merbet) 
fie mürben „ (mcrbcu) 



APPENDIX 



253 



76 



Pres. 



Pekt. 



Perp. 



Plup. 



Für* 



Strong Verb 

INDICATIVE 

id^ falle 
bu f önft 
erföllt 

ttjtr fallen 
i^r fallt 
fte fallen 

id^ftel 
bu fielft 
er fiel 

ttJtr fielen 
ij^r fielt 
fie fielen 

id^ bin gefallen 
bu bift „ 
er ift 

ttJtr finb „ 
il^r feib ^ 
fie finb „ 

\6) toax Qe^aUen 
bu toarft „ 
er tear „ 

toir toaren „ 
il^r tt)ar(e)t „ 
fie toaren „ 



xd) toerbe fallen 
bu tDirft „ 
er toitb „ 

toir toerben „ 
\\)x toerbet „ 
fie toerben „ 

Für. Perp. id^ toerbe gefallen fein 
bu toirft „ 

er toirb 

toir toerben 
il^r toerbet 
fte toerben 



// 



with feilt 

SüBJUNCnVE 

id^ fiele (falle) . 
bu faEeft 
er falle 

toir fielen (fallen) 
il^r fielet (f aflet) 
fie fielen (fallen) 

id^ fiele 
bu fteleft 
er fiele 

toir fielen 
il^r fielet 
fie fielen 

id^ fei gefallen 
bu feieft „ 
er fei 

toir feien » 
i^r feiet „ 
fie feien „ 

id^ toäre gefallen 
bu toäreft „ 
er toäre „ 

toir toären „ 
\%x toärct ^ 
fie toören „ 

id^ tofirbe fallen (toerbe) 
bu toerbeft „ 
er toerbe „ 

toir toitrben „ (toerben) 
il^r toürbet „ (toerbet) 
fie tonrben „ (toerben) 

id^ toftrbe gefaEen fein (toerbe) 
tu toerbeft „ 

er toerbe „ 

toir tofirben „ (»erben) 
i^r tottrbet „ (toerbet) 

fie totttben n (tperben) 



254 



APPENDIX. 



77 



L 

IL 

I. 

n. 



Pres. 
Pebf. 



Pres. 
Pebf. 



CONDinONAIi 

Weak 
\d) toürbc UcJen* 
id) ȟrbe geliebt ioBeii 
xä) tDürbc folgen 
id^ toürbe gefolgt fein 

Imperative 

liebe (bu) folge (bu) 
Iieb(c)t (i^r) foIg(e)t (i^r) 
lieben @ie folgen Sie 

iNFiNlTIVES 

lieben folgen 

geliebt ^ahtn gefolgt fein 



Strong 
id) toütbe feüett 
i6) niürbe gefeljeti l^alieit 
td^ tDürbe faOen 
id^ toürbe gef aSett feilt 

ftel^ (bu) falle (bu) 
fe^(e)t(iW fan(e)t(i^t) 
fel^n @ie faßen ©ie 

fel^n fallen 

gefel^n lauen gefallen fein 



78 



Participles 

licbenb folgenb fel^enb follenb 

geliebt gefolgt gefeiten gefatten 

Passive Voice 



Form: conjugation of loerben + perf. part. of verb. 



Indioative 

Pres, ic^ toerbe gehört 
bu loirfl M 
er loirti 
toit mertien 
üiT toerbet 
fie ttietben 

Pret. id^ tonrbe gei^ört 
bu totttbefi 
er totttbe 
toir tonrben 
il^r murtiet 
fie tonrtien 

* The füll paradigm is; 

id^ toürbe lieben 
bu toürbeft 
er mürbe 

mir toürben lieben 
il^r toürbet 
(ie tDürben 



SUBJUNOnVE 

id^ ioiriie gehört (»erbe) 
bu merbeft 



// 



// 



// 



/f 



// 



ff 



ff 



ff 



ff 



ff 



er loerbe 
mir loftrben 
i^r iiiitrbet 
fie mfitbett 

id^ toittbe gel^ört 
bu toftrbefi 
er tofirbe 
mir mfirben 
ii^r mitrbet 
fie mftrben 



// 



// 



ff 



ff 



ff 



ff 



ff 



(merben) 
(merbet) 
(merben) 



// 



// 



// 



// 



// 



ff 



id) mürbe geliebt l^aben 
bu mürbeft 
er mürbe 

mir mürben geliebt l^aben 
il^r mürbet „ 

fie mürben „ 



ff 



ff 



iä) mürbe gefallen fcfti 

bu mürbeft 
er mürbe 

mir mürben gefallen fein 
il^r mürbet ^ 

fie mürben ^ 



APPENDIX 



255 



INDICATIVE 




SUBJüNCnVB 


Pbbf. i^ (in gehört toorkeit* 




^ fei 9^4^rt ttiorbett 


tu m .. 


n 




bufeleH „ 


99 


erlfl 


n'tt 




er fei // 


99 


loit {litli // 


tf 




toit feleti „ 


99 


i^ f elJi „ 


9t 




il&r feiet „ 


H 


pe|hdi ,, 


99 




pe feleti „ 


99 


Plüp. id^ tiiar gei^drt mtttn 




id^ toire gei^ött tuorbett 


btt mx9 // 


99 




bu tQirefi 99 


99 


er ttat „ 


99 




er ttiitre 99 


99 


tDir mateit // 


99 




toir iiiiitett /, 


99 


ii^r ttart „ 


99 




i^r ttiiret „ 


99 


fieMrrtt // 


99 




fie tuftrett // 


99 


FuT. id^ tortbr gei^ört toerbrtt 




id^ ttittrbe gel^ört toerben (metbe) 


bu tolrf^ ,, 


99 




bu tuerbeß // 


99 


er iiilrb „ 


99 




er tuerbe ,, 


99 


toxi toerbett ,f 


99 




tt)ir inttrbett /, 


„ (»erben) 


ii^rtoetbet ,, 


99 




i^r tuftrbet „ 


„ (toerbet^ 


fie ttierbm „ 


99 




fie iDurben // 


„ (merben) 


F. P. id^ ttierbe gei^ört tuotben fein id^ tufitbe gcl^ört lootben fein (tocrbc) 


bu toirfi ,, 


99 


99 


bu toerbeli „ 


99 99 


er ioltb „ 


99 


99 


er ttierbe 99 


99 99 


ioir toerbett „ 


99 


99 


toit taftrbett // 


„ „ (toerbcn) 


ifft luerbet ,, 


99 


99 


ii^r ttiürbet „ 


,; ,, (mcrbet) 


fie toerbett „ 


99 


99 


fie ttitirbett // 


„ „ (tocrbcn) 



79 CONDinONAL 

I. i(^ ttifirbe gei^ört ttierbett n. id^ ttiftrbe ge^trt tuorbett feltt 

Imperative 
Itierbe if^vi) gel^drt tuerbet (i^r) gehört ttierbett @ie gel^ört 

Inpinitives 
Pbes. gel^ört tuerbett Perf. gei^ört ttiorbett feltt 

Participles 
Pres, gel^ött ttierbettb Perf. gei^öi^ tiiorbett 

80' Componnds 

An adverbial pcurticle modifies the meaning of a verb and ohanges 
its form aocording to oertain laws. 

•Observe that the perf. participle getoorbeu loses its augmeut m the passlva 



256 



APPENDIX 



Example 
ftageilBsto question feeftQ8en=to interrogate aitlftagen=to draw^ out 

These Compounds may be: 

(a) Accent on root syllable — befragen 

(&) No augment in perf . purt — befragt 

(c) Not separated in Infinitive — 5U befragen 

|(a) Aooent on piefiz — ausfragen 
(&) Augment between part. and root — aud^rftagt 
(c) Separated in infinitive — aud}» frage» 

PrincipaJ Parts 
L Inseparable Befragen Befragte Befragt 

Sl Separable iittffragen fragte anl} ouSgefcagl 

Synopsis of Gompoiinds 

INMCATIVE 



Inseparable 
id^ befrage 
id^ befragte 
\ä^ fyihe befragt 
iä) l^atte befragt 
id) tDerbe befragen 
i4 tDerbe befragt l^aben 



Separable 
id^ frage unf 
id^ fragte an9 
id^ fyihe ausgefragt 
ic^ Sott:; attSgefraßt 
id) merbe fut§fragcn 
id^ toerbe ausgefragt fyiben 



befrage (bu) 
rag(e)l " 
befragen 



be{rag(e)t(i]^) 
6ie 



Fbbs. befragen 
Perf. befragt l^aben 



IHPERATIYB 



Infinitive 



rage (bu) anS 
rag(e)t (i^r) anS 
ragen @ie anS 

ttttSfragcn 
ausgefragt ^aben 



Pres, befragenb 
Perf. befragt 



81 



Participles 

anSfragenb 
ausgefragt 

Modal Auxlliaries 

Sinnen, mdoen, bftrfnt, nmlfen, foDm, uiolen. These (all but tPoSet) 

are preterite presenta, i.e., they have the formof the preterite (of 
strong verbs) while they are used as presents. Henoe id^ fanil (I canX 
\äf katf (I may) correspond in form to id^ f ann (I thought), id^ laarf (I 
thxew). The infinitive, weak preterite, and participle now in use were 
formed in analogy with weak verbs. This accounts for their peoiiliar 
form, which must be memorized with care. 

The Singular and the plural present differ in form, and the new 
infinitive, preterite, and perf. part. are formed on the plural atem. 



APPENDIX 



257 



!5nnen 

mögen 

bürfen 

mü]]en 

foIIcn 

toollen 


lonnte 

mod^te 

burfte 

mugte 

fottte 

tooHte 




gelonnt 

gemod^t 

geburft 

gemugt 

gefönt 

getoont 








Present 






Indio. 


SUBJ. 


Indio. 


SUBJ. 


Indic. 


SüBJ. 


id) lann 
bu lannfi 
er lann 


lönne 

fönneft 

fönne 


mag 

magft 

mag 


möge 

mögcft 

möge 


barf 

barfft 

barf 


bürfe 

bürfeft 

bürfe 


toir lönnen 
i^ lönnt 
fte fönnen 


liiitttett* 

»ttittet 

tSuiitett 


mögen 

mögt 

mögen 


mSditen* 

mdiitet 

ma^tm 


bürfen 

bürft 

bürfen 


bftrftftt* 

bftrftet 

bftrftrtt 






Preterite 






Indic. 


SUBJ. 


Indic. 


SUBJ. 


Indic. 


SUBJ. 


id) lonnte 
bu lonnteft 
er lonnte 


lönnte 

fönnteft 

lönnte 


mod^te 

mod^teft 

mod^te 


möd^te 

mbd)tc\i 

möd^te 


burfte 

burfteft 

burfte 


bürfte 

burfteft 

bürfte 


toirfonnten 
il^r lonntet 
fte f onnten 


lönnten 
tonntet 
lönnten 


mod^ten 
mod^tet 
mod^ten 


möd^ten 
möd^tct 
möchten 


burftcn 
burftet 
burften 


bürftcn 
bürftet 
bürften 






Preaent 






Indic. 


SüBJ. 


Indic. 


SUBJ. 


Indic. 


SüBJ. 


id^ mug 
bu mugt 
er mug 


muffe 

müffeft 

muffe 


foQ 
oKft 
OH 


föne 

foneft 

föne 


totn 

loittft 

toin 


tootte 

motteft 

tootte 


totr muffen 
il^r mügt 
pe muffen 


mSgten 
miigtet 
mitgtm 


follen 

fönt 

fo0en 


mtn 
otttet 

Otttttt 


motten 

»o'nt 

motten 


toolten 
toolltet 
tDotttett 






Preterite 






Indio. 


SUBJ. 


Indic. 


SUBJ. 


iNDia 


SüBJ. 


id^ mugte 
bu mugteft 
er mugte 


mügte 

mugteft 

mügte 


foKte 

fonteft 

fönte 


fönte 

fonteft 

fönte 


mottte 

toottteft 

mottte 


toottte 

mottteft 

föottte 


toir mugten 
if)X mugtet 
fie mugten 


mugten 
mügtet 
mugten 


fottten 
föntet 
fönten 


fönten 

föntet 
fönten 


mottten 
motttet 
toottten 


mottten 
n)otttet 
mottten 



• Preterite forms Instead of preserUs which are idenücal with Indicatlve; cL 
68, tootnote. 



258 APPENDIX 

82 In the formation of the perfect tensee we distinguish between 
ihe use of these verbs as pure verbs and as auxiliaries. When used a« 
pure verbs the participle is weak . Qffoitltt» eto., when used as auxUiary, 
with an infinitive complement the old streng participle (without aug- 
ment) is used : HnutU. 

id^ f^aht gefoititt i^ ^^e ge^n Hititeii 

(I have been able) (I was able to go) . 

id^ l^abe gebttrft ici^ f^ahe fptec^en bnrfftt 

(I was permitted) (I was permitted to speak) 

id^ l^abe gefott ic^ fßhe gelten foKett 

(I was supposed to) (I was supposed to go) 

i4 fyihe gemoKt iä) fyihe gelten Mlett 

(I wished to) (I wanted to go) 

i^ f^ahe %muit (C^ f^ahe gelten mfiffftt 

(I was compelled) (I had to go) 

id^ l^be drntoillt id^ '^he fd^retben mi%tn 

(I wanted to) (I feit like writing) 

The future tense and the first conditional are formed regularly: 

id^ tocxhe mögen id^ ttjcrbc fd^reibcn mögen 

id^ koürbe mögen id^ mürbe fd^retben mögen 

The future perfect and the second conditional are too long and 
clumsy for use. 

83 Another preterite present but not a modal auxiliary is tuiffcii: 

toiffen tDugte getougt 



Indic. 


SUBJ. 


{(^ toetg 
bu meigt 
er tt)cig 


f(^ n^iffe 
bu .toiff eft 
er toiffe 


toir »iffen 
i^r njigt 
fie toiffen 


totr toitgtm (toiffen) 
i^r tottgtet (totffet) 
fie loftgteit (toiffen) 



Th3 other tenses are formed regularly. 

84 Like the modal auxiliaries in use is the verb Ia|{tlt: 

id^ laffe ein £Ieib mad^en I have a dress made 

•f lieg „ „ „ I had a dress made 

f, fyihe „ „ t, laff en I have had a dress made 

f, ^abe ba^ $ud^ gelaffen I have left the book 



AW>fiNDlX 



^56 



Cansatiyes 

Oausatives are weak transitives formed from strong intransitive 
verbe. They represent the object as being made to do the action 
implied in the verb. 

liegen (lie) legen (lay) 

ftjen (Sit) feften (set) 

\te^en (stand) fteflen (put, i. e., make to stand) 

trinfen (drink) tränten (give to drink) 

ftnfen (sink) fenfen (make to sink) 



86 



Reflexive Terbs 



Reflexive Verbs require a pronominal object that refers back to 
the subject. In the first and second person this object is the regulär 
personal pronoun in the dative or accusative. In the third person it 
is fiil|, both Singular and plural. 



Preaent 

Indio. Sübj. 

\d) freue midi freute mid^ (freue) 

bu freuft M^ fteittef[ bic^ (freueft) 

er freut {id| freue fic^ 

toxi freuen ]ttt0 freuten uni^ (freuen; 
i^r freut ntdl freutet eud) (freuet) 
fie freuen fiij^ ; freuten ftd) (freuen) 

Preterite 
id) freute mx6), etc. 

Perfect 
ic^ f^ahe mid) gefreut^ etc. 

Pluperfect 
id^ l^Qtte ntid^ gefreut, etc. 



Future 
iä) »erbe mxd) freuen, etc. 

Fut Perf. 
xd) »erbe mici^ gefreut ^aben, etc. 

Imper. 

freue, (bu) bid^ 
freuet (i^r) euci^ 
freuen ©ie fid^ 

Infinit. 
ficii freuen, ftd^ gefreut tyihen 

Part. 

\i6) freuenb, \xd) gefreut 

Cond. 
\d) toürbe ntirf) freuen 

„ gefreut ^aben 



// 



// 



87 Impersonal Terbs 

Impersonal Verbs have H (with no definite antecedent) for sub- 
ject. They usually represent a condition (mental or physical) and 
have many idiomatic constructions. 



Physical 
e^ regnet 
t^ fd^neit 
ed friert mic^ 



Mental 
e^ graut mir 
c3 freut mid^ 
eg örgert ntidj 



2eo 



APPENDIX 



Idiomatic 
eS gibt (there is, or there are) 
ed gilt (it is a question of) 
ed fragt fic^ (the question arises) 
ed ^anbelt \iä) um (it is a question of) 
ed (ol^nt ftd^ (it is worth while) 
ed (ößt fid^ tun (it can be done) 

Irregrnlar Yerbs 

Seven weak verbs are irregulär in appearance, sinoe the infinitive 
has undergone an umlaut change because of a suffix (now lost) which 
did not affect the other principal parts. 

brennen brannte gebrannt 

fennen fanntc gefannt 

nennen nannte genannt 

rennen rannte gerannt 

fenben fanbte gefanbt 

»enben toanbte getvanbt 

benfen* barf)te gebadet 

«Observe that the last named has lost the nasal before (b and has undergone 
a consonant change. So also: 

bringen brachte gebrad^t 

89 Table of Strong Yerbs 

Two f orms used interchangeably are connected by a brace. If one 

is less frequently used it is in brackets. If a verb is sometimes weak, 

this is indicated by a (w) after the infinitive form. 

Pres. Indio. 
Int. Prbt. Ind. Pebf. Pakt. 3bd Pebs. Pbet. Sttbj. Impkb. 



(aifett 


bu! 


gebaden 


bödt 


büle 


bacf (e) ! 


befetlm 


befahl 


befol^Icn 


befiehlt 


beföhle 


befielen 


befleißen 


befliß 


befliffen 


befleißt 


befliffe 


befleiße ! 


beginnen 


begann 


begonnen 


beginnt 


begönne 


beginne e)! 


beigen 


biß 


gebiffen 


beißt 


biffe 


beiß(e) ! 


bergen 


barg 


geborgen 


birgt 


bürge 


birg! 


beritett 


barft 


geborften 


birft 


börfte 


birft ! 


bett>egett(w) bemog 


bemogen 


bewegt 


bemöge 


bettieg(c)! 


biegen 


bog 


gebogen 


biegft 


böge 


bieg(e) ! 


bieten 


bot 


geboten 


bietet 


böte 


biet(e) ! 


binben 


banb 


gebunden 


binbet 


bänbe 


binb(e)J 


bitten 


bat 


gebeten 


bittet 


bäte 


bitte! 


blafen 


bliei» 


geblafen 


bloft 


bliefe 


blaf(e)! 



APPENDIX 



261 









Pres. Indic. 






Inf. 1 


E^ET. IND 


esRV. Part. 


3rd Prrs. 


Prbt. Sübj. 


IMPBR. 


tltlitn 


blieb 


geblieben 


bleibt 


bliebe 


blcib(e)! 


iratm 


briet 


gebraten 


brät 


briete 


brat(e)! 


txt^tu 


brad^ 


gebrod^en 


brid^t 


bräd^e 


brid^! 


i\n%ttt (w) 


bang 


gebungen 


bingt 


bingte 


bingc! 


Mdlett 


( brafdb gebrofAen 
1 rbrofAi 


brifd^t 


bröfd^c 


brifd^! 


btiiidttt 


brang 


gebrungen 


bringt 


bränge 


bring(c)I 


em)ifel|lm 


empfahl 


empfol^ren 


entpfiel^lt 


em^fö^le 


em^fie^n 


erblri^m 


erblich 


crbfici^en 


erbleicht 


erblid^e 


erbleid^(c): 


eriafdleit 


erlofc^ 


crlofc^en 


erlifcöt 


erlöfd^e 


crlif d^ ! 


effeti 


aß 


gegeffen 


ißt 


öße 


iß! 


falirnt 


fu^r 


getal^ren 


följrt 


fü^re 


faWe)! 


falttt 


fiel 


gefaUen 


fäm 


fiele 


f aU(e) ! 


fangett 


png 


gefangen 


fängt 


finge 


fang(e)^ 


ftü^itti 


fot^t 


gefod^ten 


m 


föchte 


fi«t! 


finlim 


fanb 


gefunbcn 


finbet 


fänbe 


finbe! 


fleittm 


flod^t 


gcflod^ten 


flicht 


flöd^te 


flirf)t! 


jHcgen • 


flog 


geflogen 


fliegt 


flöge 


flieg(c)J 


iiteiett 


flo^ 


geflol^en 


flicht 


flö^e 


flie^(e)!: 


ließen 


floß 


gefloffen 


fließt 


flöffe 


fließ(e)! 


reifen 


fraß 


gcfrcffen 


frißtl 


fräße 


friß! 


frieren 


fror 


gefroren 


friert 


fröre 


f rier(e) ! 


öftren (w) 


gor 


gegoren 


gärt 


göre 


gäre! 


geüftren 


gebar 


geboren 


gebiert 


gebore 


gebier! 


0eten 


gab 


gegeben 


gibt 


göbe 


gib! 


%tM^tn 


gebie^ 


gebieten 


gebeizt 


gebiel^e 


gebei^(e)! 


gellen 


Qing 


gegangen 


ge^t 


ginge 


ge^(e)! 


Belingen 


gelang 


gelungen 


gelingt 


gelänge 




gelten 


gatt 


gegolten 


gilt 


gölte 


öilt! 


genefen 


genaS 


gencfen 


gcneft 


genäfc 


genefe ! 


genießen 


genoß 


genoffen 


genießt 


genöffe 


genieß(e)! 


gef diesen 


gefd^a^ 


gefc^el^en 


gefc^ic^t 


gefd^ä^c 




gewinnen 


gemann 


gewonnen 


gewinnt 


getoönne 


getoinn(e)! 


gießen 


ÖOß 


gegoffen 


gießt 


9öffe 


gieß(e) ! 


glei(|en 


glic^ 


geglid^en 


gleid)t 


glid^c 


gleid^(e) ! 


gleiten 


glitt 


geglitten 


gleitet 


glitte 


greit(e)! 


gtintnten 


gComm 


geglommen 


glimmt 


glömme 


glimm(e) ! 


grtben 


grub 


gegraben 


gräbt 


grübe 


grab(e) ! 


greifen 


gnff 


gegriffen 


greift 


flnffe 


greif(e)! 


lalten 


l^iclt 


gehalten 


^ält 


l^ielte 


^alt(e)! 



262 




APPENDIX 










Pbbs. Indic. 




Inf. Prbt. Ind. 


Pkbf. Part. 


3RD Pbbs. 


Prbt. Subj. 


dangett 


Hing 


geHangen 


Hängt 


Hinge 


(anrtt 


Hieb 


geHauen 


Haut 


Hiebe 


(e^ett 


Hob 


geHoben 


Hebt 


Höbe (Hübe) 


«elftm 


Hieß 


geHeigen 


Heißt 


Hieße 


Helfen 


Half 


geHoIfen 


Hilft 


Hülfe 


Hefe» (w) 


for 


(ge)foren 


fieft 


löre 


flimmeit (w; 


) Ilomm 


gcflommen 


flimmt 


Ilömme 


ningett 


Hang 


gelungen 


Hingt 


Ilönge 


fnelfen 


fniff 


gefniffcn 


fneift 


Iniffe 


fornmett 


lam 


gefommen 


fommt 


fäme 


freifdpeti 


Irif^ 


gefrifcHen 


frcifdftt 


frif(He 


friedien 


IrodH 


gefrocHen 


frietHt 


fröcHe 


!ttrett(w) 


lor 


geforen 


fürt 


löre 


laben (w) 


lub 


gelaben 


labet (labt) 


labete (lübc) 


laffen 


lieg 


gelaffen 


läßt 


ließe 


lanfen 


lief 


gelaufen 


läuft 


liefe 


leiben 


litt 


gelitten 


leibet 


litte 


leiten 


(ieH 


gelieHen 


leiHt 


lieHe 


lefen 


Ia§ 


gclefen 


lieft 


läfe 


Hegen 


lag 


gelegen 


liegt 


löge 


Ingen 


log 


gelogen 


lügt 


löge 


meiben 


mieb 


gemieben 


meibet 


miebe 


meffen 


mag 


gemcffen 


mißt 


mäße 


nelmen 


naHm 


genommen 


nimmt 


nöHme 


pfeifen 


pm 


gepfiffen 


pfeift 


pm 


Pflegen (w) 


PM 


gepflogen 


pflegt 


pflöge 


iireifen 


prie« 


gepriefen 


preift 


priefe 


petten 


quoU 


gequollen 


quillt 


quölle 


raten 


riet 


geraten 


rät 


riete 


reiben 


rieb 


gerieben 


reibt 


riebe 


reiben 


riß 


geriffen 


reißt 


riffe 


reiten 


ritt 


geritten 


reitet 


ritte 


rieben 


rocH 


gero(Hen 


riecHt 


röcHe 


ringen 


rang 


gerungen 


ringt 


ränge 


rinnen 


rann 


geronnen 


rinnt 


ranne 


rnfen 


rief 


gerufen 


ruft 


riefe 


anfen 


foff 


gefoffen 


fäuft 


föffc 


angen 


fog 


gefogen 


föugt 


föge 


iHaffen (w) 


fcHuf 


gefcHaffen 


fcHafft 


fcHüfe 


ff^aften (w) 


\6)oU 


gcfcHollen 


fcHattt 


fcHölle 



Hang(c)! 
Hau(e) ! 
Heb(e) ! 
Heiß(e) 

Hilf! 

liefe ! 

!ltmm(c)! 

fltng(e)! 

fncif(c)! 

fomm! 

freifdH(c)! 

!rte(H(c) ! 

füre! 

lab(e) ! 

laß! 

(auf(e)! 

letb(e) ! 

lÄH(e) ! 
lied! 

liege ! 

lüg(e)! 

meib(c)! 

miß! 

nimm! 

pfeif(e) 

pflege ! 

preif(e)! 

quill ! 

rat(e) ! 

reib(e) ! 

reiß(e)! 

reit(e) ! 

riecH(e)! 

ring(e) ! 

rinn(c)! 

ruf(e) l 

fauf(e)! 

faug(c)! 

fcHaff(e)! 

f(Haae(e)! 



APPENDIX 



263 









Pbes. Indig 


1 
« 




Inf. ] 


Pbbt. Ind. 


PBRF. PART. 


SbdPebs. 


Pbbt. Subj. 


IMPSB. 


f^eibftt 


fd^ieb 


gcfd^icbcn 


fd^eibet 


[triebe 


fd^eib(c)! 


fiiieitttit 


fd^icn 


gcfd^ienen 


f^cint 


fd^iene 


fd^cin(e)! 


mtiitn 


fd^alt 


gefd^olten 


Wit 


fd^ölte 


fc^ilt! 


\iS^tttn (w) 


Wot 


gcfd^orcn 


fd^icrt 


fd^öte 


fd^ier! 


djirBm 


fd^ob 


gefd^oben 


fd^iebt 


fc^öbe 


fd^ieb(e)! 


itietett 


Wo6 


gefd^offcn 


fd^iegt 


Wöffc 


ft^ie6(e)! 


Wvi^tn 


fd^unb 


gefd^unben 


fd^inbct 


fd^ünbc 


fd6inb(c)! 


d^Iafftt 


Wlief 


gcfd^fafcn 


Wlöft 


fd^Itcfc 


Wlaf(e)! 


4laf|tit 


Wn 


gcfc^Iagcn 


ft^Iägt 


fd^Iügc 


Wrag(c)! 


fdiUi«rtt 


fc^Iic^ 


gefd^Iid^en 


fd^leid^t 


fd^Iid^e 


fd^Ieid^(e)! 


WIeifett(w 


) WKff 


gcfd^Iiffcn 


fd^Ieift 


[(griffe 


f«^reif(e)! 


WHtn 


Wlo6 


gcfd^Ioffen 


fließt 


Wlöffe 


f(^lie6(c)! 


filliitgeti 


fc^Iang 


gcfd|Iungcn 


fd^Iiitgt 


fd^Iönge 


fd^ling(c) ! 


fd^meilm 


fc^mig 


gefd^miffcn 


fc^mcigt 


fc^miffc 


fd^mei6(c)! 


1 dimf I)ttt (w) f d^molj 


gefd^moljcn 


fd^mität 


fd^möljc 


f«mtr^! 


f4tiaiilitit( w) fd^nob 


gefc^noben 


fd^naubt 


fd^nöbe 


fd^naubC^)! 


fcineibett 


fc^nitt 


gefd^nitten 


fd^neibet 


fd^nitte 


fd^neib(e)! 


iiS^ttdtn 


fd^tal 


(ge)fd^rodfcn fd^ridtt 


fd^röfc 


f^tiü! 


fiiirdlieti 


f^tieb 


gcfd^ricben 


fd^reibt 


fd^riebe 


fd^rcib(c) I 


fiiireim 


fd^rie 


gcfd^ricen 


fc^reit 


fd^riec 


Wrci(c)! 


Mreite» 


fd^ritt 


gcfd^ritten 


fd^rcitct 


fd^rittc 


fd^reit(c) ! 


fditoatttt 


fc^tDor 


gefd^tDoren 


( fdbtuiert 
i fd^toört 


fd^koöre 


fcfitoörc ! 
Mtoicr! 


dlturldtii 


Wtütcg 


gefd^toiegen 


fd^toeigt 


fd^koiege 


fd^tocig(c)! 


«ttrtlcti (w) fc^ioaa 


gefd^tDoUen 


fd^toiUt 


fd^kDöQe 


fd^tütU! 


f4iiitmmeit 


fd^tvamm 


gefd^mommen fd^njtmmt 


fdimömme 


fd^n)intnt(e)! 


fiiitiiiti^nt 


fd^toanb 


gefc^tpunben \d)toinhet 


fd^tvönbe 


fd^minb(e) ! 


fil^ltiiit0m 


fd^toang 


gefd^toungcn fd^mingt 


fd^toönge 


fd^toing(c)!; 


f^toürtit 


J fdbtour 
/ fdDtDor 


gefd^tooren 


fd^tDört 


fd^tDüre 


fd^tDör(e)! 


feicii 




gefeiten 


rte^t 


fö^e 


fie^! 


fein 


toax 


getoefen 


ift 


tD&re 


fei! 


flebm (w) 


fott 


gefotten 


fiebet 


fötte 


fieb(c)! 


flnöftt 


fang 


gefungen 


fingt 


fange 


fing(e)! 


finint 


fanl 


gefunlctt 


ftnlt 


fönfc 


finf(e)! 


fiimttt 


fann 


gefonnen 


jtnnt 


f önnc (fönne) finn(e) ! 


mm 


faß 


gefcffcn 


Ptt 


fö6e 


fi|e! 


lieiett 


frie 


gcf|)teen 


f^eit 


friec 


fOei! 


iiiitiint 


fpann 


gcf|)onnen 


fpinnt 


\pbnm 


fpinn(e)! 


iireilleti 


frrod^ 


gef^rod^en 


fptid^t 


fprftd^e 


fpric^! 


ftirie|eit 


^roft 


g»fptoffen 


fpricfit 


f<)rö|fc 


fpne6(e)! 



264 



APPENDIX 









Pres. Indic. 






r Inf. Prkt. Ind. 


Pbrf. Pabt. 


3bd Pebs. 


Pbbt. Stjbj. 


IMPEB. 


ftiriitgra 


fprang 


gefprungen 


fprtngt 


fprängc 


fpring(e)! 


jleilirtt 


\ia6) 


geftod^en 


mt 


ftäd^e 


ftit^! . 


9tdtn (w) 


m 


geftedt 


ftetit 


ftöfe 


ftcd(c) ! 


fleljen 


ftanb 


geftanbcn 


ftc^t 


( ftönbe 
{ ftünbe 


ftc^(e)I 


flrlilnt 


mi 


geftol^ren 


ftie^rt 


ftö^Ie(ftä^le)ftie^I! 


flelßfit 


ftieg 


geftiegen 


fteigt 


ftiege 


fteig(e)! 


ffetüftt 


ftarb 


geftorben 


ftirbt 


ftürbe 


ftirb ! 


fiirlim 


ftob 


gef toben 


ftiebt 


ftöbe 


ftieb(e) ! 


jliiilftt 


ftani 


gcftunfen 


ftinft 


ftonfe 


ftinf(e) ! 


ftojen 


flieg 


geflogen 


ftögt 


ftiege 


ftog(e)! 


fireidint 


\tt\d) 


geftrid^en 


ftrcid(|t 


ftrid^e 


ftreic^(e) ! 


fhrdtm 


flritt 


geftritten 


ftreitet 


ftrittc 


ftreit(c)! 


trafittt 


trug 


getragen 


trägt 


trüge 


trag(e)! 


treffen 


traf 


getroffen 


trifft 


tröfe 


triff! 


treibett 


trieb 


getrieben 


treibt 


triebe 


treib(e)! 


treten 


trot 


getreten 


tritt 


träte 


tritt ! 


triefen (w) 


troff' 


getroffen 


trieft 


tröffe 


trief (e)! 


trinfen 


troni 


getrunfen 


trinft 


trönfe 


trin!(c)! 


tnioen 


trog 


getrogen 


trügt 


tröge 


trüg(c)! 


im 


tat 


getan 


tut 


täte 


tu(e)'. 


nerbleiilen 


üerblid^ 


berblidden 


öerbleid^t 


berblic^e 


berblei(^(c)! 


lierberben(w)öerbarb 


öerborben 


berbirbt 


öerbürbe 


öerbirb I 


tier)irie(en 


öerbrog 


öerbroffen 


öerbriegt 


öerbröge 


öerbrießCc) ! 


Jiergeffen 


bergag 


öergeffen 


bergigt 


t^ergäge 


bergig! 


nertieren 


berlor 


verloren 


üerliert 


öerlörc 


öerlier(e) ! 


ioai^fen 


tt)ud^g 


getoacf)fen 


wöt^ft 


wüd^fe 


wad^f(e) ! 


miigen (w) 


tüog 


getoogen 


wägt 


wöge 


wagc(!) 


liiafdien 


ton^d) 


getüafc^en 


wafc^t 


wüfd^e 


wafc^(e) ! 


meBen (w) 


toob^ 


getooben 


webt 


Wöbe 


web(c) ! 


meti^en 


ttJirfi 


gelüid^en 


weidet 


Wirf)e 


Wetc6(e)! 


toelfen 


toieS 


getoiefen 


weift 


wiefe 


Wctf(e) ! 


uierben 


tüarb 


geworben 


Wirbt 


Würbe 


wirb' 


mertien 


( njarb 
( lüurbc 


geworben 


wirb 


Würbe 


werbe \ 


toerfen 


toarf 


geworfen 


wirft 


würfe 


wirf! 


mieten 


ttjog 


gewogen 


wiegt 


wöge 


wteg(c) ! 


ttiinben 


toanb 


gewunben 


Winbet 


wcnbe 


winbe ! 


jel^en 


aie^ 


gejiel^eu 


gei^t 


giel^e 


i^m^) ! 


!ieien 


8og 


Ocjogen 


äie^t 


aöße 


äie^(e)! 


Ittiindm 


ätoang 


gezwungen 


gwiiigt 


jwänge 


awing(c)! 



APPENDIX 265 

SYNTAX 

90 THE SENTENCE— ORDER 

I, AbrmaZ-Subj. Yerb Adjuncts. Obj. | I^^f Pe^dent olaiues be- 

i gmnmg with subjeot. 
i Qüestion. 
IL Inverted — V. S. Adjuncts. O. < Independent clauses not b^gin- 

( ning with subject. 

IIL Transposed — S« Adjuncts. O. Y. — Dependent clauses. 

Examples 

I. @t lifH jegt bad ^ud). dx |at jlegt ha^ SBud^ gelefen. 

IL geftt Ilcjl er bag ^u6). ^at er jefet baä Söud^ gelefen? 

III. Qfd^ fel^e, bag er jcfet bo§ SBud^ Ucfi. 3^^ fe^e, baß er ic|t ba8 
SBud^ gelefen Ijat. 

It is only the inßected pari of the verb that changes its position. 

MINOR RULES 

91 Of a number of adjuncts the most important comes last. Hence , 

92 The Infinitive, participial, or adverbial complement always 

comes last in the sentence: 

@r XDxU nad) $aufe gellen. 
@r ift nad^ ^aufe %t%ün%tn. 
(Sr fd^lögt t>a& SBu^ auf. 

93 An inflnitive phrase (with ju), together with its adjunots, 

comes last: 

®r ging ouS, um ta^ ju fe!|ett. 

3;d^ badite, ta^ er ausgegangen fei, um \iQ& \vi fel^ett. 

94 The negative adverbs niü^t, nie, niemali come last, unless the 

negation applies to one especial word, in which case the 
negative adverb immediately precedes it. Ex. — @tn ebler 
aj^ann bergigt fein SBaterlanb nid^t (A noble man does not for- 
get his fatherland). But: (Sin ebler SRann bergigt aUed, nur 
ni^t fein ^aterlanb (A noble man may forget everything, but 
he never forgets his fatherland). 

An adverb of time precedes all others: 

^x gel^t (ente morgen langfam pr ©d^ule. 



266 APPENDIX 

06 A prcnoun precedes a noun objeot. SS and {{dj preoede all 
others. When both objects are nouns, the indirect usually 
comes first. 

(St gibt rS beut SRann. 

@t toiH fli| bem SRattne ntd^t ant>ertrauen« 

@r tPia bem SRanite baS ®el|eimitt# nic^t Qnt)ertratten. 

When both are pronouns, the direct takes precedence: (Bt gibt 

97 AdjeetiveB — As a rule adjeotives preoede the nouns they mod- 
ify. If the adjeotiye itself has adjunots, it is preceded by 
them. 
Ex.'—'%tx dnte Änabc. 
^t \t\t pte ^nabe. 
^er Holt feiltet IRittter 0efii|oIiette ftnalt. 
S)er mit loitter etiutme ein Jüeiligei Sieb fiitoettbe aj^ört^tet. 

08 An adjeotive word, phrase, or clause may follow its noun, 
especially in elevated diotion : 

^ie junge grtau, fdüiit Ititb liebeitStiiSrbio* ttiie eilt ditgel, erfaßten an 
ber Xüt, 

%tx ©finget mit bett tiieiftett 8odfen, crgtiff bic ^atf e. 
Xet ^önig, bet liitge gefdUttiegen l|atte, fing an )u teben. 

« The adj. in thls iwsition, like the predlcate adj., is not inflected. 

Only the modifiera of tke noun may intervene between subject and 
▼erb in normal and inverted order. Tlius for the English: She never 
taw him, we must say: Cie |at il^n nie gefe^n« 

USE OF ABTICLE 

Beflnite 

00 As in English, the definite article is used to individualize. 

lOO Deviations from English — 

1. OBNEBic — With abstractions, verbal nouns, and nouns of mate- 
rial, where the English omits the article, the Qerman 
inserts it. 2)ai £eben ift bet ®ütet ^öd^fted nid^t (Life 
is not the greatest of blessings). Sali &et^n ijl bir 
gefunb (Walking is good for you). Sa9 (Sifen ift bod 
nü^Iid^fte äJ^etaü (Iron is the most useful of metals). 

In all these casee the noun is generalized by its article, i. e,, the 
particular noun Stands for the entire class. 



APPENDIX 267 

d. CLASS, occuPATiON, NATiONAiJTY— Heie the artiole k ömitted 
when the noun represents an abetraot idea rather 
than a particular individuality. Ex.'-f&t ift StBeittt 
(He is a workman). @r toirb Srgt (He will become a 
physician). S^ bin Smrtifaiter (I am an American). 

8. wiTH PROPER NOUNS—(a) Familiarlj: ßennft bu bnt ZeS? 34 
fe^e bnt ftarl. ^ 

(&) With a preceding adjective: btt iunge ^loetl^e. 

(c) Names of countries are usually not preceded by the 
article, @nglanb, ^eutfd^Ianb^ but those ending in ei 
always take it, as: bie Xürlei^ bte %attaxei; also bie 
©d^toeia, bie $falj, bie 9^ieberlanbe« 

(d) Names of rivers, mountains, and seas take the aiüole: 
ber Sll^ein^ bie ^onau, ber gfelbbetg, bie Oftfee. 

4. INBTEAD OF POSSESSIVE— When the relation is very. clear. (St 

nimmt bnt ^ut bom ftobft (^® takes his hat from 
his head). 

5. DiSTRiBunvs — ^Where in English we use the indefinite. ^a9 

Sanb loftet l^unbert Xa(er bnt 3h| (The land oostsone 
hundred doUars a foot), 

1 1 There are many deviations which can not be classified. Certain 

phrases have become stereotyped: 

na(& 92orben^ ©üben, etc.= towards the north, south, etc. 
nam $au8 = home nad^ bem ^u8 = to the house 
5U ^aud = at home $u otm i^aud = toward the houae 
golgenbed = the foUowing 

With@a(l^e,®runb, Urfad^ie, etc., the article is often omitted. 

102 CoNTRAcnoNS— The dative and accusative oases of the definite 

article are often contracted with a preceding preposition 

so as to form one word. No apostrophe is used. Ex. : 

über bad 5)fa^ = überd ^a^^ unter bad ^aud = unterS ^ud 

}u ber ©qiule = jut ©d^ule in bad ^ebtrge = ind ®ebirge 

. ut bem (Stebirge = im @lebtrge bei bem )6ater = beim )6ater 

103 This contraction takes place very frequently in familiär lan- 

guage, but can not be used when the noun is particularized by a fol- 

lowing clause or phrase. Ex. : 

St ge^t aur f ird^e, but, (Sr gebt $u bet ititd^e, ju ber aud^ fein Später ging, 
dt lebt im (S^ebiige, but, (Er lebi in beut G^ebirge, bad man t)on ^ier feigen f ann. 

104 Where several nouns in the same construction foUow each 
other, the article must be repeated before each : The father and mother 
were at home = ^er Später unb bie SO^utter tparen ju ^ufe. 



268 APPENDIX 

NOÜNS 

Syntax of Gases 

GGNERAL 

105 2lj3po8i^tve9— Nomns in apposition with other nouns or pro- 
pouns are in the same oase. They may stand without conneoting 
particle or with the particle ali or (nie. 

@r tritt aU StlHtt auf. 

(Sr fielet i^n a(d feinen Seinti an. 

@r ^at ken @enrral, bm etflen SKann be^ 2anhe& gefeiten« 

NOMINATIVE 

f 06 I* Snbjeet (and vocative) — as in English. 

1 07 II* Predieate ITonn-^with or without M» 

1 08 III* Absolute. 

II. Predieate Nenn 

109 After the verbs gelten (to be valued at), erf feinen (appearX 

Ijertioroelien, auffielen, le0en, fierben, fie||en, the participies nnotflettt 

(plaoed), berufen (called), erfiart (explained), auigeoellen (declared), 

Befunben (found), gefüllt (feit), etfannt (recognized), geffird^tet (feared). 

begeltt (desired) (i. e. , verbs whioh are synonymous with to be in & 
wider sense)» we use the predieate nominative with the inter- 
medial particle al§. 

Ex.—&ef)t S^r nid^t aU eine ftönlßln |cröor? 
er toar al§ tetteuber ©ußel erfd^tenen. 
2)er SBouer f onntc aU fiftöncr SRanu gelten. 

I lO After the verbs fein, toetbeu (become), bleiben (remain), f^d« 
neu (seem), büufeu (imagine), beißen (to be called), (|eflbim|lft tDtrben 
(to be called in a bad sense), in fact, after all verbs denoting condi- 
tion, the predieate nominative is used tvithout the intervening particle. 

£ic.— er ift ein pter SWann öcBIiebcn. 

er tt)irb ein arger ©öfetttrbt gefc^im^ft. 

SBill^elm öon ber Sf^ormanbie toirb ber (Eroberer genannt. 

(B^ ift nid^t jebem gegeben, ein grofter ßeÜi ju fein. 

The English construction after to be elected, nominated, ereated, 
etc., appears in German in the form of a prepositional phrase: 
5U + dative. Ex.-^üe is elected president = er tt^irb pm ^ttflboitett 
erttö|lt. 



APPENDIX 269 

The same is true after the active form of these verbs. Ex. — ^They 
nominate him mayor = ©ie ernennen il^n )ttm Sütgetmeifter. 

The predicate after Wttttn may also be expressed with pi and the 
dative— Selber tft bir bie ^eimat ptt S^emtie aetuorben^ insteadof: ^ie 
^eintat ift bie f^rentbe gen^orben. This is especially one case when toevlim 
expresses a complete change in substance as in the above example. 

The English, "I consider him to be a good man," where man 
would agree with him in the objective case, is expressed in German by 
means of a preposition, fftr — ^ä) ^Ite i^n für elttm ötttm fSlmn. 

I I f III. Absolute 

The Nominative Absolute is not very frequent in Oerman. It if< 
used mainly for vivid description. 

Ex,—%xt Slrmee gog über bie S3rüclen, alle 9tfiä^ttt büfter, jcbrr fBUnnh 
öcrfd^loffen. — 2)ie ©röfin ging gurüd, in ii^ren Singen fleberlafter ®lilits. 
In all these cases some part of the verb to be may be supplied. 

I 12 GENITIVE 

I» Attributive — modifying nouns. 

II* Partitire — denoting the whole from which a part is taken. 

III* Objective — after verbs, adjectives, ad verbs, preposltiona. 

IV* Adverbial — used instead of an adverb. 

Y* Appositional — with another genitive. 

I* Attributive (expressed in English by of), 

113 A genitive is attributive if it modifies a noun. It may then 
express a variety of relations* 

I 14 POSSESSION — ^ie ^eimat M ftittlied toat unbelannt. — ^ad 
©elbift M ftalfer«. 

I 1 5 iDENTiTY— 2)a8 Softer M XntttleS. 

Proper nouns are placed in apposition, instead of in the genitive: 

ber ä^onat W^xM, bie ©tabt $ari§. 

I 16 QUALiTY OR MATERIAL— StT SSuIm ©lanj (for bte glänjenben 
©öulen). — @in $ecf)er eb(en ©olbeS. 

117 AS OBJECT OR SUBJEOT OF THE ACTION IMPLIED IN A VERBAL 

NOUN— ^ie Teilung ber @rbe, bie iSiebe @otte0, bie gurd^ 

M ZakeS* 



ttiO APt'EllDDt 

118 Instead of the genitive we may uae tiott + dative in oertalB 
cases: 

(a) To avoid ambiguity where no artiole oan be used and where 
no inflection of the noun designates the case: Ex, — ^ie 
6tragen k)on Sonbon^ bie IBefotgung üon (Siefd^äften (bat, bie 
S3efotgung tnand^er ©efd^äfte). 

(5) In the designation of ranks and titles: Ex. — ^er ßdnig t>tm 
@ad^feiu 

(e) To avoid a series of genitives: Ex.—^et $jafjite9taQ bon @l^ale* 
f))eaT9 2:0b (not bed 2:obed @]^afeff)eaiiS). 

119 The relationship as expressed by Um + dative is less close 
than that of the genitive. ^tlttf d^lnitbil ftaifct indicates a unity of 
inteiest, while kcr ftttifct Ho« Snttfd|Iaidl merely expresses the title. 

II. Partitive 

1 20 Denoting the whole, f rom which a part is takeü. 
(a) After nunibers—^toti btt SoQiatttt 

(6) After adjectives denoting quantity (usually plural) — tiiele, 

mand^e^ lein^ etUd^e^ genug. 

Ex,-^^tm^ brr fthibrr l^tte ed ge^5rt. 
C^tlid^e brr SRimitrt lamen gelaufeiu 
These adjectives may be foUowed by the noun in the same oase, as: 
ßein ßinb l^atte ed gel^ört C^tlid^e äJ^ännet lanten gelaufen. 

(c) After any Substantive adjective, espeoially in oomparativa 
and Superlative degree. 

%\t glüdlid^pe brt 3tm(|fraitttt. 

2er Siege göttlid^fter ift bad Sergeffen. 

III. ObJectiTe 

121 1. After ver5d.— Certain verbs take the genitive as a direot 

objeet. These verbs originally represented the action as 
afifecting not the whöle but only a part ot the objeet. 
Ex.--^ trani ben Sßein = He drank the wine (all of it). (Sr 
ttani bei^ 38etned a He drank of the wine (some of it). This 
use of the genitive is decreasing and is found most fre- 
quently in elevated discourse, poetry, etc. In ordinary 
Speech it is often superseded by the dative or aecusative. 
used directly after the verb or with a preposition. FoUow- 
ing is a list of verbs that frequently govem the genitive» 
together with permissible substitutions. 



APPENDIX 271 

f 22 Repeesentative Verbs with Genitive as Sole Object 
ad^ten=heed (auf, acc.) 0cbcitfen=think 

bebürf cn=need (aoo. ) Ö^^^f ^"=6^ v© birth to 

bege]^ren=desire (acc.) ]^arrcn=wait (auf, acc.) 

brauc^enssneed (acc.) lac^en=laugh (über, acc.) 

benfcn=think (on, acc.) fc^oncn=8pare (acc.) 

entbe^ren=lack (acc.) f:potten=mock (über, acc.) 

crtoö]^ncn=mention (acc.) öergeffen=forget (acc.) 

fro]^IodEen=exult (über, acc.) toaIten=rule (über, acc.) 

toarten=wait (auf, acc.) 

Ex. — @^otte feinet uid)t (Do not make sport of him). 
(JJcbenfc mein (Think of me). 

123 Genitive AS Secondary Object 

A number of verbs are followed by the accusative of the person 
and the genitive of the thing. Such are: 

(a) Verbs denoting Separation or deprivation, as: 

bcrauben=rob entloften=relieve 

cnt^eben=deprive or relieve entlcbigen=exempt 

cnt!rciben=divest cntfe^en=dispossess 

entloffen=dismiss (oug, dat.) t)crttjeifen=banish (auS, dat.) 

Ex.—^n Äoifer enti^ob hen General feinet VmitL 

The emperor deprived the general of his position. 

(6) Verbs denoting accusation, acquittaly etc., as 

auflagen befd^ulbtgen bc^id^tigen freifprccf;en 
überfül^ren Überreifen jeil^eu 

-Er.— ^er mdjtex befd^ulbigtc t>en SDieufd^en M aieBjloJIg. 
The judge accused the man of theft. 

1 24 Some reflexives take the genitive as secondary object, as 

fid^ bcmäd^tigen = to get possession of 

ftd^ bebienen = to make use of 

fid^ eutfinnen = to recoUect 

fid^ erinnern = to remember 

fid^ erioel^ren = to keep from 

fid^ öerfel^en = to expect 

jßr.— (gr bemöd^tigte firf; M ftinbeS. 

He got possession of the child. 

@r tonnte fid^ btr iiberttta4t nic^t ermei^ren. 
He could not resist the superior power. 



272 APPENDIX 

125 2* After adjectivea. — Adjectives which express potrer, hnowl' 

edge, plenty, capadty, and their opposites, govern tha 
genitive, as: 

bat = bare lebig = free 

bebürftig = in need möd^tig = able to oontrol 

betDugt = conscious mübe == tired 

blog = bare q uitt = done 

eingebenl = mindf ul fatt = sated 

frei = free fd^ulbig = guilty 

fro§ = glad pd^cr = oertain 

geben! = mindful öoß = füll 

getoättig = expectant tocrt = worth 

gctoig = certain toürbig = worthy 

126 3. After prepositiona. — Certain prepositions always govern 

the genitive. These are : 

(a) Old noun forms which have acquired a prepositional force^ 

anftatt = instead of unterl^alb = beneath 

biedfeit(d) = on this side of um toiHen ^ 

infolge = in consequence of tuegen [ for the sake of 

jenfeit(S) = on that side of l^alber ) 

oberl^alb = above bermittelft = by means of 

fettend = on the part of bermöge = by means of 

troj = in spite of jufolge = in consequence of 

(6) Old participles which have acquired a prepositional foroe — 

unbefc^abet = in spite of 
nngead^tet = notwithstanding 
ttJäl^rcnb = during 

(c) Old adjectives— unfern = not far, untoeit = not far. 

This use of the genitive is growing less frequent in spoken Ger- 
man. Phrases in which a preposition govems the dative or accusa- 
tive are frequently substituted. 

^i».— Untoeit M Sof fed = nid^t toeit tiott bem Sotfe. 

127 I^« Adverbial Genitive (used mainly in poetry). 

The Adverbial Genitive is used like any adverb to express: 

PLACE— Se^t gel^c jeber feine« 9Se0e9 (Let everyone now go 
his way). ®ad ift M SantieS nid)t ber fdxand) (That 
is not customary in this land). 



APPENDIX 273 

128 TniE— (Indefinite) SafteS Arbeit, VbtnW ®afte (during the 

daytime, work; at night, guests). @tncö fc^önen 
%aQe^ (on a beautiful day). 

For definite time the accusative is used : tliefttt 9(6ettb ging er auiS. 
Instead of either, conversational Grerman employs the preposition ait 
with the dative : am Xagc, an biefem Slbenb. 

1 29 (a) KANNER— gi^ad^ Uri jal^r' id^ jlcjcttlictt Sfufeeg (l shall proceed 

to Uri at once). 'Qfd^ fage eiJ atted (ImfleS (I say it 
in all eamestness). 

(b) CAUSE— ^ttltderS ftcrbcn (to die of hunger). 
Related to the adverbial is the exclamatory genitive: £) be§ 
ItnoIttifUii^ett XageSl We may Substitute: bcr unglü(llicf)e Xagl or über 
ben unglüdEIid^en Sag I 

1 30 DATIVE 

The main use of the dative is that of the indirect öbject This 
must be regarded in a rather wide sense, in which the dative is used 
to represent the person or object towards whom or which the action 
is directed, or from whom or which it is removod. Hence the dative 
can be used with : 

I. Terbs 

II« Adjectives (Participles and AdverbS/ 
III. PrepositioDS 

131 I. With Yerbs 

1. IMMEDIATE object — certain verbs which in English take accu- 

sative (many impersonals and reflexives). 

2. INDIRECT object — designates for whom the action is done. 

3. INTEREST — designates the person for whose advantage some- 

thing is done. 

4. ETHICAL — person whose feelings are concemed in the action. 

5. POSSESSIVE — showing a very close relationship. 

I 32 1. IMMEDIATE OBJECT 

Certain classes of verbs which in English take the direct object, 
in German govern the dative. The Germans recognize by this use 
a distinction between the action which affects the object as directly 
as in the sentence id) fd^Iage tli^, and that which represents an 
approach or a f eeling towards it, as : id) naivere ntid) t\X and \6) ^mlt 
bit. The verbs that govern the dative directly, ezpress: 



274 APPENDIX 

133 Approaeh or Departore: as au^tDetd^en (avoid), begegnen 

(meet), fehlen (lack), folgen (foUow or obey), nachgeben 
(yield), naiven (approaeh). 

He avoided the enemy. 
@§ fel^lt mit an bent 92ötigften. 

I am in lack of the most necessary things. 
^ie fOlnttev gibt *bem ftittbe 5U fel^r nad), 

The mother yields to the child too much. 

134 Similarity or Identity: gleichen, öl^neln, or gl^nltd^ feigen (to 

resemble), entf^redjen (to correspond). 

-Er.— @r ähnelt feiner SRutter, or er fie^t feiner SKutter ö^nlic^ 
He resembles his mother. 
2)aS entfpricf)t nid^t bett Xat^aä^tn. 
That does not correspond to the facts. 

S)u gleic^ft beut ®eifl, hen bu begreifft, ni(f)t mir. 

You resemble the spirit that you comprehend, not mo. 

135 Appnrtenance: angel^ören and gel^ören (belong), gebül^ren (to 

be owing to), geziemen (to be proper), überlaffen (lo leave to), 
3uf ommen (to be due to). 

-Bit?.— S)iefe (g^re gebührt \^m nid^t. 

This honor dbes not befit him. 

S)ag überlaffen toir beinern ©ntai^ten. 

We leave that to your judgment. 
tiefer 9lang f omntt mir nid^t gu, 
I am not entitled to this rank. 

136 Inclination or Bepnlsion: bel^agen (to suit), gefallen (to 

please), l^ulbigen (to pay homage to), toiberftelicn (to realst), 
gürnen (to rage at), gufagen (to suit). 

Ex,—'S^a^ aSetter geföUt mir gor nidE)t. 

The weather does not please me at alL 
(Sie i^ulbigen ber ftönigin. 

They pay homage to the queen. 
^a§ §au§ fagt mir jn. 
The house suits me. 

137 Utility and its Oppo»ite: beiftel^en (assist), bienen (serve). 

nü^en (benefit), Reifen (help), fdjaben (injure), Unrecht tun 
(do wrong). 



APPENDIX 216 

Ex,—(^in guter aJienfd^ ftcl^t ben Wmtn 6ci. 
A good man succors the poor. 

^Qg \ä)\oexe SBerf ift i|m gelungen. 
He succeeded in the difficult task. 

man fott feine» »tt^Rrtt nid^t Unted^t tun. 
One ought not to wrong one's neighbors. 

1 38 An Attitnde of Receptiyity and Obedience (and the opposite): 

folgen, gcl^ord^en, laufd^cn, ju'l^ören, bci'ftimnten, banfen, tpiber- 
fprc'c^en« 

iSS».— Äinbet füllen lien ßWem gel^ord^en. 

Ohildren should obey their parents. 

^ie 3ul^öret l^aben bem Xebner beigeftirnntt. 
The audience agreed with the Speaker. 

& ift unl^öflid^, ttUetnt geuten ju toiberf^ret^en, 
It is impolite to contradict older people. 

139 Impersonals with the Dative 

eS al^nt mir = I have a presentiment 

eS ef elt mir = I am disgusted 

c§ gelingt mir = I succeed : 

e^ bel^agt mir = It suits me 

eg gefönt mir = It suits me 

c2 graut mir = I have a horror of 

eS liegt mir an = I care 

eä fd^ttJinbelt mir = I am dizzy 

eS fc^eint mir = It seems to me 

e3 tut mir leib = I am sorry 

eS tut mir tpe^ = It hurts me 

140 After Beflexive Yerhs 

Some reflexive verbs take the dative as secondary object. 

fid^ ergeben = to submit 
fic^ fügen = to yield 
fid^ nähern = to approach 
\i6) toiberfegen = to resist 

ßc.— er fügt fid^ meiner 9inorlinttn0. 

He yields to my arrangementa. 

©ie toiberfe|t ftd^ feinem S^efe^L 
She resists his eommand. 



276 APPENDIX 

141 2. INDIRECT OBJECT 

The indirect ob ject shows to or for whom the action is perf ormed 
It is found after the verbs of giving, communicating, shounng, com- 
manding, taking, etc. 

Ex.—^d) gebe Wr t>a& 93ud^ (I give you the book). dt ergäl^lt i^m 
bie &e\d)xd)tt (He teils him the story). @r nal^tn i|m fein legtet ®ut (Ho 
took his last possession from him). ^d) ^eige \^m beit redeten S93eg (l 
show him the right way). @r gebot i|m 5U fd^toeigen (He commanded 
him to be silent. 

Sometimes the dative expresses the objeot of the prefix of the 
verb — ^6) lege ha^ @elb bent ©riefe bei (I enclose the money in the 
letter). Here bem 93riefe is the object of bei and QkVö is the object of 
the entire verb. 

I 42 8. INTEREST OR ADV ANTAGE 

3Bic gel^t eS 3lil^^? (How are you ? How goes the world for you 1) 
VliX ift aUeS eind (It is all one to me). ^6) beforge i)m biefed O^fc^äft 
(I attend to this business for him). 9Ktr gef({)ie!^t red)t (It serves me 
right); and many of the impersonals mentioned in section 139)« 

I 43 4. ETHICAL. DATIVE 

This dative is very difficult to translate. It represents the person 
whose mental interest in the action is solicited. Ex. — ^3len Hpfel fc^iegt 
ber SSater iltr öom SBaum (Father will shoot an apple oflf the tree, if you 
want him to). ^a6)t mit nur leine fold^en (3e\d)\6)ten mel^r (Don't, I beg 
of you, perform any more such tricks). 

I 44 5. POSSESSIVE DATIVE 

In speaking of parts of the body, or of anything very closely 
related to the person, as honor, life, home, friends, etc., we often use 
the definite article instead of the possessive pronoun and express the 
idea of appurtenance by the dative. 

£'a?.— 2)er Sinb blöft h\t htn §ttt öont £opf (The wind is blowing 
your hat from your head). ^afd|e )lir tit ^üntie (Wash your hands). 

1 45 II- With AAjectiTes 

Aäjectives (participles and adverbs) govem the dative in cases 
where the meaning is similar to the verbs (cf. 133 to 138) that gov- 
ern the dative, i.e., approach, similarity, inclinatüm, utility, ohedience, 
and their opposites: nal^e (near), ferne (far), äl^nlid^ (similar), l^olb and 
gut (kindly disposed), nüfelid^ (useful), gel^orfam (obedient). 

Ex.—^m SRabd^en in ber Söurg ift mir ^olb [or gut] (A rnaid of the 
Castle is fond of me). 



APPENDIX 277 

III. With Prepositions 

1 46 Certain prepositions always govern the dative. 

ab = away f rom nad^ = af ter 

aus = out o^ nöd^ft = next to 

ouger = outside of (except) neBft ^ besides 

bei = near or with fomt = together with 

binnen = within feit = sinoe 

entgegen = towards öon = from 

gegenüber =opposite 5U=to 

mit = with 5Uföiber = against 

1 47 Prepositions which denote eitherposf ^ion or transition govem 

the dative when the verb does not eocpress motion towards 
the object, i.e., when the phrase answers the question mo ? 
These prepositions are: 
an = at neben = beside 

auf = upon über = over 

l^inter = behind unter = under 

in = in öor = before 

jloifti^en = between 

Ex. — ^Acc. @r gel^t an bm Sif^ (He goes up to the table). 
Dat. @r fielet an bem %\\ili^ (He Stands at the table). 

1 48 ACCUSATIVE 

I* Birect Object of Transitive Verb (many impersonals and 
reflexives). 

!(a) Two Nouns; 
(&) Factitive; 
(c) Noun and Infinitive^ 
III. €ognate Accnsative (intransitive verb). 
IT. Adverbial. 
y. Absolute. 
YI. With Prepositions. 

I. Direct Object 

149 Transitive verbs take the direct object in the acousative 

case— (Sr fii^iegt brtt <Soltiateii. 

150 Verbs that are intransitive ir their simple form are some- 

times made transitive by a prefix which limits or directs 
the meaning — gd^ anttoorte bit auf bie grage; \6) (eant^ 
matte bie &roge. ^6) bonle bir; id) (etianfe rntil^ bei bir. 3d^ 
folflr bem 9tot; id^ (rfoloe ^^x^ 9lat* 



278 APPENDIX 



IBI Certain impermmaU (mostly lepresentiiig a physical state) 
take the aocusative. 

ed bünit mi(^ (also ed buitlt mir) I think 

ed bürfiet mic^ I am thirsty 

ed elett mt^ an (bat eS eUit mix haüox) I am disgusted 

ed friert mic^ I am cold 

ed (ungert mi(^ I am hongry 

ed f(^Idf ert mic^ I am sleepj 

In manyof these, the r§ is oftenomitted and theaccusativeplaced 
first, as though it were the subject, i.e., mit^ (ungert, bfirftet, fc^Iöfert, 
etc. 

1 62 lU^flexive verbs take the direct object in the acxsusati^e. 

Sc^ fc^ätne »i^ I am ashamed 

3(^ freue «iil| I rejoioe 

3(^ fürchte mi^ I am afraid 

^d) erinnere mi^ ^ remember 

3* fc^ne midi I long 

^ö) beftnne midi I recollect 

II. Double Accnsatlre 

f S3 Some verbs take tioo accusatives, the person affected and the 
thing produced. 

1 54 "^e second object may be a noun, or pronourij as : Se^re bit 

editier bie toalire SBeiB^cit. ^d^ frage ed biil|. 

195 When the object is the result ofthe actione it is called/ac/i- 
tive, i. a , @r nennt i^n ritten bnmmett 3tttt0ftt> Verbs which take this 
constniction are: nennen, l^eigen (to call), fd^intpfen, fd^elten, taufen. 

1 56 The secondary object may be an infinit ive (without gu). i^ 
V6xe i(n {ittgett. Verbs capable of this construction are : l^ören, fe^n, 
pnben, lehren, lernen, l^etgen (to command), loffem 

III. Gognate Aecnsative i 

1 57 Intransitive verbs may have an object that ezpresses the idea of i 
the action in the form of the nonn. Sometimes the two are formed j 
from the same root : dx träumt einen fd^önen ^ranm. j 

er lebt ein ööttrid}eS f^tbtn. 
Sometimes merely synonymous in meaning: 

C^r ftirbt einen fdjönen Z^i, 



APPENDIX 279 

ITIME 
ME ASURE 
DISTRIBUTION 

1 58 Like the genitive, the accusaÜTd may express certain adverbial 
relations. 

159 TiMB— The accusative expresses a definite time, as \At\tti 

Vbtv!t toax er ausgegangen; or duration of time, as bm %an^ 
gen %ü% blieb er ju ^aufe. [Note that the genitive expresses 
indefinite or habitual time; of. 128 (b).] 

160 PLACE— (Sc^c beinett Kfö, bni gfaj l^inab. 

161 MEASüRE — After certain ad jectives that express size, weight, 

or quantity, the accusative is used to designate the amount, 
i.a , ^ag m\tä)en tft eittett Soll ^od^* @d tuiegt |tiiti ipfmtk. 
2)ag §cer ift tattfmb äRann ftart * 

1 62 DISTRIBUTION— ®S f oftct fünf Xalct bctt 9teter. 

*In the accusative of measnre the noun is used without inflection, glving the 
appearance of the Singular form-4 ^funb Äaffec, 7 QoU l^Od^, 3 2)utenb. 
In the neuter nouns thls is the old form of the plural, the mascullues and femi- 
nines follow by analogy. 

T. Absolute Accusative 

1 63 More frequently than the nominative the accusative is used 
without granimatical connection, for the purpose of vivid description. 

@r ging l^tnaui^, htn fto))f f^cd) erhoben. 

Tl. With Prepositions 

1 64 Certain prepositions always govem the accusative. They are: 
burd^ (througli), um (around), ol^ne (without), big (until), für (for), gegen 
(against), tDiber (against). Prepositions denoting both position and 
transition govem the accusative when motion towards an öbject is 
implied (cf. 147). 

Are \ SBl'Mtt ift et gegongen ?=Where did he go? 

' ( @r ift in ba^ ^anl gegangen=He went into the house. 

1^ j 9Bp ift et gettjefen?=Where has he been ? 

'^' \ gr ift ift beul ßttttfe gettJcfcn=He has been in the house. 



280 APPENDIX 

PBONOUNS 
Personal 

1 65 USB OF htt AND Sie 

Stt is the natural form of address and is used whenever no con* 

ventional restraints are feit, as is the case when we address animals, 

children, members of the famlly, or very intimate friends, and in 

prayer. ®ie (really third person plural) is used in all conventional 

Gonversation, both in singular and plural. 

Ex.—^axl, gib mir beiti SBucf)! ©Ott, toir banfcn ®lr für bcine 
®nabe! 

©eben (Sie mir ;3^re §anbl Segen (Sie aUe ^i^xt SBüci^er nicbcr! 

1 66 Demonstrative 

The demonstrative pronoun is often used in Glerman ivhere, in 
English, we would employ the personal.— 3^ f^^^ ^axi, bct fommt gcrabc 
te(f)t (I See Charles, he is just in time). The demonstrative pronoun 
produces greater stress and emphasizes the relation to the preceding 
Word. The only difference between a demonstrative clause, such as 
the above, and the relative clause is in the order of words, which, 
however, changes the emphasis : ^c^ fel^e ^atl, bet gerabe rec^t fommt 
(I see Charles, who is just in time). This is much less emphatic. 

1 67 The demonstrative biefet is used for ths latter, and {nttt for 

the former. 

Ex.—Tlaxie utib ii^re SD^uttcr finb im ©arten, blefc mit dlaf^en, itnt 
mit (Spielen befc&äftigt (Mary and her mother are in the garden, 
the latter busiea with sewing, the former with playing. ) 

Occasionally, to avoid ambiguity, the demonstratives berfelbe, bei' 
jenige are used. Ex.—^a^ ä3ud) liegt in ber £abe, ber ^edtel bedfelben ij't 
aufgefd^Iagen. But this somewhat stilted form is usually avoided. 

1 68 Relative 

The relatives bft and toelll^et do not differ in meaning. £er 
is used more frequently; good writers use turf^ft to avoid a w^eari- 
some repetition of ber. Ex.—^\t, tütl^t id^ gefe^en, instead of bit, btc 
x6) gefe^en, although the latter also is often used. The genitive of 
tociSjex, tütUl^t^, is not used relatively, except in comparatively rare 
oases in which the pronoun is used adjectively, as: JSSelf^eS 3feannc5 
8o]^n er aud) fei (No matter whose son he be). But here the word may 
be considered as interrogative. For the relative tlieIAf§ we now 
Substitute bcffett (the genitive of ber). ®er Tlann, bcffcw (Sol^n Sie 
fennen (The man whose son you know). 

169 SSer and toa§ as relatives 

The indefinite tOCr is used as a relative in the following cases: 

(a) When it includes both antecedent and relative: SBcr nic^t ^öreii 
lüiß, muß füllen (Whoever will not obey, must suffer). 

(6) Indirect question : gd^ hjeig nicf)t, ttier eö tft. 



APPENDIX 281 

1 70 The indefinite ttiaS may be used (instead of ba§) after aUed, 
nidtti ettoaS, Hi, and the indefinite adjectives, attetlei, vielerlei, 
tnanil}etlei, and any other neuter adjective used indefinitely ; as, lia§ 
®1tte, )ia§ fbt^t, etc. äBa§ also represents an antecedent clause. 

JS».— 2lße§, ttiad ic^ l^obc, fle^t bir gut Sßerfügung (All that I have 
is at your disposal) (Sr fa^ feine (Sd|ulb ein, tuad aber nid^tS ntel^r 
gut mad^te (He recognized his fault, which fact, however, did not 
mend affairs. 

Pro7ioun8 with Prepositions 

1 7 I When demonstratives and relatives as objects of prepositions 

rofer to animals or things, they are usually compounded with the 

preposition, the pronouns being reduced to ba(t),* ÖI0(t),* respectively. 

Demonstrative babei, barin, baburd^, banebcn, etc. 

Relative tooöon, toobei, moburd^, tooran, toorin, etc. 

Ex—{&x l^atte 5tt)ei $fcrbe^ tt)ot)on ha^ eine fd^toarj, ha^ anbere tnetg toat, 

♦ The t is inserted to keep two vowels apart. 

1 72 Sa may point forward to a following clause or phrase: 

(£r marb tiaburd^ beleibigt, ha^ U^n ntemanb bemerlte. 
He was offended at nobody's noticing him. 

@g lag i^m nid^td katan, etttia§ in Hetbienen. 

f 73 Sdtttit may be either the compoimd {demonstr. -f mit) or a 
conjunction introducing a clause of purpose. 

@r l^at bad &^l'b; tiamit fann man bietet anfangen« 

He has money ; with it one can do much. 
@r berbient ha^ Qielb, bamit er ettoad anfangen lonn. 
He earns money in order to be able to accomplish something. 

1 74 Sq and tOQ are also contracted with the adverbs l^in (thither) 
and ^tt (hither) to form demonstrative and relative Compounds. 
These Compounds may be used as subordinato conjunctions. 
@r ge!^t ba|itt, Itiol^er feine ^orfal^ren gef ommen ftnb. 
He goes to the place whence his ancestors came. 
SBo bu bifi, bal^itt toiH id^ au6) gelten* 
Where you are, thither will I go also. 

170 The prepositions l^alfe and )ue(tett are compounded with the 
genitives of the demonstrative and relative pronoun, forming )l(d)alb^ 
tiedttiegen, median, tOtMt%tn, which are used as causative conjunctions. 

^r tDar frani, be^latt blieb er ^u ^ufe. 

He was sick, therefore he stayed at home. 
(Sr toax IranI, Uie§|al6 er $u $aufe blieb. 
He was sick, for which reason he stayed at home. 



2Ö2 APPENDIX 

TERBS 

Mode 

INDICATIVE — Statement of fact. 
SSI^ ( Statement of a suppoeitton. 

IMPERATIVE — Command. 

INFINITIVE — Qeneral statement of the action. 

Indicatire 

176 Direct Statements or questions are expressed in the indi'o- 
ative mode. 

1. Present Time— present tense 



Tenses ' 



[ 



[ preterite tense 
2. Past Time •< perfect tense 

( pluperfect tense 

8. Future Time j '"*"™ ^"^ 



f uture perfect tense 

1. Present Time 

(a) To express an action taking place at the time—^(S) ^t^t }c|t a«8. 
(6) To express a general truth—^e'bcn Ift ©über, ©(f|»cigen ip ®oIb. 

(c) To express a very vivid future — 3Äorgcn (|e!|t er fort (To-morrow 
he will go away). 

(d) To express a state of affairs beginning in the pa^t and con- 
tinued in ihe present (expressed in English by the perfect 
tense)— Qd^ bin je^t 5»ct ga^rc in S^icago (I have now been two 
jears in Chicago). 

In German ^6) (ht StPet ^Oifyct in (S^^tcago Qftiiefeit would mean, I 
was in Chicago for two years. Such a use of the perfect indicates 
a oessation of the action or condition in the present, hence: er l^at 
gelebt = he is dead. 

(e) To express a very vivid imperative — ^ic Königin \pxa6n jum 
$agen: ^u laitflü einmal unb j^ölfi mir htn Beutel ^um 6piele. 

This use of the present indicates that the Speaker is very sure that 
the Order will be carried out. 

(/) Historical present for very vivid past descriptions — ^ann ntr» 
friert ba^ $eer im rafd^en Xempo nieiter unb jeber @o(bat fit|lt ftc^ 
gehoben (Then the army marched on at a rapid pace and eveiy 
soldier feit himself uplifted). 



APPENDIX 283 



( Preterite 



2. Past Time< Perfect 

( Pluperfect 

f 77 Past time may be expressed by the preterite^ the perfecta the 
pluperfect j according as the action is considered as absolutely or rela^ 
iively past. If a simple Statement of a fact that has taken place in the 
past is made without any reference to an accompanying fact, it is 
more usual to employ the perfect tense. 

S^ Mit geftem bort getoefen (I was there yesterday). 
S^ iait bad gelagt (I said that). 
If this is limited by some other fact, the preterite is preferable: 

^tö er ins 3^^^^^ trat, %\n% fein trüber l^inauS. 
When he stepped into the room, his brother went out. 

This rule is not absolute, as the best writers show great divergence 
of use, but it will be found a safe working basis. 

The pluperfect tense represents an action that has occurred previ- 
ous to some other past event — 

(Sr Ijatte fd|on fein SBucfi bitr^gelefett, e^c bcr ßc^rer tarn. 
He had read his book through before the teacher came. 

8. FüTURE AND FUTURE PeRFECT 

1 78 The simple future tense is used (as in English) to express an 
event about to take place from the Standpoint of the präsent — 

G^r toirb morgen (ommett. 

179 The future perfect expresses an event completed from the 
point of view of the future — 

(£r liiirll bis bal^in %tUvmtn fein (By that time he will have come). 

For the future we may Substitute the present [cf . 1 76 (c)]. For the 
future perfect we may Substitute the perfect — 

SBiä bal^in i{| er fci^on defornmeit. 
These substitutions give a greater vividness. 

The future and future perfect have an idiomatic use to indicate 
probability — 

€3 toirb tool^I üier Ui^r fein. 

It is probably four o'clock. 

@d toirb toa& anbered tooI)l bebrütet liabetL 

It probably meant something eise. 

9Bo ttiirb er bte ^ad)t gitgebrai^t laben ? 

Where can he have spent the night ? 



284 APPENDIX 

SabjonctlTe 

1 80 The subjunctive, in contrast to the indicative, expressed not a 
fad but a thought, often a thought for the truth of which the Speaker 
assumes no responsibility. 

KINDS OP SUBJUNCTIVE 

I« Sapposition. 

(a) INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 

(b) CONDITION (UNREAL). 

(c) DOUBT. 

IL Desire. 

(a) UNFULFILLED. 

f COMMAND, 

(P) POSSIBLY FÜLFILLED ) PRAYER AND WISH, 

( CONCESSIVE. 

I. Sapposition 

(a) INDIRECT DISCOURSE 

181 This use of the subjunctive occurs most frequently and must 
be caref uUy studied. It is used after verbs of saying^ vnshing, think- 
ing.feeling, askingt etc., whenever the quoted sentence is not stated 
as a positive fact. Thus we say, ®r glaubte, ba% e§ rid^tig fcl (He 
thought it was right), but dt ttjugte, bag e§ rid^tig mar (He knew it 
was right), because in the second sentence is implied the actuality 
of the fact. 

182 The con junction .baß is frequently omitted in ordinary con- 
versation. In that case the order becomes normal, and the sub- 
junctive mode is used to show the indirect discourse. 

Ex,-^{&t tuugte, e§ fei toal^r. 

Tensb Usb op Indirect Discoubsb 

1 83 In all uses of the subjunctive tenses we find a weak sense of 
time. The various tenses are used to express a variety of relationship 
of the Speaker towards the thought expressed. In indirect discourse, 
the tense of the quoted sentence has no dependence upon that of the 
leading verb, i. e. , there is no sequence of tense as in Latin. Bach tense 
of the indirect discourse may correspond with the tense of the 
direct quotation, except in the preterite. The preterite, as shown in the 
paradigm (cf. 62, p. 2.) has, in many instances, crept into the present, 
to take the place of those present forms which, because of similar- 
ity with the present indicative, have lost their subjunctive force- 
Thus the preterite subjunctive has lost the significance of past time 
and Stands for the present. For the preterite we use the perfect in 
indirect discourse. 



APPENDIX 



285 



1 84 Hence we may have the followiag oorrespondenoe 



Indirect Quotation 

SUBJUNCTIVB 

( Present tense 

1 ^^ 

(Preterite tense 

Perfect tense 

Perfect tense 

Pluperfect tense 

Future tense ) or 

Fut. Perf. tense )Conditional 

This shif ting has tended still further to weaken the sense of time 
in the tenses, so that good authors use present and preterite, perfect 
and pluperfect, future and conditional, interchangeably to avoid 
wearisome repetition, without any feeling of difference in time. 



Direet Quotation 

Indicativb 

Present tense 

Preterite tense 
Perfect tense 
Pluperfect tense 
Future tense 
Future Perfect tense 



/..r DiRECT 
* 



I 



Examplea 

Indirect 

( G^te ) 

(5r •( or V i)exm 

( ßittgf) 

( ^^ 

©r j or \ ^cim gegangen 



(^cii 
) 



@r ttierliej or ( l^cim gc^cn 

@r merbe ( mürbe f ^cim oegangen fein 



er Ifl ^eim gegangen 

(Sr toar ^eim gegangen 

@r toirb ^eim gelten 

(Sr ttiirti I)eim gegangen fein 

When the present subjunctive is identical in form with the present 
indicative, or similar in sound, the preterite subjunctive is to be pre- 
f erred. This is always true in the Ist person singular and in the plural. 

iNDic— 3d^ l^aBc ba§ S3nd^. Subj.— (gr fagt, ^a^ iä) ba§ S3ud^ |attc 
(not Jttbe). Indic— SBir l^abcn bag S8uc^. Subj.— (Sr fagt, bag tt)ir ha^ 
S3ud^ Ratten (not l^aten). For insertion or Omission of liag cf. 182« 

(6) UNREAL. CONDITION 

f 85 This levelling out of all difference in meaning between present 
and preterite, perfect and pluperfect subjunctive has not extended to[ 
the other uses of the subjunctive. On the contrary, there is here a 
very sharply drawn distinction in meaning. 

I 86 The present and perfect are used for the expression of thoughts 
which may be true to actual facts; the preterite and pluperfect for 
suppositions which are known to be unreal. This is illustrated in 
unreal conditiona. 



JSe APPENDIX 

Present time » Preterite gabj. 
Past tlme = Piaperfect subj. 

£!».— äBenn id) ein ^öglein tm\ W ^4 i^ ^i^- 
If I were a bird, I should fly to you. 
SBenn ic^ ein SBöglein geuiefen tnm, t^dxt i^ au bir oefIflQnt. 
If I had been a bird, I should have flown to you. 

1 87 In place of tlie sub junctive in the apodosis, the conditional 
mode may be used (cf. paradigm 68). 

£!r.— äBenn ic^ ein ^öglein toäre, Mttt id^ h^ ^i^ fRedttt. 

SSenn i6) ein SBoglein geföefen toaxe, MxU i^ au bir %rib%m ftitt. 

1 88 The ttfUtl may be omitted, in which case the order is inverted: 

aSarr idft ein SßbQltiru 

1 89 A real condition is a statement of fact, hence is expressed by 
theindicative: SBcnn eS xt%ntt, nimmt man einen 3legenf(^irm (When- 
ever it rains, one takes an umbrella). 

1 90 Occasionally one of the two parts of the condition is made espe- 
cially vivid by being plaoed in the indicative: Wtit biefem $feir btirdi« 
fdiol i4 @u(^, menn ic^ mein (iebeiS ^inb getroffen l^ötte (With this arrow 
I should have shot you, if I had hit my beloved child). 

(c) DOUBT 

1 9 I After als ob (as though) -closely related to the conditional 
subjunctive — @r fa^ aud. ald ob er ein Unrecht (eQgiioni 
ißiit (He looked as thougn he had done a wrong). %r tat 
atö fd^Ueff ^x (He acted as though he slept). 

192 BabitatiYe or Diplomatie (also known as subjunctive of 
weakened assertion), i. e., a modest statement of a fact 
which, by being put into the subjunctive, receives a ten- 
tative air, as though the Speaker were open to conviotion 
on the subject. (This may be oonsidered a part of an 
unreal condition. ) 

Ex. — ^d) backte bod^ = I should really suppose 

Sfli6)t ba% id) niügte = Not that I am aware of 

^ä) möd^te »o^I = I should like 

^d) l^öttc eg lieber = I should prefer 

(S^ »are tootfi an ber 3<^it = It is about time 

2)aS bürf te gef äl^rlic^ fein = That might be considered dangeious 

SBer toügte t>a^ nid)t? = Who doesn't know that ? 

SBog l^otte id^ ju fürchten? = Of what should I be afraid ? 

^aiS loöre mal^r ? = Could that be true ? 

Sie bätte bad (letan? = I cannot believe that ehe bas done tbat 



APPENDIX 287 



II. Desire 



193 The difTerence in meaning between thepresent aud preterite, 
perfect and pluperfect tenses of the subjiinctive (cf. 185) is furthei 
illustrated in the subjunctive of Desire. 

1 94 A desire may be of t wo kinds : 

j Preterite sabj» 
(a) Impossible of fuiailment \ pi^^perfect snbj. 

(6) Possible of fulfillment— Present subj. 

Ex.^a) SBenn er bod^ nod^ am fiebcn töttre I 
Oh, that he wäre still alivel 
SBenn er bod^ nod^ einige ^[al^re geleüt l^iUtf I 
Oh, that he had lived a few years longer 

As in case of the conditional subjunctive (cf. § 188) the ttiftttt may 
be omitted and the order become inverted: SBäre er boc^ nod^ am 
£ebenl $ötte er bod| nod^ einige j^a^re grleBt I 

(6) Desire tliat is expected to be ful/Uled, 

i 95 1- COMMAND — Ist and 3d person. 

2. PRAYER OR wisfl— Ist and 3d person. 

3. CONCESSIVE. 

1 96 !• Under the desire that is expected to be f ulfilled we class 
the command addressed to the first and third persons (represented in 
English by let and the infinitive). 

Let US go home I = (Btf^tn mir nad^ $aufe I 
Let him not forget ! = 8f r(jf f|e er nicf|t, 

197 2. Forms of prayer or beseeching: 3)ein ^eiä) fomntfl (Thy 
kingdoni conie!) 

Since the third person plural subjunctive is identical in form 
with the corresponding person of the indicative (cf. § 62, p.2 . ) we often 
Substitute for this construction the modal auxiliary mÜ(|etlH~ ^^^^^^^i^^- 

Ex.—JXxitWtn SBeifere über bie grage = SBeifere mügett über bie fjrage 
ttrteileit. 

1 98 3. Concessive — This represents a willingness on the part of the 
Speaker to grant certain Claims as not affecting the validity of hiä 
luain contention. It is always in the present. 

Ex.—Me^ anbere, fei e§ toa« eS fei, gilt nid^«. 

Everything eise, be it what it may, oounts for nothing. 
& fei fo tote bu gefagt l^aft* 
Let it be as you have said. 



288 APPENDIX 

1 99 The same idea is sometimes expressed by the modal auziliary 
mügeil + Infinitive. 

Ex.—(B^ mü% \o fein, toie bu gefagt l^afL 
Granted what you bave said. 

Imperative 

200 Strictly speaking there are but two forms of the imperative, 
the second person preseut Singular and plural — 

Oift Oet(e)t 

20 1 But the use of the third person plural pronoun (Sie) for 
the conventional form of address has introduced a new form into the 
imperative (of. 165): gelben ®ie (always with the subject expressed 
after the verb). 

202 These three forms are used for direct command addressed to 
another person or persons. 

203 An indirect command ref erring to a third person may be 
expressed by the subjunctive (cf. 196). 

204 Extremely emphatic commands in familiär speech are often 
expressed by the indicative present (cf. 176e), by the perfect x)articiple: 
fd^neU gelaufen ! (run quiokly ) and by the infinitive : nid^t f o laut fprec^enf 
(don't speak so loudly). 

Thus we may express commands in eight ways — 

Imperative \ ^^^^^^^ <^^)' 
( arüeitet (t^r)! 

( arbeitett ®ie I 
Subjunctive^ arBeite er! 

( arbeiten tolr I 
Indicative— bn atbetteft! 
Participle— fd^nett gearbeitet I 
Infinitive— f^nett arbeiten ! 

205 Infinitive- Verbal Neun 

I. Part of the Yerb (without p) 
II. With Neun or Adjective (with pi) 
III, Substantive (with or without p) 

206 I* Part »^ ^erb 

The infinitive is used to form (a) the future tenses, (5) the con- 
ditional mode, (c) the complement of the modal auxiliarles and 
(d) of a few verbs of similar construction. In this use the infinitive 
without pl is the rule. 



APPENDEC 289 

ß«.— (a) gd^ »erbe %titn. 

(6) 3(^ luürbc (egangm fclti. 

(c) @g mug gefagt )oer)im. 

(d) The other verbs that admit of this oonstruction are: finbcn, 
füllten, l^cigen, l^elfen, l^örcn, Taffeit, Icl^rcn, lernen, mQd)cn, feficn. 

Sdd laffe ba§ bon ber 'SRaqh im (cf. 212). 
(5r mad^t mic^ öor bem ganzen $ofe erröten. 
He makes me blush before my entire court. 

(e) After a few verbs the Infinitive (without ju) is used idiomat- 
ically to express duration of condition. 

Ex.^(Bx BleiBt fl^en. He keeps bis seat. 

@r Ijatte t)a^ @)e(b im haften liegen. He had the money lying 

in the box. 

©c^Mege bid^ fiiilafenl Go tosleepi 

@ete f)ia}ieren I @el)e flfi|en ! Go for a walki Go fishingt 

207 Command — In familiär language this infinitive is used to 
express an emphatic command, espeoially in prohibition, correspond- 
ing to our English don't: 2)ic SKuttcr fagt gumÄinbe: „^\6)t fo laut 
fetteten! ©tili ft^en unb effen!'' (Don't scream so loud, sifc still and eati) 

208 II« With Xonn or Adjective 

Infinitive phrases (with gn) are used (a) to modify nouns very 
much in the sense of the attrfbutive genitive (cf. 1121). 

®ie Äunft gtt IeBen = The art of living = 2)ie fünft beS SebcnS. 

(6) To modify adjectives— S)a3 ift \6)totx jn fttgen (hard to say). 

( Noun 

209 III« Substantive] or 

( Clause 

As a Substitute for noun or clause, the infinitive may be subject 
or object of the verb. 

When the Substantive infinitive is used instead of a noun it may 
be pure (without gn) or prepositional (with gn). 

Ex.—^ti% @el)en loirb ii^r fe^r fd^mcr. 

Walking is very diflScult for her. 
er pflegt ben S3ogen rafci) jn fliannen. 
He is accustomed to stretch the bow quickly. 

2 I O It is dif&Gult to give a rule that will apply in all cases for the 
Insertion or Omission of gn in this use of the infinitive. When the 
verhol property of the infinitive is made emphatic by a modifying 
adverb or an object, the jn is usually inserted. 



290 APPENDIX 

JBä;.— Sfung fut baS $ater(anb gtt {letlim ift ein tül^m(id^er ^ob. 

To die young for ooe's fatherland is an honorable death 

When the Substantive use is the more emphatic, the )tt is omitted. 

Ex.—(&v iOQ ein f^nrtte^ ®trrbm bem tttttitlmU^m £ebnt ^ot. 

He preferred a quick death to a dishonorable life. 

When the Substantive infinitive is used for a clause of purpose or 
direction the p niust always be inserted. 

Sie ging um »Inmctt ju )ipi!ett (bamit fie SBIunten pflücfc). 

211 Sometimes in ezclamations a connecting word is omitted and 
the so-called elliptical infinitive appears to stand alone in the sentence. 

^d), auf ba§ mutige SRog mxd) p f il)toittGen ! (we might add, to com- 
plete the sense: ift mein fel^nlid^fter SBunf(!^.=To mount the brave 
charger is my dearest vrish.) 

3d^ bag ttttt I (for ic^ foll ba^ tun! = I do that!) 

2 1 2 After loffeit, feljetl, loren, fSIIett, as well as af ter the verb fcfei, 
the active infinitive may liave a passive meaning. 

Ex. — G^ ift öier gtt ttttt (There is much to be done). 

@r lögt c3 ttttt (He has it done). 

Wlan f)bxt t>\d) loÜett (One hears you praised). 

2 1 3 Precaution 

The use of the infinitive with subject accusative, so common ia 
English, is not found in German. The infinitive must either have the 
same logical subject as the main verb: id) tuünfd^e if)n p fe^ttt (I wish 
to see him), or must be the direct object of the verb: ic^ be\a^l i^in 
nad) §aufe gu gelten (I commanded him to go home). 

Such constructions as, I wish him to go, or I believe hiTn fobea 
good man, must be translated by a clause: 

Sc5 lüünfd^e, boß er ße^e. 
^d) glaube, bag er eitt gttter SRanu ijl. 

2 1 4 The Participle— Terbal Adjectire 

In use, the participle conforms entirely to the adjective, beiug 
declined like the latter and employed, attributively, predicatively, or 
substantively like it. The only difference is that the participle may 
have a verbal or objective modifier which always precedes it. The 
present participle is active, the past participle passive in its meaning. 
Ex.'-^a^ ben roten Slpfel mit grogem Vergnügen tierf)ieifettbe Äinb. 

The child who was eating the red apple with much pleasur8> 
2)er eben berftietfte 5(pfel befam tf)m ni^t, 
The apple that had just been eaten, did not agree with him. 



APPENDIX 291 

2f5 The participial noun common in English, is not found in 
German. In translating, either an infinit! ve or a clause must be sub- 
stituted. 

216 If the participle is used as subject or object, the Substantive 
infinitive (without p) is used in German. 

The rain mado Walking very diflScult. 
^er Siegen mad()te ta^ @e(m fe^r \6)tDtx. 

The rushing of the water. 
£a§ Waitf^ett beS äBafferS. 

217 If the English participial noun is govemed by prepositions, it 
is translated by a prepositional Infinitive or a clause, 

1. The prepositions dfyxt, anßatt, ttnt govem the infinitive phrase, 

Ex. — Without seeing his f riend = ol^itf feinen fjreunb gu ffjeit. 
Instead of going home = mtfüatt md) $auf e j« §f Jen. 
For the purpose of seeing her once more = ttllt fie nod^ ein* 
tna( |tt fe|nt. 

2. When prepositions other than these three govern the English 
participial noun, the phrase must be turned into a clause in German. 

Kx.— 'After seeing his mother = 9lai|tiem er feine SRutter (|efe)ett l^atte. 
Bysaying this = 3ttbem erbiet foßte. 

The participle as such can not bo substantivized in German. It 
is primarily an adjective with the füll adjective declension. As an 
adjective it may be used without a noun. Ex. — @r freute ftc^ über bad 
@e(li^e(tne (He rejolced at what had happened). Here ba§ ®efd|el|me 
Stands for )ia§ gefd^el^tttt SittQ, just as HB @tttt may stand for JbaS 

0itte X\n%. 

The participle may be used to express an emphatic command: 
Sßid^t Qffadfelt fdjnett anä SSerl %t%au%tn 1 (No fooling there, go to work 
quickly!) 

The Passire Voice 

218 Every transitive verb can be made passive as in English. The 
preposition of agency (English by) is tiott. 

Active— ®r \^la%t ben Knaben. 

He strikes the boy. 

Passive— ^er ^nabe ttiirb bon il^m Qefii|lagtit« 
The boy is being stiuck by him. 



292 APPENDIX 

219 In German we distinguish carefully between the real passive, 
i. e., an action of which the subject is the suiferer and not the agent, 
and a mere condition of the subject, arislng out of some former action. 

^aS Rapier toirb ierriffen = The paper is (being) torn. 
^ad $a:pier ifl gertiffen = The paper is torn. 

Observe that gertilfttt in the second sentence is only a predioate 
adjective. 

220 SUBSTITUTES FOR THE PASSIVE 

(o) man + active. 

(h) fi^ laffett + actlTe infinlÜTe. 

(c) Beflexiye Form of Yerb. 

22 I The passive is often clumsy and is used less frequently in Ger- 

man than in English, especially in cases in which the agent is not 

named. 

Ex. — (a) Ttan öffnete eine %üx (A door was opened). 

(b) ^OÄ läßt fid^ tun (That can be done). 

(c) Xie Xüre öffnete ftc^ langfam (Slowly the door was opened). 

Thifl Substitution is especially frequent after modal auziliaries, 
where a passive Infinitive would cause unwieldy length. 

The door could not have been opened = ^ie Xür (atte nid^t geüffttct 

tuerbnt Unntn, or better: 

(a) man (atte bie %üt nidf|t öffnen fönnm. 

(b) 2)ie %üx liUte fic§ nic^t üffntn loffm. 

222 When the object of the active verb is in the dative, it can not 
be made the subject of the passive. An impersonal subject must then 
be substituted and the dative object remains imchanged. 

Active— ©ie )at iljm ge|oIfctt. 

Passive— (gg ift i§m öon i^r (teljolfm ttotbnt. 

Modal Anxillaries 

223 They express the mental attitude of the Speaker to the action 
implied in the verb. There are six. 

I. Unntn = posslbility (physical, moral, or intellectual) 

II. mügen = desire (always a mental attitude) 

226 III. tltttf en = permission (on the part of an outside power) 

227 rV. mitffm = necesslty 

228 V. foDnt = the desire or declaration of an outside power 
VI. tnoVen = the desire or declaration of the Speaker hiin«^lf 



APPENDIX 293 

From these general meanings various allied uses have been derived. 

I. f9tttten = possibility 

230 S^ ratttt baiS nid^t tlttt (I can not do that). 

The Infinitive of the verb may be omitted if the meaning is clear 
from the context: ^d) laxin eS ntc^t. 

23 I An original meaning of f inttttt was to Tcnow. This is still 
preserved in phrases like: ftaitttfi bu beine Aufgabe? (Do you know 
your lesson?) ftuttnft bu^eutfd^? (Do you know German?) etc. 

II. niügett = desire 

232 SBer mod^te fold^ ein Seben fül^ren? (Who would oare to live 
such a life ?) 

After mü||en, also, the Infinitive may be omitted. 

3d^ mag nid^t (I don't want to). 
3[ci^ tnag e3 nid^t (I don't like it). 

233 The original meaning was to he dble. But this is now found 
only in the Compound t)ermÖ9en : @r Hermad ba§ nid^t ju iXiXi (He can 
not do that). 

234 iD^ögen occasionally translates the English may, with the idea 
of possibility or probability. 

£5».— SSoä mag wol^l brinnen fein? 
What may be in it ? 
@r mag ein böfed @)emi|fen ^aben« 
He may have a bad conscience. 

@r mod|tc jtoei JJal^re bage»efcn fein. 
He may have been there for two years. 

But the English "May I go"? is ,;S)arf id^ gelten''? 

III. b&tf ett = permission 

235 3n ber (Schule barf man nid^t fprec^en (One is not permitted to 
speak in school). (The English you must not do so is also bu batfft 
hai nid^t tun.) 

236 The original meaning to he in vxmt of is now found only in 
bebürfen. 3J2an Bedarf mand^ed in ber äS^elt (One needs many things in 
this World). 

237 The preterite subjunctive of Dilrfen (bitrfte) is used idiomatically 
to express probability. ^ad tl&rfte 5U fd^mer fein (That is probably too 
hard). 



294 APPENDIX 

IV. ntfilf (tt = neoessitjr (f rom without) 

238 S<^ muitt nad^geben (I had to submit). 

(St mirb ed tun müffttt (He will be obliged to do it). 

239 A derived meaning is found in the foUowing usages: 

9?un ttttt^te ed aud^ nod^ regnen! (Now fate would have it rainl^ 
®er miti ein ÜJ^örber feinl (He must be a murderer!) 

V. folett = desire or Statement (from without) 

240 ^u fofffi ntd^t ftel^Ien! (Thou shalt not steal). 
^er ^önig foK leben! (Long live the king!) 

@r foS einen Sluf faj fd^reiben (He is to write an essay). 

24 1 Without the Infinitive — 

SBo§ fol ber ^nabe? (What is the boy to do?) 

242 Hearsay — 

^ad foD ein rei^enbed £anb fein (That is said to be a charming land). 

243 In the subj. pret. it represents a conditional meaning — 

3!flan fönte glauben (One should suppose). 

@t fottte gelten (He oi^ght to go). 
Note that this is the only exact rendering of the English aught. 

VI. tDOSen = desire or declaration (from within) 

244 SBiDfl bu ettoa^? (Do you want anything?) 

@t f^at t>a^ nid^t tun toolim (He did not want to do that). 

245 It is not to be confounded with the English "wiir'ssfuturity. 
For this purpose the German employs toerben. But sometimes it is to 
be translated with to be äbout to, or on the point of, but alwajs 
ezpressing volition. 

(St toiQ gelten = He is about to go (makes a motion of going). 

246 With non-personal verbs UloKeit has many idiomatic uses» all 
of which rest on personification. 

^aS tOlS btr ntd^t gefallen (That does not suit you). 

^d^ tDiK nid^td fagen (That is of no importance). 

^a^ tDttt tootjli bebad^t fein (That requires careful consideration). 

247 SSoKttt niay express a claim on the part of the Speaker. 

®t tDlK ein teid^er ©nglönber fein = He claims to be a rieh English- 
man (cf. with a similar use of foUen 242). 



APPENDIX 29» 

VERBS OP A SIMILAR CONSTRCJCTION 

248 loffttt = permission or command. 
j^elj^eH = command. 

S^ Hr| @u(l^ ftetd enttoifd^en = I always let you escape. 

3Jlan breitet auä, fte fd^toinbe, lügt fie Irönfer unb Itönler toetben, enbltd^ 
ftiQ üerfd^eiben. (One oan spread the report that she is declining, make 
her grow worse and worse, and at last quietly fade away). 

Sd) laffe mir ein neued ^leib mad)en = I have a new dress made 
(order it to be made). 

(eij^nt = command (to be carefuUy distinguished from ]^eigen=to 
call or be named). 

(Sr %t\it bie ©olbaten bie 83rü(fen berbrennen. 
He commands the soldiers to burn the bridges. 

Impersonal Terbs 

249 Many verbs which have a personal subjeot in English are 
ünperäonal in (Norman, 1. e., the person concerned is regarded as being 
affected by the action rather than as the agent. The subject is the 
impersonal t%, while the person affected is represented by a dative or 
accusative noun or pronoun. 

eS boucrt miti^ = I am sorry 

eg efelt mic^ an = It disgusts me 

es erbarmt mid^ = I pity 

ed f öQt mir ein = It occurs to me 

eS föllt mir auf = I notice (my attention is attracted) 

c8 freut mi(^ = I rejoice 

e^ gef öttt mir = It pleases me (I like> 

eg gelingt mir = I succeed 

ei^ genügt mir = It suffices me 

eS jammert mid^ = I take pity on 

es reut mid^ = I repent 

es fc^winbelt mir = I grow dizzy 

es tut mir leib = I am sorry 

eS tut mir toel^ = It hurts me 

es t)erbriegt mid^ = It vexes me 



VOCABULAKIES 



VOCABÜLAEY 



EXPLANATORY NOTE 

1. Words not marked wlth the accent areto be accented on the first syllable. 

2. The princix>al parts of strong and irregulär verbs •will be fouud in Section 85 
ot the Appendix. 

3. Verbs that form the perfect tenses with the auxiliary feilt, are Indicated as 
follows: 

bleiben, to remain, (fein) 

4. The endings of the gen. sing, of masculines and neuters and of the nom. 
plur. of all nouns are given. A dash indicates that the plural is formed without 
additional ending. » 

5. Irregulär comparatives and superlatives are given. 

6. The parts of speech are indicated only when the translatiou mlüht lead to 
misunderstanding. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



acc. = accusative 

adj. = adjective 

adv. = adverb 

App. = Api)endix 

art. = article 

aux. = auxiliary 

cf . = compare 

cond. = conditional 

conj. = conjunction 

dat. = dative 

def. = definite 

dera(onstr.) = demonstrative 

dim. = diminutive 

Eng. = English 

ex. = example 

fem. = feminine 

fut. = future 

gen. = genitive 

imper. = imperative 

Indecl. = indeclinable 

indef. = Indefinite 

Indic. = Indicative 

inf. = inflnitive 

Inter. = interrogative 

interj. = interjection 

intr(ans.) = intransitive 

irr. = irregulär 



masc. = masculine 
neut. = neuter 
nom. = nominative 
num. = numeral 
obj. = object 
part. = participle 
"pert. = perfect 
pers. = person(al) 
plup. = pluperfeet 
pl(ur.) = plural 
poss(ess.) = i)ossessive 
pred. = predicate 
prep. = prepositlon 
pres. = present 
pret. = preterite 
pron. = pronoun 
refL = reflexive 
reg. = regulär 
rel. = relative 
sing. = Singular 
Str. = Strong 
subj. = subjunctive 
subst. = Substantive 
superl. = Superlative 
tr(ans.) = transitive 
w. = weak 



GERMAN-ENGLISII VOCABULAUY 



bcr tlat, -it)», -e, eagle 

abr away, from 

ba8 «bettbJleb, -(e)«, -er. evensong 

baS «bettteuer, -ä, — , adventure 

ober, but, however 

abiiertffeit, shabby 

ab'legettr w-i to take off 

ab'nebtnem str., to take off 

ob'relfeit, w., to depart (fein) 

ab'f^üe^en» str., to shut off, lock 

aify, oh ! alas ! well tben ! 

athU eight 

bie Älftt, care ; — geben, to take care 

bte 9lf(|tun0, regard 

ädisen, tt'.,togroan 

abe» adieu ! farewell ! 

baä Stbieftib', -ä, -e, adjective 

oU, every, all 

allein', alone;but 

oUeS, every thing, all the world 

attejett, always 

9intiater, -ä, Odin, fatherof gods and 

men 
bie %iM, -en, Alps 
tttd, when, }«s, than, but 
nlfo» 80, therefore, that is to say 
ftlt, old 

baä Mlter, -8, — , age 
ba§ SCÜertum, -8, ^er, antiquity, 

plur., relics of antiquity 
a(tertüm(i4i , antique 
ber ^mhoft, -ffeö, -ffe, anvil 
ber 9imtv\Wtitv, -i, —, American 
bie ^mtxita'ntx'm, -ncn, American 
ber 9lmtmann, -(e)«, -^er, burgoraaster 
omüfietrett, u\ reß., to amuse oneself 
ütl,prep. with dat. and acc, at, to, by 



an'bieten^ str,, to offer 

an'binben» *<r., to tie 

an'biidtnf w., tolookat 

anber, adj., other 

anbers, otherwise, dlfferently 

bcr «ttfaim, -itA ""e, beginning, com. 

meucement 
auffangen, str., to begin 
au'fafTettf w.^ to seize, take hold of 
bie »nf orberttttfl, -en, claim, demaud 
an'oeben, str.^ to teil 
an'neben, »<r., to eoncern, beg 
an'fleböreit» «?., to belong to 
ber Muflebörine, subst. adj., relative 
baä »naefiibt, -§, -e, iace, counte- 

nance 
dttgeftrenat, hard, with great exer- 

tion 

an'bängeitf tu., to hangon to 
(itt'fommen, str., to arrive(fein) 
bie 9lnfunf t, -c, arrival 
bie 9{n(aoe, - talent, disposltion, 

advantage 
ber Ättlaft, -ffeS, "f^c, occasion 
(in'|)Oli)en, w., to knock 
an'f^Iie^en» str. refl., to altach one- 
self to 
anhieben, str., to look at 
ba§ 9Infebett, -S, — , renown 
an'ftaunen» «7., to stare at 
Q /ftrettfiettf w. refl., to strain, make 

an effort 
bie 9(ntttiort» -en, answer 
ant'tQorten, u\, to answer 
nn'bertrauen, w. , to entrust to 
nn'mnibfett; */r., to grow, increase 
ba§ 9[ntol(ld)fen, -ä, increase, growth 
Ott'jelöett, V}., to report 
(in')Ünben# w^., to kindle, light 



2M) 



300 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



ber ttufelbauntr -(«)*, "«, apple-tree 

lM»felgvatt» dapple gray 

bie SIrbeit, work 

ütbtittn, w., to work 

ber K^bciter» -d/ — , workman, laborer 

ber Ürgerr -8, vexation 

arm, poor 

ber «nti, -(e)8, -e, arm 

bie 9lntiee', -n, army 

bie %vt, -en, kind, sort 

au4, also 

bie 9ltt(c)# -en, meadow 

auf, prqp. with dat. and acc, up, at, 

upon ; a4}. or adv. , open 
auf bemalirett» to., to keep, guard 
auf freuen, str., to de von r 
bie SlttfBatie» -n, task, exercise, lesson 
aurfiebett, */r., to put to ; give up 
auf fieften, str., to rise (fein) 
auf tieliett, *<r., to pick up 
auf madieu, w., to open 
bie 9Iufinerffamfrit, -en, atteutlon 
bie Slufna^me, -n, shclter, reception 
auf f aßen, «?., to giVc waruing (to a 

servant) 
auf ff(|Iaoen, »<r., to open 
auf flferren, w., to open wide 
auf fte^en, str., to get up (fein) 
auf Madien, «'. intr., to awaken 
aufsäl^Iett, w., to name, enumerate 
auf }el)ren, w., to consume 
boä 9^uge, -«, -n, eye 
baä SUßleitt, -*, — , fi»m.,llttleeye 
au§, prcp. trt7A dat., or adv., out, out 

of, of 
auS'aretten, «?. refl., to spread out 
auS'brttcfen, w., to express 
auSßebacfen, thoroughly baked, done 
auö'Beben, sir., to give out, spend 
auS'Rfften, sfr,, to go out (fein) 
audfiefetit, exposcd 
auSneseiffinet, excellent 
bie «uSfUttft, ^e, Information 
ber 9ud(anber, -«, — , forcigner 
aurianbifd), foreign 
auskleben, refl., to live oneself out 
auS'reiftnenf w*., to recken, work out 

auS'fdiauen, «'., to look out 
unS'fifiTaaen, str., to sprout 
ouö'frbtn, .»'r., to appear, look 
bag 9lu§f elben, -8, appearance 



ber llttS'niea, -(e)^, -e, device, way out 
auft' meiiliett, str., to get out of the 

way j(f ein) 
aufttuenbig, by heart; — lernen, to 

learu by heart 
au0'}ett|inen» w. reß., to dlstlDguisfa 
aufiergeniöiinlidi, extraordinary 
äuf^erft, extremely 
auü'iietien, str., to draw off 

ber Satfi, -(e)Ä, "^t, brook 

baä eSdilein, hJ, — , c/iw.,brooklet 

baden, str., tobake 

ber IBaifofen, -«, ", oven 

balb(e), soon 

bie JBaQa'be, -n, ballad, poem 

bang, afraid ; cd ift mir — , I am afraid 

bangen, w. refl., to l>e afraid 

bie IBanf , H, bench 

ber ©ör, -en, -en, l)ear 

ber »ort, -(e)«, "e, beard 

ber ^au, -{e)ä, -e, building 

bie Oauart, -en, style of architecture 

bauen, t^., to build 

ber Oauer, -i or -n, -n, farmer, peas- 
ant 

ber »auerniunge, -n. -n, farmer's 
boy 

ber »aum, -it)i, H, tree 

ber SaufHC, -8, -e, style of architec- 
ture 

bebe'ffen, w., to cover 

b ebensten, ^\, to mean 

bie »ebingung, -en, condition 

bebro'ben, u\, to thrcaten 

ber »efebf r -*, -e, command 

bef ebbten, str., to command 

befin'ben, str. reJL, tobe 

befreiten, w., to set free 

begeben, str. refl., to betake oneself 

begeg'nen, w., to meet, happen 

bfgeiftert, enthusiastically 

begtn'nen, str., to begin 

begnü'gen, w.*. refl., content oneself 

begrii'ften, tc., to salute, greet 

bebaften, str., to keep; to remember 

beban'beln, w., to treat 

bebauti'ten, «'., to Insist 

bie fdt%aWiViXi^, -en, Statement, 
declaration 



GEKMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



301 



bt\ittv\Hit' , self-controlled, composed 

btfitvU^ brave 

htWttn, w., to guard 

bei, prep. with dat., witb, by, at; — 

mir, at my bouse 
htitt, bötb; alle ~, botb of tbem; 

bie beiben, tbe two 
bei^f eite» aslde, to one side 
htVfttUtUt 10., to set aslde 
bttf^tn, sir.f to bite 
bei' treten/ str., to join (fein) 
befanttt'r known, acquainted 
befom'mett, str., to receive; eä be* 

tommt mir gut, it agrees with me. 
bie ^eUi'biouttfi, -en, Insult 
beUen, w., tobark 
belob'nen, w., to reward 
bemäib'ttBen» w. refl., to get posses- 

sion of 
betiter'feit, w., to notice, remark 
bie iBemet^funo, -en, remark, obeer- 

yation 
bettaib'bart, neighboriog 
betttt'l^ett, w., touse. 
beob^aibten, «?., to observe 
bereib' tten, w.^ to take into account, 

reckon up 
bereifen» tp., to trayel through 
bereit» ready 

ber ©erß, -(e)3, -e, mountain 
Beraen» str., to hlde 
ber iOeridif , -«, -e, report 
beridi'ten, w., to report 
bern'fen, Mtr., tocail 
beritbmf , famous 
beritb^ren» w., to touch 
bie Seritb'rnng, -en, touch 
befn'en, *»., to sow 
befSf , studded 
befibä'menb, humlliating 
befibir'men» w., to guard 
befdirei'ben, «<»"., to descrlbe 
befdiü't^en, «., to protect 
befditoer'«*, difficult, hard 
Befee'len, w., to fill with life 
BeffA'tiaen, «., to view, examine 
befin'fien, «tr. tram.^ to sing, cele- 

brate (in song) 
befln'nen, »fr. refl., to recollect, recall 
Befott'berS, especially 
befott'nen, calm, composed 



beffer» better 

beffern, w. reß., to improve 

beftf best 

befte'ben, str., to pass (examination); 

to exlst; — au^, to consist of 
befteb'iem str. to rob 
befu'fben, «'., to yisit, attend 
ber f&t\uftiitv, -8, — , visitor 
beten, «;., to pray 
betendem, "»^'i to protest; to affirm 

solemnly 
ber f&ttxaiftf, -i, consideratlon 
betrau' ern, w- trans., to mouru 
betreuten, «<r., to enter, step upon 
ba8 a^tti, -eä, -en, bed 
htUQtn, w., to bend ; fid^ — , to bow 
ber JBeutel, -8, — , money-bag, purse 
bema^bet, wooded 
beniei'fen, gfr., to prove 
bemir'ten» ^., to entertain 
ber iBemob'ner, -i, — , inhabitant 
bie iBemob'tterin, -nen, inhabitant 
bemun'bem» w.j to admire 
bejab'ien, w., to pay 
beseifb'nen, «&., to designate 
ber J6e)U0'» -8, ^e, reference, regard 
bieten» str., to olfer 
hai JBi(b» -(e)^, -er, picture, reflection 
bilben, w., to form 
ber JBilbbauer, -8, — , sculptor 
bie Silbunfi,. education 
bittifi» cheap 
binben» str., to bind 
bis, until, up to 
btdbee'» up to now, formerly 
bie iBitte, -n, prayer, request 
bitte, please I 

bitten, str.^ to request, ask 
bitter» bitter 
bitterliib, bitterly 
btani» bright, sparkling 
blafen, «<r., to blow 
baä Jölatt, -{t% Hv, leaf, page 
bleiben, str., to remaln (fein) 
ber iBiidf » -(e)«, -e, glance, look 
hlidtn, w.t to look 
blinb, blind 
büften» w., to llash 
blüben, «>., to bloom, ilourish 
ba8 Siüntiben, -«, — , dim., flowret 
bie Slume, -n, flower 
hai muU -(e)9, blood 



302 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



bie Kiluit, -n, blossom, flourisning 

condition 
ber lOobrtt, -S, ^, ground, floor 
ber J^ö^ntertualt), -(e)ö, Bohemian 

Forest 
bic BSrfe, ~n, purso 
h'6Ü, h&d, wicked, angry 
bösartig, malicious 
Braten» 'fr., to roast 
ber Sraudir -(e)8, ^e, custom 
braudien» w., to uso, empioy 
brauen» »..tobrew 
braun, browu 

braufen» tr., to mar, i-esouod 
bre^en» slr.^ to break 
breit, broacL 

brennen, irr to burn ; cf. App. 88 
ber ©rief, -itA -e, le:ter 
bie ©rille, -n, spectacles 
brinoeitr »"•• ^ briug, take; et 

App. 88 
baä ©rot» -(c)ä, -e, bread 
ber ©rndi, -<e)«, ^e, fraction 
ber ©ruber, -i, ^, brother 
brummen, w., to grumbie 
ber ©runnen» well 
ba8 ©runnlein» -«, — , dim., little 

spring 
bie ©ruft» ^e, breast, bosom 
ba« ©udi» -(c)«, ^er, book 
bie ©üdife, -n, rifle 
bttffen» w. refl.f to bend 
büffetn,to study, "dig" 
ba« ©ünber, -8, — , bündle 
bunt» gay» varicolored 
bie ©uro» -en, castle 
ber ©üroer, -8, — , Citizen 
ber ©urffbe, -n, -n, student, lad 
bie ©ur'fi^enberr'Uibleit» joyous 

student-life 
bie ©urfdienCuft» "e, joy of youth 

ber Sbarafter, -*, -e, character 
bie Souft^ne, -n, cousin 

ba, arft?., tbere, then ; conj., as 
babei', adv., with that, over it 
bo» $aifi, -e«, ''er, roof 



bafür'» for that 

baber'» hence, from there 

babin', thitbcr, thero 

bamald, at that timc 

bauttt'» in Order that, with thut 

bäm))fen, tc, to subduo 

bann, then 

barauf , thereupon, on it 

barin'» iu that, therein 

barit'ber» at it, about it, at that 

barum', therefore, about it 

barun'ter» under it 

bau, conj.y in Order that ; that 

bau'em, w.^ to last 

bation, culv., from that, away 

batiar^» bcfore that 

baStt'» at that, in addition, besides 

beifen, w., to cover, set 

bein» thine, your 

ber Segen, -8, — , sword 

berfel'be» that one, he 

befUnie'ren» w., to decHne 

temütioen, v>., to humiliate 

beuten, irr., tothink. Cp. App. 88 

ba8 Xtntmal, -9, *er, monumou^ 

benn, cmj., for 

ber, bie, baS, the; this; who 

berienifle, dem. pron.f that one 

bermeiC» while, meanwhile 

ber Sermiffbr -Ä» -e, dervish 

bei» archaicfor beffen 

besbatb» therefore, on that accouut 

befto» adv., the 

beutUdi, dlstinct 

beutfllbr Oerman; ber, bie S)eutftf>e. 

the German 
beutffb'franjijfiflb» Franco-Prussian 
ba« Sbeutf^lanb, -<e)«, Germany 
ber Siditer, -8, — , poet 
bicf, thick ; fleshy 
bienen, w., toserve 
ber Siener, -4, — , servant 
ber Sienft, -(e)8, -t, service 
biefer, this ; the latter, hej 
bad Sinn, -e8, -e, thing 
blreft'» direct 
bOfbr i^ut, yet, nevertheless 
ber Soltor, -8, -en, doctor 
bie Sonau» Danube 
ber SonnerbaSr -8» -«» »ound of 

thunder 
ba8 Sorf, -e«, *er, village 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABÜLARY 



303 



ker Sunt, -eä, -en, thorn 

hOVU there 

botttg, adj.t at that place 

bcr ^adie, -n, -n, dragon 

htttitn, w.f lo turn 

brei, three 

btelftlg, thirty 

brclilßiäftrtö, adj., thirty years* 

brltt, third 

baä »rittet, -8, — , third 

bvolftdtf w.f threaten 

hxüdtn, w., to oppress 

btum» see barum 

bttttttflt, below, down below 

bruttter, below 

bttf thou, you 

btttbeUf *P., to snffer, bear 

bttittm, stupid 

bttltlel, dark, obscure ; faintly 

bUt^, prep. vnth acc, through, by 

means of 
burift'f aUettf *<n, to fall 
buril^Ireu'sen, w., to traverse 
bun^^maiHett, w., topass through, ex- 

p^rience 
burd^filiatt'ettf w.^ to see through, 

penetrate 
buri^'f ibtafien, str. refl., to make one*s 

way 
ber »utrdifilitiittr -(e)«, -e, average 
bürfen» tc., to be allowed 
bürr, thin, withered 
butftig, thirsty 
hüfttx, dark, gloomy 

ebett, adv.f just now ; adj., level 

ebenfo, just as 

bie @rf e, -n, corner 

ebe, co/y., l^efore 

bie @btt, -n, honor 

ebrUfb» honest 

bie ^brU^Ieit, -en, honesty 

ei, whyl 

bie ®libe, -n, oak 

ber 6lb, -{t)i, -t, oath 

ber @ifer, -8, eagemess, zeal 

eigen, adj.f own 

bie Eigenart, -en, peculiarity 

hai Eigentum, -8, *er, property 

eilen» w., to hurry (fein) 



tut, one, a, an 

elnan'ber, one another, each other 
eiu'bilben, w. reß., to imagine 
bcr (Stnbruif, -{e)ä, ^e, Impression 
ctnfai^, simple 

bcr Stnfatt, -i, "e, scheme, idea 
ein' fallen, str. refl.^ to occur; to In- 
terrupt (fein) ; eä fdUt mir ein, it oc- 

curs to me 
ein'finbett, str, refl.^ to come, to join 

in 
ber @infltt1l, -ffeä, ^fe, influence 
ein'geben, str., to agree (with) 
ein'gvabem str., to bury 
bie @inbeit, -en, union 
einbeitliib» homogeneous 
einig, at one, unified 
einige, several, a few, some 
einiges, some 
ein'febten, w., to lodge with, stop 

(fein) 
einmal, once ; once upon a time 
ba§ Einmaleins', — , multipMcation 

table 
bie Etnrilbtttng, -en, arrangement; 

— treffen, to make arrangements 
einfam, lonesome, alone 
tWWaUvi, Str., to go to sleep (fein) 
ein'fibließen, str., to enclose 
ein'ffbteiten» str., to intervene (fein) 
ein'febem str., to adnüt 
einft, once, at some time 
efn^fteden, to., to pocket 
ettt'tretcn, str., to enter 
ber Eintritt, -(e)8, -e, entrance 
ba8 EintierftänbniS, -ffe«, -ffe,under- 

standing 
ein'miOigen, tr., to consent 

bie Einmobnet) abl, -««, popuiation 

einstg, only, sole 

ba8 Eifen, -8, — , iron 

bie Eifenftange, -n, iron rod, staff 

ber Elefanf, -en, -en, elephant 

baä Elementar'fa^, -e8, ^er, brauch 
of elementary Instruction 

ber Elementar'unterriibt, -8, ele- 
mentary Instruction 

elf, eleven 

bie Eltern, plur. , parents 

emtior'fommen, str., to rise ( in the 
World) (fein) 

rmifor'fcbauen» w.t to look up 



304 



ELEMENTS OP GERMAN 



emUdv'ftvrBett, w., to seek to rise 

hai iSn'^t, -^, -n, end 

eiligen» «&., to end 

ettbüdl, final; finally 

eitfi(e), narrow 

ber ®nge(, -4, — , angel 

bad ^ttglaitbr -i, England 

etta(if4l# English 

etttaea'tten# »., to repiy 

tUtM'ittt, *ir., to oontain 
mtra'tett# *<r., to escape 
bic StttfAei'bttttO, -en, decision 
etttfdi(u|)^fttt, tD., to escape; to slip 

away (fein) 
entf dl min'brtl» »ir., to disappear (fein) 
rntfe4'U4, terrible [raent 

bie Sttttätt'fdittnflf -en, disappoint- 
cntmei'ltltr w.^ to desecrate 
tnitnVdtln, «>., to develop 
bie dtnitoi^iiinm, -tn, development 
tntiWdtn, Vf., to charm 
bie iBp0^ütt, -n, epoch 
et#lie 

erbe^bettr v., to tremble 
bie €vbe, -n, earth 
ba« ®¥rio^ttidr -ff««/ -ffe, event 
bie ÜX^aWtum, -tn, experience 
(tfiie'tettr '*^' *'^ß'i ^^ pour forth 
ergveVfett» «<n, to seize 
eriftartctt» *tr,, to receive ; to maintain 
erl^e^bett» «'r. re;f., to rise 
bie ^t^e'Üttngr -««» rise, uprisiug 
eritt'lttvn* «>. »"«Ai to remember 
txttn'ntn, irr., to recognize ; cf. App. 

88 
txtWxtnr W', to explain, disciose 
bie ^rnäruno» -en, explanation 
rrnitt'geilr *tr., to resound (fein) 
tvXaufhtn, «?., to permit 
ber ^tlfüttigr -«, -e, erl-king 
crnft, earaest 
ero'lbenSr to conqüer 
ttpto'btn, w.t to prove, to test 
crquiff'en, «?., to refresh 
crrei'dlen, «., to reach 
erfdianett, to resound (fein) 
erfdiei'nettr str., to appear (fein) 
bie €rfd)ti'nung» -en, phenomenon 
erfdjta'gettf »tr., to slay 
(rf49))'fttt» u?., to exbaust 
erffftrecfen, w. /ran*., to frigbten; 

9tr, iiUrans., to be frightened 



erfidif (idi, eTident 

evit, fiist, only 

boS ^rftatttten» -4, astoniahment 

arftaUlt'Udir surprislng 

etftatttlf , astonished 

erjtcnS» first 

erftte^cfcn* lo., to extend 

ettoa'dittt» w. in^r., to wake up 

ettoaf'tett, w., to expect, wait for 

evtoar'tttngStion, expectantly 

ettoet^beit, «/r., to eam 

etlSl^'Ieitr u'-f to relate 

bie Sraie^'itttg, -^n, educatlon 

e6,lt 

ber €fet, -4, — , ass, donkey 

elTeitr <^.» to eat 

baS ^ffeiU -^t food, Tietuals 

rtmair somethlng, somewhat 

euer, your 

eurotia'ifdir European 

etoig» everlasting, ever 

bad ^so'mett, -i, —, examination 

bad €sein'|fe(, -4, — , example 

esiUie^rett» tp., to exlst 



bo3 9fft4r -<«)*» ^«'^z branch 

bad dübd^en» -^t —, dim., slender 

thread 
ber gaben, -S, ^, thread 
bie Saline, -n, flag 
fairen, *tr., to go, drlve, ride(fein) 
ber Sal^rtveg, -<e)i, -e, road 
ber ^altt, -n, -n, falcon 
ber San, -<e)d, -"e, case 
f aEen, */r., to fall (fein) 
bie ^amVlit, -n, family 
fangen, «/r., to catch; (gefangen nei^« 

men, to take prisoner 
bie Sarbe, -n, color 
faffen, «.»tograsp 
faft, almost 
faul, lazy 
fanUnjen, to idle 
bie Sanft, "e, fist 
feiJ^ten, */r.,tofight 
bie Stber, -n, pen 
bad Seberb ett, -i, -en, fealher-bed 
feilten, tr.y to be lacking; toad fe^^t 

bir? whatailsyou? 
feiern» w., to celebrate 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULAR'S 



305 



b«r SeiettttB, -ti, -t, holiday 

fein» soft, delicate ; finelj, well 

ber «^e(0» -<n(d), -en, rock 

ber tieinb, -e«, -e, enemy 

bad ^tU, -<e)d, -er; field 

baä ^tnfttx, -Ä, — , Window 

bie ^erttfr -n, distance 

baä geH, -(e)*, -e, feast, celebration 

fefi, fast, firm 

ba« ferner, -«, — , fire 

bic ^euennattev, -n, wall of fire, 

fiery circuit 
ber Seiterf dieiti, -«, glare of fire 
feurig, fiery 

bie Siebe!» -n, fiddle, violin 
fittbett, Str., tofind 
ber ginber, -«, — , finder 
ünfter, gloomy, dark 
ber 3ifi(» -(e)«, -e, fish 
bie Studie, -n, surface 
bie Slttmnte, -n, flame 
fLammtn, w., to flame 
fLaiitxVL, w., to flutter (fein) 
ber 3(ei#, -e«, diligence 
fleiftifi, diligent, industrious 
bie Süese, -n, fly 
flieiien, «<r., to fly (fein) 
flief^en, str., to flow (fein) 
flltil, quick 

ber SCttBr -eä, "e, flight 
ber Stufiel, -«, — , wieg 
bie %iVLX, -en, meadow 
ber SIttft, -ffeS, ^ffe, stream, river 
folfien» w., to follow (fein) 
fort, away, on 

fort'geüett, «/f., to go away (fein) 
fortfommen» */r., to come ou, gct 

along 
bie Sortfeliuna, -en, continuatiou 
bie Srage» -n, question 
fmiien, vj., to ask [Dame 

bie Statt, -en, woman, wife, Mrs., 
fremb, stränge 
bie Sretttber foreign lands 
f reffen, str., to de von r 
bie Srettbe» -n, joy 
freuen, rc/f., to rejoice 
ber Sreuttb, -e«, -t, friend 
freunblidi, friendly, pleasantly 
ber Sriebiiof , -«, ^e cemetery 
ber Sricbliofdaang» -<e)8, *e, walk to 

the cemetery 



friebUiii» peaceable 

frier en» str., to freeze, be cold 

frifdj, fresh 

froli, glad 

\xW\a^, cheerful, joyoua 

fromm, pious, gentle 

fruditbar, frultful 

früb, early 

bie SrÜlfte» early morning 

früher, formerly, earlier 

ber Srttbling, -«, -e, spring 

bie SrüblingSseit, -en, springtime 

ber Stt4if -eä, ^e, fox ; fresh man 

ftt<|(en, ir-ftofeel 

fubreu, «;., to lead 

ber Sülirer» -«, — , guide, leader 

bie ^}XWtVlit,plur.^ wngoners 

funff five 

funfiäbrig, five-year-old 

funfbun'bert» five hundred 

ba* Sttttf te(» -%, — fifth 

für, prep. with acc.f for 

bieSurdit» fear 

furditbar» terribly 

füribten, w. reß., to fear 

fürditernib, ody., dreadful 

ber Surft» -en, -en, prince 

ber Sttf^, -e«, *e, foot 

ba« Stttter» -«, food 

ber @ana» -(e)8, ^e, walk, way 
Bau), quite; ein ©anjeS, a whole, a 

unit 
Bänslifb, altogether, complete 
gar» entirely, very 
bie @arbe, -n, sheaf 
ber harten, -§, ^, garden 
ber (3a% -(e)S, -e, guest 
ber ®üUt, -n, -n, husband 
ba« ^ebäu'be, -3, — , buildiug 
Beben» *tr., to give ; eä flibt, there is 
bad ^ebir'ge, -i, — , mouutaiu system 
Bebo'ren» born 
ber @eban'(e, -nö, -n, thought ^cf. 

App. 25) 
ba« @ebid|t', -§, -e, poem 
neburbiB» patient 
bie ^efabr'r -en, danger 
Beföbflid), dangerous 
ber (Sefftl^r'te, -n, -n, companion 



306 



ELEMENTS OF GERM AN 



bic ^efälir'tin, -n«n, compauion 

HefarUttr Str., to pleaae 

acfäriifi, obliging 

bie &tfan'ütmiafnnt, arrest, capture 

bad @ef ängnti^» -j|c8, -ffc, prison 

baä @ef{c't>er, -8, plumage 

ba» ®efttl)l', -*, -e, feeling 

B^9tttri^rr/>. tr<7A acc, against, toward 

bie @eoenb, -en, region 

boä ©e^eim'niil.-fied, -ffe, secret 

Or^eimnUuoH» secret 

fic^ettf *'/•., to go, walk ; fare (fein) 

Be^oi/dietir w., to obey 

fic^o'rtttf tr., to belong 

fie^or'f am» obedicnt 

ber ^cift, -{tß, -er, ghost, spirit ; in- 

tellect 
flelatt'gettr w'., to reach, get to (fein) 
Ütlb, yellow 

hai ®elb, -<c)S, -er, money 
fiCÜn'genr «'r., to succeed 
ficUen, Str., to be worth ; to niean ; 

bad gilt mir, that mcans nie 
gemai^'» softly, comfortably 
^tn, prep. withacc, toward 
genau', exactly 
genie'f^ettf str., to enjoy 
ber @enorf e, -n, -n, corapanion 
genug'* enough 
bie ©eograt'l^te', geography 
baä ©etirä'ge, -ä, — , imprint, stamp 
geta'bf» just, stralght, even 
geregt'» just, honorable 
ber ^erei^^tigleitiiftnn, -(e)3, -e, 

sense of justice 
ber Otrii^tS'biener, -§, — , beadle 
gern, lieber, liebft, gladly; id) l)aht 

— , I like ; ic^ tue eä — , I 11 ke to do 

it 
gerii^rf » touched, moved 
geflftäftlg, busy 
gefi^r'^en, str., to happen (fein) 
gefl^rif, smart, clever 
baä (9efd)cn!% -{c/3, -e, present 
bie ®c]<liWt^f -". Story, history 
gtfi^merbtgr pliable 
gefditoinb', quick 
ber @efer(r, -n, -n, companion 
hai ®rfif(|t', -(c)^, -er, face 
bie ^cftalf, -cn, form 
gefte'fjen, str., to confess 
gefunb'r hcaltby, well 



^eieili, separately 

baS ®etÖ'fe, -^, racket, roar 

getreu', faitbful 

gema^r', awarc 

gtmä^'renf u., to graut 

bie gemalt', -en, power, violence, 

force 
geivarttg, powerful, violcnt 
ba« @etoanb'r H^ß, -^er, garmeut 
bo« ©ettie^r', -i, -e, gun 
bie ^emerbd'ftabt, ^e, commercial 

town, industrial city 
bag ^etuif^f , -e8, -e, weight 
getoin'nrn, str., to win 
bad @etoirfen, -8, — , conscience 
gemi^', certain 
gemöl^'nen, w. refl., to become accus- 

toined 
getoö^n^Ud}, usual 
ber ®\pUU -^, —, summlt 
ber @(att}, -e«, sheen, glitler 
baä ma^, -eä, -"er, glass 
gläfern, adj., glass 
glauben, w., to believe 
ber @(etfd|er, -ä, — , glacior 
tlltltfl, adj.f like; adv., iiumediately 
baS @(ü(f, -(e)8, luck, happiness 
glitcflil^r happy ; luckily 
gtttften, to., to glow 
bie ^(utf -en, glow 
bie @nabe, grace, pardon 
ba8 @otb, -e«, gold 
golben, golden 

ber ^olb'regen, -8, shower of gold 
ber @a(bfi6mieb, -(c)8, -e, goldsmith 
baS @o(bftücf, -e5, -e, gold-piece 
gotiflli, gothic 
ber ©Ott, -e8, *er, God 
ba« @ra6, -<e)«, ^er, grave 
graDem str., to dig 
grabe, see gerabe 
ber @raf, -en, -cn, count, earl 
ber @ram, -{t)i, sorrow 
grau, gray 

baä brauen, -8, borror 
graufen, «;., to shudder; ed arauft 

il;m, he shuddors 
baä @rauf en, -^, borror 
greis, old, hoary 
ber @robtan, rulTian ; lout 
groft, large, great 
grof^arttg, grand, magnlHcent 
bie ®rö#e, -n, greatness 



GEBMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



307 



bi€ <Bvo%tUtvn, plur., grandparents 
bie ^voimutttv, ^, gramlmother 
ber ^ro^Hatetr -^, ^, grandfather 
ßrän, green 

ber ^Vtttlbr -(e)«, H, ground, reason 
grüttbenr ^'% to establish, fouud 
fitÜnbUdl» thoroughly 
firüfteti, «?., togreet 
autfettr «?., to peep, gaze slyly 
Bulben* golden 
bie ^Uttft, favor 
gutr good, well 

baä ^Umna'fium, -^, -len, prepara- 
tory school 

ba« ©oar, -<e)8, -«, hair 

liabettr w., to have 

ber ^abidit, -«, -e, hawk 

ber C^a^n» -(e)S, ^e, cock, rooster 

ber Öalbfrirttafi, -<c;«, -e, half-holi- 

bie eälfte, -n, half 

l^aUett, «/r., to hold, stop; — bon, 

think of 
ber ^ammetr -8, ^/ hammer 
bie 6anb» '^e, band 
bie Oanbarbeit* -en, faucy work, sew- 

ing 
ber ^anbrl» -^, trade ; fight 
baitbedt, u?., to treat, act 
bie ^anbeliftabt, ^e, commercial 

town 
bangcil» «<n »n/r., to hang 
bänoettr «7- <r., to hang 
Hott, hard 

ber 0afe» -n, -n, hare 
baffen, ti;., to hate 
Ijöfi««, ugly 
ber Oau^, -ed, breath 
l^aniben, i^., to breathe 
baä |)au|)tr -(e)8, -"er, head 
bau|)tf ätflHfbf principaUly) 
ber daulltf ab, -c^/ ^c» principal clause 
ber 6aubtfd|t«(tbun(t, -<e)S, -e, main 

emphasis 
bie l^anbtltabt, 'e, capital city 
bad Daud, -ed, ^er, house; gu ^auf(e), 

at home ; na(^ ^auf(e), home(ward) 
bad ^anitietf -(e}d, -e, domestic ani- 

mal 



b eilig, holy, sacred 

toA Oeim, -ed, home 

beim, ad-o, (towards) home 

ba3 ^eimatlanb, -{e)«, -e, home eoun- 

try 
bie Öeimlel^Vf return (home) 
ber Öeimmeg, -8, -e, way home 
bad C^eimtueb, -d, homesickness 

belli, bot 

I^ei^en, »tr.^ to be called ; to commaud 

beiter, gay 

ber 6e(b, -en, -en, hero 

ber ^elbengeift, -eä, -er, heroic spirit 

belfen, *tr.^ to help 

bell, bright, light, clear 

bie t>tXiXLt, -n, hen 

bet, along, here, hithcr 

berab', down, downward 

betaud'f out, forth 

l^erb, severe, harsh 

beebei^ hither, up to 

bie Verberge, -n, Inn, tavern 

ber ^erbft, -(e)8, -e, autumn 

\itXt\Vi!, in 

bevnie'ber, down, downward 

ber i&err, -n, -en, Mr., Lord, master 

berrUib, glorious 

ber'fagem «;., to recite 

beiKftenen, w., to restore 

^erum^, around 

berum^fommen» *<r., to knock about, 

travel 
bernn'ter» down, downward 
bevbor', forth, forward 
berbor'brefben, «/r., to break forth 

(fein) 
baä ^er}, -enä, -en, heart, cf. App. 25 
l^eoinnig, heartily 
Heute, today 
beutig, orf/-. today 's 
bie» archaicfor ^ier 
biet, here 
bleflg. locaJ 

ber Ointntel, -8, — , heaven, sky 
f^\mmt\f}iaVL, sky-blue 
bie 6imme(Sau(e), -en, elysian fields 
bie ^immetdgarbe, -n, heavenly 

sheaf 
baS eimmeliliibt, -(e;8, light of 

heaven 
bas 6imnte(JB()e(t, -e8, sky 
I):mm(iffb, heavenly 



308 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



hin, away, along, on, thither 

lltnab^ down 

mn^utd^f, through 

lliltem'f iQ, within 

dinleoen, «'., to lay down ; refl., lie 

down 
llinter, prep. wUh dal. or acc. behind 
ber Ointcroruitb, -<t)i, ^9, back- 

ground 
ftin unb ber, to and fro 

btUUn'ter, down(ward) 

biftor'iiili, historical 

hoth, high (^ö^er, ^öcbft) 

bie Qoiiläiult, -n, university, tech- 

nical school 
böfbft* extremely 
b«r ©of, -eä, "e, court, yard 
boffflt» w., to hope 
bie ^ofTttunn, -tn, hope 
bie Ööbe, -n, height 
ber Öoblttieg, -{e)8, -e, gorge 
bolbr gracious 
bolett, w., to get, fetch 
hai Ool}, -eä, wood 
Wittn, wooden 
bHrett, «7., to hear 
ba8 ©ofUltar, -8, ''er, hospital 
bübfdi, pretty 

baä l^ngeUattb, -eä, "er, hilly country 
bÜOett, w., to veil, Cover, clothe 
ber 6unb» -<e)8, -e, dog 
bunbevttaufenb, 100,000. Cf. App. 47 
ber dunoer, -«, hunger : — ^oben, to 

be hungry 
bungrifi, hungry 
bütffem w., to hop, jurap(fein) 
ber ©ttt, -e«. "e, hat 
bie ©tit, care, protection 
bütett, w., to guard, take care of 
ber ifüttv, -8, — , guardian, shepherd 
bie glitte, -n, hut 



3br# your: you 

Ibr» ber ; their 

immer, always 

immerbar, ever 

ber Omtietatib', -8, -e, imperative 

ba8 ^mpnUtt, -8^ -e, preterite 

in, prep. with dat. or acc, in, into 

ittbem^, whlle ; in that 



ittberfett, meanwhlle ; while 

ber 3ttbi(attb', -8, -e, indicative 

bie diibufttie', -n, industry 

ittbuftrieU', industrial 

ber dnbalt -8, contents 

innen» within 

inigefamt'f altogether 

ber 3nf)ir!tor» -8, -e«, inspector 

intrreffanf , interesting 

intereffie'ren, to. refi.,\.o be Interested 

bie 3ttbevfion'# -en, Inversion 

iro'nifdl, ironical 

inr(e), wrong 

irren* w. refi.^ to err, be mistaken 

ber 3rrtum, -8, "er, error, mistake 

ba8 Ota'(im, -8, Italy 

italie^nifibr Italian 



\a, yes, indeed 
iagen, w., to hunt, chase 
ber 3äfier» -8, — , hunter, huntsman 
bo8 Oföbr, -e8, -e, year 
bie 3abre$}ab(r -en, date ; year 
ba8 dfaHrbnn'brrt, -8, -e, Century 
iäbrUiü, yearly 
ber ^abrmarft, -8, "e, fair 
ber Jammer, -8, pain, sorrow, long- 
ing 

iauibsen» w.^ to shout with joy 

ie • • , befto» the . . . the 

ieber, every, each 

ieboib'» however 

iemanb, someone, somebody 

iener, that, the former, he 

itbifir present 

jebt, now 

fnna, young 

ber 3ttnfie, -n, -n, boy 

bie dfunofrau, -ett, maiden 

ber 3ünfi(ino, -8, -e, youth 

iünoft, recently 



ber ^aifer, -8, — , emperor 
ba8 Saiferreid), -8, -e, empire 
fa(t, cold 

ber ^amerab', -en, -en, comrade 
ber $am)if, -e8, H, fight, struggle, 
battle 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



309 



tfhttUfem w.t to struggle, fight 

bic Sttmnt, -n, csn 

bie $tappt, -n, cap 

bic 9a9te, -n, map 

bic Satafhro'tilie, -n, catastrophe 

bcr Uatttf -*, — , male cat 

bic Halle, -n, cat 

tauitn, t0., to buy 

bcr Saufmatm» -{iß, 'cr.merchant 

(Aauflcutc) 
lattm, hardly, scarcelj 
UliXtn, u'., totarnj 
IcitI, no, not any 
ttnntn, «rr., to know, be acquainted 

with. CC App. 88 
bcr Setl, -(c)8, -c, fellow 
HIcriHf cockadoodledoo ! 
baS SKttb, -cd, -er, chlld 
bcr ftittbrtfintt» -(c)8, -t, chlld's mind 
bic SHv4e, -n, church 
bcr ftirdittttm, -«, *c, church-tower, 

steeple 
Kar, clear 
bic Sllaff e, -n, class 
fluffifd^, classical 
lleibett» tr., to clothe 
bic Slribtttlfi, -tn, clothlng 
neiltr small, little [school 

bic Hlcinfittbcrfdittler -n, elementary 
fltiitxn, tr., to climb (fein) 
bad Rlima, -i, climate 
(Ungttt, Str., to resound, ring 
büÄ ftlofitev, -3, *, convent 
nitfi» wise, clever 
bcr Silumptn, -9, — , lump 
bcr Stnaht, -n, -n, boy, lad 
bic SttciUe, -tt, tavem 
bcr Stcäl, -{tß, ^c, Cook 
lodlettr *D't to boil, Cook 
bic SSiftitif -ncn, cook 
(ol)(fdilliar}r blaok as coal 
bcr ftomef r -««/ -««» comet 
tommtn, *tr., to come (fein) 
bcr SSnifi, -«, -c, king 
bic HSttiailtf -nen, queen 
lünifitidi» royal 
ba« SüttiBtcidi, -«, -c, kingdom 
bcr ftotiittttftiti'» -«, -c, subjunctlve 
lüttnett» v., to be able, can, may 
bcr ftotif, -c«, "e, head [tic 

bad ftoUfte^nen» -9« mental arithme- 
bo» Slant» -<«)*/ *W» graio, com 



b«t ftSmev, -«, — , body 

loiiVMpoWtiSit, cosmopolitan 

ioftrttr tP; to cost 

bie ^ofttn,pl.t cost« expense 

bcr ftratm» -8, — , collar 

bic ftvaft, "-t, strengtb, force 

franf, slck, ill 

bcr ftreUiSttg, -8, H, Crusade 

frieiftett, str.^ to creep 

bcr SIrieg, -c8, -e, war 

fliegen, ti?., to get, catch 

bcr Strieger, -«, —, warrior 

bic fttutte, -n, crown 

bic Strültttltg» -en, coronation 

bic Shrttite, -n, crutch 

ba« mmtxn, -i, —, chick 

bic ftttge(f -n, bullet 

bic ftttlif H, cow 

fitfll, cool 

fttlptlr brave, daring, bold 

IvAtVittW, cultural 

bic VtWX% H, art 

bcr Stättfller, -«, — , artist 

bic ftunfiflätte, -n, home of art 

bo* Stttttftniert, -«, -c, work of art 

bcr Slttlfferftedier, -i, —, steel en- 

graver 
bcr Sturfurft, -cn, -cn, Prince Elector 
fuHe'tett, w., to eure 
bcr StutfttS, Äurfc, oourse 
tViXl, Short 
füllen, w.t to kiss 
bie SMtfte, -* coast, shore 



fSdieltl, tc., tosmile 

(adrett, ir.,tolaugh 

bie Sage, -n, Situation, site 

ba« Saitb, -c8, ''er, land, country 

bic Sanbeimairf, -cn, border (of a 

country) 
bcr Sanbrnattttf -(e)ä, "er, farmer 

(Sanb(cutc) 
bic Sattbfd^aft, -cn, landscape 
lang, long 
lange, adv.^ long, for a long time 

langfam, slow 

längfl, long since, long ago 
langtoeiUg, tiresome 
(äffen, «/r., to let, to leave, to make; 
madbcn — , to have done 



310 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



latei'nifdi. Latin 
lau» soft» mild 
ber 8auf, -(e)8, "e, course 
laufen, «/r., to run (fein) 
bte Saune, -n, mood ; bei guter — , in 
a good humor 

laufd^em w.^ to listen 
laut, loud 

lauten, «7., to mn ; sound ; be 
lauter, sheer, notbing but 

leben, tr., to live 

baä geben, -«, Hfe 

lebenb, üving 

bte ^tbtn&att, -en, mode of life, 

good manners 
hai Sebendiabt, -{e)ä, -t, year of one's 

life 
leifen, w., to lick 
lehnen, w., to lean 
lebten, w. , to teach 
ber Sebret, -ä, — , teacher 
bi« Sebterin, -ncn, teaihor 
ber Seibfudii, -<c)5, -c, fag 
leifbt, easy, light 
bad 8etb, -ed, surrow, tiarm 

ba« Seiben, -i, —, suffering 
leib XWX, to hurt, härm 
leife, soft, gentle 
bie Seftion', -en, lesson 
ble SerAe, -n, lark 
lernen, v.,tolearn 
lefen, «'r., to read 
ber Sefer, -ä, — , reader 
bie Sef erin, -nen, reader 
lebt, last ; le^tereä, the last-named 
leuditen, w., to shine 

bte Seute, plur.^ people 
ba8 fiidlt. -e8, -er, light 
lieb, dear 

bie Siebe, -n, love ; beloved 
lieben, «?., to love 
liebenStuürbiB^ charmlng 

lieblidl, lovely, charniing 

ba8 Sieb, -e8, -er, soug 

bad Siebe!, dim.^ little song 

liegen, »tr., to lie 

linb, gentle 

bte Sinbe, -n, linden-tree 

linf, left ; lintd, to the left, at the left 

bie Socfe, -n, lock, curl 

bad SodeUr -ä, euticement 

lOffem, tt'., to loosen 



Idbem, v>.^ to flare 

ber Sobn, -ii^, ^e, reward, pay 

ber Sofarbestrl, -d, -e, local district 

ba§ So«, -e«, -e, lot, fate 

liefen, u'm to looseu, solve 

loS'oeben, «fr., to Start for. to make 

for 
bie Süife, -n, gap, flaw 
bie Suft, °-t, air, breeze 
bad Süftlein, -d, dm., breeze 
bie Sitoe, -n, lie 
ber Süaner -3, — , liar 
bie Sügnerin, -nen, liar 
bie Suft, "ejoy, desire 
ba« SuftfletöUr -«, joyful sound 
luftis, jolly, gay, merrily 

SR 

ntaiben, tc, to make, do : ed mac^t fu^, 

it will do 
bie 9Ratf|t, "e, power 
ntälbtifi, powerful, mighty 
baä SRäbdien, -ä, — glrl 
bie 9Rabnunfi, -en, warning 
ber 9Wal, -(e)«, May 
bie SRaib, maid 
ba« SRal, -(e)8, -t, time 
ber 3Raler, -i, —, painter 
man, indef. pron.f one 
tnanib, many a 
tttaniber, many a 
ber äRann, -ed, ^er, man, husband 
ber SRantel, -«, ", cloak 
ber änarttlilab, -eö, ^'e, market-place 
marfibieren, w., to march along 
müMfir moderate 
bie äRatte, -n, meadow 
bte WHaud, "t, mouse 
bie SRebi}in', medicine 
ber SReeredfliiegel, -d, surface of sea 
mebr, more 
bte 9Rebr}abl» plural 
bte aiteile, -n, mile, league 
mein, my 
meinen, tr.,to mean; to think ; to 

say 
meift, mostOy) 
meifteni, mostly 
ber aneiftet, -8, — , master 
meilentang, adj., for miles 
ber SRenfibr -en, -en, human being 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



311 



merlett, w., to note, obserye 

bad mtf{tx, -«, — , knife 

bie SRieite» -n, mieD, manner 

bte SRioratiott'f -en, migration 

mm, mUd 

bie äRUbe, mildness, generosity 

bie Witiüion', -tn, million 

ber SRiftiOttär'» -«, -t, millionaire 

bie äRitttt'tt, -tt, minute 

mit» prep. voith dat.^ with ; adv.^ 

along 
miteinatt'ber» together 
ba« SRitleib, -«, pity 
mif fdltoSnncit» «'.. to wander along 
baä IRittel, -«, — , means 
mittelalterUd^, medieeval 
Ux 9Rittel)itttt(tr -<e)8, -e, center 
mittler» middle, central 
mittUvloeile, meanwhile 
ber 9Rittniod|, -8, -e, Wednesday 
baä SRäbel, -4, — , furniture 
ba« SRobaC^UfSmort» -(e)8, ^er, mo- 
dal auxiliary 
müfieit* w.^ may, like 
mügUd), posaible; möflUc^ft gut, as 

g^ood as possible 
ber SRottb, -(e)8, -e, moon 
ber SRottbenfdieittf -«, moonshine, 

moonlight 
bad 9looS, -ed, -e, moss 
moofifir mossy 
ber SKorb, -{e)«, -e, murder 
ber Sttdrber* -«, —, murderer 
moroetlf tomorrow 
ber anotfiftt, -«, — , morning 
baä a^orgenrot» -<e)8, dawn 
morgend, odv., in the morning 
mübe, tired 
bie aKüfte, -n, trouble ; 1i(^ — fleben, to 

take pains 
ber aRttltb, -e8, -e or "er, mouth 
muitbettr w.j to empty (said of a 

stieam) 
baä SRitttfterr -«, — , cathedral 
munter» brisk, cheerfully 
ba« Sttttfe^untr -^, 9Wufe'en, museum 
mitffen» «?., to be obllged to 
ber ^ßhii, -(e)ä, mood ; courage ; guten 

SRut« fein, to be of good courage ; e« 

ift mir ju a»ute, I feel 
bie a»utter, ^ mother 
Me anutterüelie, mother's love 



91 

nadi. prep, with dat.f to, toward ; 

after ; according to 
nndi'bücfenr «'., to look after 
naiftbemr conj., after 
nm^^benfen» tr. irr., to conslder 
ber 9lailitommt, -n, -n, successor 
nädift, next 
bie 9lad)t, ^e, night 
näditlidl, nightly 
baö 9laÄtneb» -(e)8, -er, even-song 
nafi (nä^er, näc^ft), near 
bie 9läl|e, -n, neighborhood 
ber 9lame(tt)» -ni, -n, uame 
namtn^, by name of, named 
bie 9latiottar||||mne, national hymn 
bie aiatur'telire, -n, nature-study 
natftrlidir natural 
bie aiatur'niiffenfdiaftf -tn, natural 

science 
ber 9leae(, -i, —, fog, mist 
ber 9tebe(ftreif , -«, -en, wreath of fog 
neben, prep. with acc. and dat., beside 
ber 9lebenfaly, -e«, H, subordlnate 

clause 
ber 9teffe» -n, -n, nephew 
nebmen, str., to take 
neigen» w., to bend, incline 
nein» no 
nennen, irr,, to call, to name, cf. App. 

88 
ba« 9left» -<t% -er, nest 
ntu, new 

neugierig, curious, iuquisitive 
ntun, nine 

ntnnhtftnt, niueteenth 
nidit, not 
nidltd, nothing 
nie» never 
nieber, adv., down 
bie 92ieber(age» -n, defeat 
niebrig» low 
niemals» never 
niemanb» nobody, none 
nimmer, never 
nod^» still, yet; nor; —einmal, once 

more 
nod) ein» another 
ber 9lorben. -*, north 
norbiffb» northeru 
normaC% normal, natural 



312 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



bie 9lot, 'e, need, trouble ; t& tut — , 

it is necessary 
ndtifim, tc., to press, insist, oompel 
ba« 9Utii'iiu4, -{iß, 'er, notebook 
n», well ! 

ber 9ltt, moment, trice, jiflfy 
bie 9iummn, -n, number 
ttttttr adv.^ now ; interj., well! 
nur, only 
bie 9iuh *ffe, nut 
tittl^eii, «;., to be of use 



o(, whether, if (I wonder) if 
ühtUf oyerhead, aliove 
ühtn1l\n', superficially 
bie Cberffädie» -n, surface 
ühültWr although 
cbi^ß adj.t above 
0d|frm w., to study, " dig" 
ber Cbem, -d, breath 
ober, or 

ber JDffi)ier^, -*, -e, officer 
öfftteti, w., toopen 
üfint,prep. with acc, without 
baä Dftr, -(e)8, -en, ear 
ber Otilel, -*, —, uncle 
orbetttKdl, proper, orderly 
bie Crbnuttfi, -en, order 
bie OtbVf» -i, cominaod, order 
ber Ort, -(e)«, ^er, place 
bie CxMaHf -<«# village 
öftUdi, eastern 



ba« 9attr -<e)«, -e. pair 

ein ptiüX, a few, a couple 

ber ^alaWf -e«, ^e, palace 

ber Ganser, -«, — , armor 

baä iPatiirr', -<e)«, -e, paper 

lialfie'ren, adj., paper 

ber iPaDft» -<e)Ä, '^e, pope 

4»att(m, u'm to fight 

ba« ipedi, -<e)3, pitch 

baS ^erf eff» -8, -e, perfect tense 

ber ^fob, -(c)3, -e, path 

ber ipf arrer, -«, — , pastor 

ber l^fatt» -«, -t, peacock 

ber ^fenniflr -8, -e, farthing, penny 

baS Vferb, -(e)8, -c, horse 

llfUniett» tr.y to plant 



bie VfiH^itttnt, oonscientlousness 

Pilüdtn, w., to pluck, pick 

ber tpflufl, -(ti^, ^e, plough 

ba« 9fit||l, -(e», -e, pillow 

ber mHVfttt, -i, - Philistine 

♦liefen, ti;.,to pick 

ber 1^(ait, -it)i, *e, plan 

pMtn, tc.,tobur8t 

plÖltUil, sudden 

bie Vütfitf, -i€)n, poetry 

ber Voef , -en, -en, poet 

|}oa'tifd),i>olitical 

ber Soften» -«, — , poat 

bie ^railit, glory, splendor 

Hräditifl* splendidOy) 

tai Vvtiitni, trafen' tia, present tense 

Ureulifdl. Prussian 

ber Vrief^er, -4, — , priest 

ber f^rliti, -en, -en, prince 

bie ipriitjerfiit, -nen, prinoess 

Urdbie'reitf i&., to try 

bie Vvcja, prose 

tirüfett, w., to test, to prove 

bie ^rüftttto» -en, examination, test 

hai 9ßult, -(t)§, -€, desk 

ber Vnnti, -(c)8, -e, dot, period 



bie Ottal, -en, torture, trouble 
bie Citelle, -n, spring, soarce 

ber 9iaht, -n, -n, rayen 

räifien, «>., to avenge, take revenge 

baS Siäbdieit, dim., wheel 

ber 9lattb, -(e)d, ^^, edge, margin 

taftf), quick 

vaften, u;., to rest 

ber 9latr -(e)d, advioe 

tuten, str.f to guess, advise 

ber Slatgeber, adyiser, counsellor 

baä «tttfel, -8, — , riddle 

ran^, rough 

ber 9iattm* 4e)8, -^, spaoe, room 

räumen» tr., to clear 

raufilien, «'., to rustle 

hai ^taVfitunnaWum, -4, -4en, high« 

school (scientific) 
bie 9)edienmafdiine, -«, oonnting-ma- 

Chine 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



313 



trd^nen, v?., to reckon, do 

bod 9iedinen, -i, —, arithmetic 

tedit» right 

bie Ste^e, -n, speech, dlscourse; eine 

— galten, to make a speech 
tebm» vi.f to speak, talk 

bad Stefomt'aHinnafiutii» -9, -en, 
high-school 

refie, active 

ber Wegen, -8, — , rain 

bie 9)eaett}eit» -en, rainy season 

bad Wri4l, -<«)*» -e, realni, empire 

fcidi, rfch 

trilflCtl» u'., to reacb, band 

ber Weiditutil/ -<e)8, *er, wealth, riches 

f elf , ripe 

bad WeifeieumtiS, -ffed, -l^e, final ex- 

amination ; graduating diploina 
bie 9ieil|e, -n, row, turn 
ber 9Iei^ettf -8, — , dance 
teltl» clean, pure 
bie Weife, -n, trip, journey 
teifettr tr., to travel (fein) 
ber Weifende» -n, -n, traveller 
rei#etl# »tr.y to tear, snatch 
ber WeiterSmann. -(e)8, -"er (-leiite) 

rider, cavalryman 
reiten, */r., to ride (horseback) (fein) 
ber Weij, -e8, -e, cbarm 
teilen, it\, to cbarm ; to aggravate 
reisenb, cbarming 
bie tteligion', -en, religion 
ber WefDeft', respect 
retten, to., to save, rescue 
rii6 ten# «>., todlrect 
ber Widiter, -8, — , judge 
riditiR, rigbt 
ber Widitftirttdil» -<e)8, -»e, sentence, 

judgraent 
ber Wieoel, -«, — , bolt 
ber Wiefe, -n, -n, giant 
ringen, J^., ^ wrestle, wring 
ringS, adv.y aroand 
ringfenm', adv.^ all around 
rinnen, *'n, to run (sald of water) 
ber IRitt^ -(e)8, -e, ride, journey 
ber Witter, -«, — , knigbt 
rontQn'tifdi, romantic 
ber Witmer. -«, — , Roman 
^9mifd|, Roman 
ber Wofentran}* -(e)8, ^e, rosary 
ba« Wol^, -ffe«, "ffe, horse, steed 



rot, red 

ber Wuf, -e8. -e, call, reputation 

rufen, »tr., tocall 

bie Wu^e» rest, peace 

rulienr «;., to rest 

ru6ig, quiet 

ber Wttftm, -e«, fame 

rölimen, «'., to praise, boast 

rühren, w., to touch, move, stir 

rnnsÜg, wrlnkled " 

bie Wttftigfeit» -en, activity, energy 



ber @aal, -eS, Sttle, ball, audlence 

cbamber 
ber ^'dhtU -8, — , sword, saber 
bie ^tt^t, -n, thing ; case, cause 
fädififdl, adj., Süxon 
fugen, w., tosay 
ber Samiftag, -8, -t, Saturday 
fanbig, Sandy 
fanft, gentle 

ber Sänger» -i, — , singer 
ber Sat)# -e8, ^c, sentence 
faner, sour, bard, bitter 
baä Sauerfraut» -<e)8, sourkrout 
fanntenf u^., to linger, besitate 
fänfefn, to., to rustle 
fiftaben» w., to barm, hurt 
ba8 Sdiof, -<e)8, -t, sheep 
ber Sdpfifer» -8, — , shepherd 
ber SdiaQ, -<e)8, -e, sound, ring 
f Ratten* w., to ring, resound 
f Aalten» to., to ruie, hold sway 
fl^Snien, reß.^ to be ashamed 
bie Sdianbe, shame 
ber Statten, -8, — , shadow, shade 
ber Silial), -e8, ^e, treasure 
f Ratten, to., to look, see 
bie Siiieibe, -n, pane, disk 
f Reiben» »tr., to depart (fein) 
ber Sdiein» -{e)8, -e, appearance; 

sbeen, ligbt 
fi^einen, «/r., to seem, appear 
bie SdieUe, -n, bell 
fdpeften, «/n, toscold 
f^enfen, to., to present, give 
fl^idfen, to., to send ; refl., to beseem, 

be proper 
Wthtn, Str., shove, push 
f4lief, crooked 



3U 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



fillielycttf 'tr.f to sboot 

Uv ^Wh, -{tß, -i, sliield 

bie @ili(a4lt, -en, battle 

bcr Sdilaff -(e)ä, sleep 

fdilafrn, »ir., to sleep 

fll)(agcn» »/r. rc/., to fight ; kill, strlke 

fdlledit badOy), evillly) 

fidCetdien, */r., to creep (fein) 

f4|(te^eitr «/r., to lock, close, condude 

\mtmt^, finally 

fl^Itmm, bad 

ba« @d|(o#. -ficä, -^fy^r, Castle 

fdflummern, t^., to slumber, doze 

ber ®4|(u^, -ffed, ^e, end, conclusion 

fdimeclen» tt*., to taste 

bie Sdimirbe, -n, smithy 

fd)mie^eit, w., to forge 

fl^mälfen» u^., to adorn, decorate 

fllimullig, dirty 

ber Ztknühtl, -8, ^, bill, beak 

ber ^dinee, -8, snow 

fdjneebfbecft, snow-covered 

bie @il)neef[0(fe, -n, sDowflake 

ber Si^neibet, -8, — , tailor 

fiftneiett, w-, to snow 

fdinen, quiok 

bie SAttrUigfrit, rapidity 

ber Sdinitter, -«, — , reaper 

bie SAttttteriii, -nen, reaper 

fdinürettr '«'., to strap, laee up 

fAnurren, w., to hum 

f4|0n» already 

fll|8nr beautiful ; interj., very well I 

bie ^di'6nhtit, -en, beauty 

ber iSAo## -cö, -"e, lap, bosom 

ber @if|reffen, -ö, — , terror, fright, 

horror 
fdirrffUdi, dreadful 
ftfirei6en, str.^ to writo 
fl^reien, str., to scream, squeak, yell 
ber <SttititU -<e)«, -e, step 
ber @Au^, -(e)ä, -e, shoe 
ber SAuftmail^er, -8, — , shoemaker 
ber @Au(befui^, -<tß, -e, school-at^ 

tendance 
bie 9d)U(bf -en, debt, guilt 
bie Siliute, -n, school 
ber SAüCer, -i, —, pupii, student 
bie ^rfiMferin» -nen, pupil, studeut 
ber SdiuHe^ret» -8, — , school-teaeher 
bie SAuUer, -n, Shoulder 
baä @i1|it(niefen» -8, school-system 



bie <S<pu(seit, -en, school-time 

ber Sdiuftrc, -ö, — , shoemaker, cob- 

bler 
fdyittteln, u\, to shake 
ber SA Uli, -<e)d, protection 
fAttlSAÜAr veakly 
ber SAMÖAIing, -d, -e, weakling 
ber ® AtOttgcr, -ä, -^^ brother-in-law 
bie SAtvSfittitt, -nen, sister-iu-law 
ber SÄtoatti, -e«, ^e, tail 
fAtItSnnett, i^., to gush; express 

enthusiasm ; wander (fein) 
S^toaxi, black 
ber @AloantOft(b, -<e)8, ^er, Black 

Forest 
f Alvebttt» «?., to hover (fein) 
ber SAloeif, -<e)8, -e, tail 
f AtOtigcn» Str., to be silent 
bad SAtueigem -8» silence 
bie £Atl>(iSr Switzerland 
f Alvtr» heavy, dlfficult 
ber SAltferHuitft, -eä, -e, centre of 

gravity 
ba8 SAloert, -(e)8, -er, sword 
bad SAloertgcfUnr, -d, rattling of 

swords 
bie SAtoefter» -n, sister 
f Atoitrig» dlfficult, hard 
f Atoingem »tr., toswing, flutter ; refl., 

to vault 
f A)tl<iten, «<r., to swear, vow' 
ber @A)Durr -(e)8, ^e, vow, oath 
feAdf six 

baö SeAftet» -8, — , sixth 
feA^UttbfiebSig, seventy-six 
feASt^tt, sixteen 
ber ®ee, -8, -n, lake 
bie See, -n, sea 
bie Stele, -n, soul 
ber Segen» -d, — , blessing 
feH^eitr Str., to see 
feljr, very 
bie Scibc, -n, silk 
feiben, sllken 
fein, bis 

fein, Str., tobe (fein) 
f ctnettocgen» for bis sake 
feit, prep. with dat., conj., since 
bie Seite, -n, side 

feitend, prep. with gen., ou bebalf of 
bie Selnn^be, -n, second 
felber, fe»ft, seif 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABÜLARY 



315 



feltettr seldom 

baä Seme'ftcr, -8, — , semester 
ber ^tna'tox, -S, -en, Senator 
feigen» w., to put, set; reß.j to sit 

down, be seated 
feufsettr MJ., tosigh 
fll!^, himself, herseif, itäclf, oiieäelf, 

themselves 
fiij^er, sure, safe 
He, she; they 
iitbtn, seven 

fie&en^Unbert^ seven hundred 
baS @ie6|el^nte(/ -iS, — , seventeenth 
fiebettf «<r., toboil 
ber @ieg, -<e)8, -e, victory 
ficgfti» 'U'., to be vietorious, conquer 
f{r^, behold I lo! 
bad SU^ttf -d, silver 
^ibevfltU, bright as silver 
fi((ent, adj., silver 
finoen, «<r., to sing 
fittfem J'r., to sink (fein) 
ber ^intt, -itß, -e, sense ; uiind 
finnetl« «tr., to medltate 
bie Sitte, -n, custom 
fi^en, «<r., tosit 
ber SmaranV -(e)«, -e, epierald 
fo» as, so, thcn, thus, iudeed 
\0haW, as suon as 
foforf » at once, immediately 
fofiar'r adv., even 
fo genannt, so-called 
fo0(etf^\ immediately 
ber So^n. -(«)«/ ^e, son 
fo(4, such 

ber @o(bat', -en, -en, soldier 
foQenr tt'., shall, ought ; be to, be said 

to 
ber Sommer, -8, — , summer 
fonberbcir, stränge, queer 
bie Sonne, -n, suu 
ber Sonnenfi^ein, -§, sunshine 
ber SonnenftraftI, -S, -en, sunbeam 
fonnig, sunny 
fonft, otherwise; at other tiines; 

formerly 

Sonntagmorgen, ' -i, — , Sunday 

morning 
bie Sorge, -n, carc, worry, sorrow 
forgenfret, care-free 
SP'dfitn, u\, to look, search, peer 
ftiannrn, t&., to stretch ; interest 



\tßäi, late 

ber Stial»» -e«, -en, sparrow 

ber Stiaiter'gang, -(e)«, *e, walk, 
stroU 

ber Slfe^t, -8, -e, woodpccker 

ber StierUng^ -ä, -e, sparrow 

berS|liege(^ -8, — , niirror, surface 

baä Sliiel, -e«, -e, game 

f fielen, tr., toplay 

ber SHielmann. -(e)«, -^er Heute;, 

fiddler, player 
f)){nnen# str., tospin 
ber Stiorn, -(e)§, St)oren, spur 
bie S^rai^e, -n, speech, language ; 

eine — galten, to mnke a speech 
(preisen, jsfr., to speuk 
fdrie^en, j/r., to sprout(fein) 
fpringen, str., to spring; leap (fein) 
ber SDroß, -ffe§, -ffe (bie Sproffc, -n\ 

scion, shoot, sprout. 
fUrnbeln, w., to gush forth (fein) 
bi' S^ule, -n, Shuttle 
bie Stiur, -en, trace, track 
SpÜVtn, «?., to trace, scent; notlce, 

fecl 
ber Ziaat, -eS, -en, stato 
ftaatliiQ adj. (belonging to the) State 
ber Stab, -(e)«, ^e, staff, rod 
bie Stabt, "e, city 
ber StaftI, -(e)g, ^e, stecl 
ber Stott, -(e)«, ^e, stable 
ber Stamm, -<e)8, -"e, stem, trunk; 

race 
ftarl, strong 

ftarren, «7., to stare, glare, gaze 
ftatt# prep. with gen. instead of 
ftatt'^nben, str., to take place 
ftedien, str., to prick, Stab 
ftecfen, tv., to place, put ; be 
ber Steifen, -8, — , stick, staff, rod 
fteben, str., to stand 
fteblen, str., to steal 
fteigen, str,, to climb (fein) 
ber Stein, -(e)S, -e, stone 
bie Stelle, -n, spot, place 
ftellen, «•., to place, put 
fterben, s'r., to die (fein) 
ber Stern, -(e)«, -e, star 
baS Stemlein, -^, — , dim., little star 
ftetig, steady, continual 
ba« Stieffinb, -e«, -er, stepchild 
bie Stiefmutter, ^, stepmother 



316 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



ftiS,^ft, quiet, silent 

bie Stimme, -n, voice 

ber ^icd, -<t)i, ^c, stick 

ftdlfcsir u>., to Stop, Stick 

bcr ©totj, -ti, prIde 

ftoU, proud [field 

baä ^iopptlUlh, -(c)8, -er, stubble- 

ber ®tdr4, -(iß, H, stork 

fto^etl, *<r., to push, nudge, jar 

ftvafttt» u'., to puuish 

ber @tiral|(, -<e)«, -en, beam, ray 

ftra||(en^ «7., to beam 

ber ^tranb, -(e)«, -e, Strand, shore 

bie Strafe, -n, street 

bie Mittat, -n, dlstance 

ftvtdtn, ID., to Stretch, reach 

ber streit, -it% -e, fight, quarrel 

ftvtiitn, Str. reß., to quarrel 

ftrettgr severe, harsh 

bie ^tvtnQt, severity, harshness 

ber ^ttom, -ti, ^t, stream, river; 

current 
ftxuppiti, unkempt, rough 
bie @ttt6e, -n, room 
baä @tüb(eitt, dim., little room 
baä &iüd, -itß, -e, piece 
bcr @tttbettf» -m, -en, student 
bie <Stuben'tettf|irai|ie, -n, students' 

slang 

bie Stuben' tittf -nen, student 
ftubie'vrtt, m?., to study 
baiS Stttbium^ -i, -ien, study 
bie @tuf e, -n, step ; grade 
ber etufit, -<e)«, ^c, chair 
fttt(|iett» tt'., to put, jam 
bie ^tnntit, -n, hour, lesson 
ftüvmtn, w., to storm, rush 
ftüvitn, w., to fall (fein); refl., to 

plunge 
ftü^ett, «7., to Support 
fuilien, w., to seek, look for 
ber Süben, -^, south 
fÜbUA, Southern, south 
bie ^ummt, -n, sum, total 
fumtnett, w., to hum, to buzz 
fitf^, sweet 

baä @l|ttont|m'/ -(e)«, -e(n), synonym 
bie @}enerie', scenery 



baS Sat, -(c)8, ^er, valley, rale 
bie Safel, -n, blackboard 



ber Jttö, -<e)«, -e, day 

hai Xasetucrf, -(c)3, -c, day 's labor 

i'düUth, daily 

bie Saune, -n, fir-tree 

bie Xantt, -n, auut 

tansettr u'., to dance 

tapitv, brave 

bie Sauie, -n, dove 

tau\ilitn, w., to exchange 

tattfenb» thousand 

tattfettbiä^riB» o«//., a thousand yeais 
old 

ianUnhmol, a thousand times 

tedittifilir technical 

bag (ber) Seil, -(e)a, -e, part, shar«, 

portion 
itiltUf w., to divide, share 
teiCttel^men, str., to take part 
teuer, dear, expensive ; beloved 
ba§ Xflta^Ux, -8, — , theatre 
t^roueu» tr., to be enthroned 

S^üriufleruiatbf •ii'ß, Thuringian 
Forest 

tief, deep 

tiefdCau, dark blue 

baä lier, -itß, -t, anlmal 

bcr Ilfdi, -{tjü, -c, table 

bie Xoditetr ", daughter 

bcr Job, -(e)8, -e, death 

bie Xobesftuube, -n, hour of death 

toU, crazy, mad 

tötttn, w., souod 

ber Zopi -<e)8, ^t, pot, kettle 

ber Xox, -en, -en, fool 

baä Zox, -<e>8, -e, gate 

tot, dead 

iöttn, t&.,tokiIl 

baä Sotenamtf -(e)8, *cr, burial Ser- 
vice 

ber Soteufiräber, sexton 

ber XoiWan, -^, ^e, murder, man- 
slaughter 

bie Xrabttion', -cn, tradition 

itü^tn, str.f to bear, carry ; to wear 

bie Zx'dnt, -n, tear 

träneufeu^t» damp, tear-bedewed 

ber Staunt, -(e)«, H, dream 

träumen» w., to dream 

traurifl, sad 

treffen, str., to meet ; to hit. 

treiben» str., to drive 

trennen» to. to separate 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



317 



treten, «/n, to step (fein) 

treu, faithful 

Me Sreue, faithfulness, fidelity 

trinfeu, »tr., to drink 

bcr %x\ii, -(e)*/ -«/ step, footstep 

troff ett» dry 

bie Xx^mmtl, -n, drum 

ber StomlfC^ter, -8, — , trumpeter 

ber ZroHfett, -i, — , drop 

ber Sro^» -ffed, -ffe,(cavalry) Company 

tröften, v}.t to comfort 

trafen, «?., to defy 

tüditiar thorough ; splendid 

ttttt, »<r., to do 

bie Sitte, -ti, door 

ber Xwtm, -{t)i, "e, tower 

tttttten, «'•1 to takegymuastic exercise 

ber Xtltfyu^, typhoid fever 

fibel, evil, bad 

tt6er, pr^. with acc. and dai.f over, 

above 
ikhtttin'Ummtnf str., to agree (fein) 
üierfitli'veti, «?., to convict 
nfitvUmfmtn, »tr., to come over (fein) 
ÜhtxW^VX, superior 
Üierle'geitr tr., to consider 

it^crfflittf tem «'., to cover 

it&erfe^'ett, u'., to translate 

fibrifi, ad;., over, lefl 

ba8 Ufer, -ä, — , shore, Strand 

baS ttferoef Aidlt/ -(e)«, reedy shore 

bie Uftr, -en, watch, clock 

WSi,prep. with acc.f about ; with in/., 

in Order to 
itmur^mett, «?., to embrace 
ber tllttfiano, society, intercourse 
itmge'^ettf »tr.^ t« Surround 
ttmliet', aronnd, about 
umSWt'^tn, str.y to contain, bound 
um^fel^en, w., to change, turn 
ttmfottfiK, ad»., in vain 
ltm'ftüt}em w-, to subvert, overtum 
VLm'iWX, ttr., to wrap 
itttBelattttt, unknown 
nnh, and 

tttlfieittttbett, unrestrained 
ttitoefälpr, about 
nnaeftittbert» unhindered 
tmoeHorfam, disobedlcot 



ttttfietabff uneren, odd 
bad Uttfietüm, -d, -e, monster 
UttfitÜcfUll^, unfortunate, unlucky 
bie Uttitierfitaf, -en, university 
bad ttniUerfltätS'Iebeitf -d, university 
life 

unmüfilidi» impossible 

Uttttül^, useless 

baä tttttedit, -<e)S, wrong, injustice 

ttttfer» our 

unter, prep. with dat. and acc, be- 

neath, below, under 
unterbrüif en, w., to oppress 
ber Unterbrü'dfet» -*, — , oppressor 
bie nnterbrü'dfuna» -en, oppression 
unteroe'^en, od/., subject 
un'teroel^m, to perisfa, go under 
uWiet iodiett, u;., to subjugate 
ber ttnterriilit, -i, Instruction 
bie nnterri^fftunbe, -n, lesson, les- 

son period 

bad nntertiditSniefett, -i, school-sys- 
tem 

untetflüei^ben, str. refi., to diflTer, dis- 
tinguish 

ber ttnterfdiieb, -8, -e, difference 
Untertan, od/., subject 
untiemtöfienb, dowerless; unable 
unbertonnb'bat, invulnerable 
un)ä||(io, uncounted, innumerable 
bad Utoeftein» -(e)d, -e, primitive 
rock 

bod ttr' teU, -d, -e, judgment 

S 

ber ^aitx, -d, ", father 
bod Saterlanb» -<e)d, '^cr, native 
country 

berän'bern, w.^ to change, alter 
berbeffern, w., to improve, correct 
berbin'ben, str,, to unite 
bie Cerbin'bung, union, connection, 

society 
berbren'nen, tm, to bum. Cf. App. 88 
bad JBerber'ben, -d, destmction 
berbie'nen, w., to deserve, earn 
bad 9!evbienfif , -<e)8, -e, desert, earn- 

ings 
berbitt'fiett» to. refl., to hire oneself 
ber IBeteUt', -9, -e, club, association - 

Union, oompany 



318 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



tttXtVntUf vf't ^ unite, join, unify 

titVtVnigtn, w.t to unite 

tierf er' tigern w., to make, prepare, 

produce 
Herftte^^ettf *<r., to melt, flow away ; 

pass (fein) 
tierfull'tett. «o., to lead astray 
tieraan'fiettf past 
bte Seman^Betilpeit» past time 
ttevfit'btn, str.^ to forgive 

ncroe'denir <^v-> ^^ ^ain 
öeme'ften, «/r., to pass (fein) 
neroerfen, «<r., to forget 
neranüfif, joyous, happy 
HerBtS'^em» w., to increase 
Uerliaf teit, w., to arrest 
ba« Ser^arten, -8, behavior 
tferljerfeitf «/r., to assist, ralse 
tier^in'bent» w., to prevent, hinder, 

stop [hide 

^txMvA'itXip w., to Cover from sight, 
^txWxtXlr w. »'«A» t<> *^^ one's way 
ber f&tJ^xx'itf -n, -n, lost (one) 
ber Serfttttf , -^, "e, sale 
netfau'fen, w., to seil 
ber Oerfe^r', -8, association, society 
ba« SBevfedri'tDffen, -ö, social iuter- 

course 
^txU^xV , inverted ; wrong 
Der(an'0en, w., to demand 
baä IBetCan'neti, -*, demand 
Dtriarfeit, */r., to leave, desert 
ucrüe'ren, */r., to lose 
ber »erluff, -<e)«, -e, loss 
nermirfrn, «'., to miss 
ber IBerfli^ -e*, -e, stanza, verse, llnfe 
uerfäu'men» «-., to miss 
lie?fi||af fett, w., to procure 
tierfd)ie'ben, different 
bie S!erfii|te'brnf)ett, -en, difference 
tierfi^Ue'^enr str.^ to lock up, shut off 
tierfdid'nen, w., to spare 
\>tx\illXt\'btVl, Str., to make a mistake 

in writiDg ; deed to, prescribe 
berf^ire^ifteitr str., to promise 
oerftältb'Itlt» comprehensible 
derfte'fien^ str.^ to understand 
t)tx\n'ttttn, «?., to try 
Utrtrei'ben, str.^ to drive away 
Derun'ffirettr «?., to dishonor 
nerur^teiCeitf w., to condemn 
HertQUn^'bar, vulnerable 



toersei'^etir »fr., to forgive 

ber ^tttcx, -i, -n, cousin 

tiirt, much 

tliclfadir manifold 

nitütii^f, pcrhaps 

Hier» four 

bierftiännig, four-in-hand 

bad fBiexttU -^, —, fourth, quarter 

DierunbtiiersiOf forty-four 

Uientnbstoanjigr twenty-four 

bier^ebtt, fourteen 

bierjifi, forty 

ber S^ogel, -8, ^ bird 

baS Söge(d}en. -«, — , </t?n., little bird 

bad iBögUin, -d, — , dim., little bird 

ba^ IBotf» -e«, ^er, people ; nation 

bte S^Ölfenoanberuna, -en, migratiun 

of races 
bie S^olfi^fdiuU, -n, public school 
ber S^oKdftamm. -<e)«, ""e, tribe 
bte Solfj^toirtfdiaft, poiitical ecou- 

omy 
boX füll 

UoQbriit'fien» t>r., to accompllsh 
bon, pr<7>. trt/Ä (/a/., from, of, out of 
botf prep. witk dat. and acc, before, 

in front of ; out of, bccause of 
borbei'r adv., past 
borbereitett, «?., to prepare 
bte iBo(bereitUtt0# -en, preparation 
bor'fittbeitr «/r., to discovcr, find 
bor'fommett, »tr., to occur (fein) 
bor'negrn, str., to lie before; ein 

Srrtum liegt bor, a mistake occurs 
bor^tragem »'r., to recite 
borü'ber, adv., past 

lOQdi» wakefnl 

bie VQaiit, -n, watch, guard 

tnaHitn, u\, to watch, guard 

tvadifen» str.j to grow (fein) 

bie 9B.td)tf -cn, watch, guard 

tvilgen» w., to dare, venture 

ber SBagen, -4, — , wagon, carriage 

hiagba(fig. reckless 

ber SBabffbVttdi, -e8, H, watchword, 

battle-cry 
toabt, true 
tnäbrenb, adv. conj., whWe ] prep, teith 

yen.,^during 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



319 



toafitMt, truthful, truly 

tuaUxUäl, truly ! 

bie SBatfe, -n, orphau 

ber SSatti, -ti, ^n, woods, forest 

baä SOalb'meibleinr -», — / wood- 

nyinph 
ber ^alhhauhtv, -^, —, forest charm 
btc 9üalliaVia» Walhalla (Ihe palace 

of departed heroes) 
bic ^ttUÜ'Xt, -n, valkyrie 
toaQen» w., to wander, drift (fein) 
bie SBatibr *e, wall 
hl anbellt» side/omi to toanbern 
ber SBatlbrrer» -i, —, wanderer 
hianbcnt/ «;., to wander (fein) 
toanltn, w.i to waver, swerve 
tnatin, when? 
toarm» warm 
ttjartettr «7., to wait 
ltlarum^ why? 
toad, what, that wbich 
tvai für ein, what sort of 
baä SDafTer, -K —, water 
bic SSafferfdieibt, -n, watershed 
ber aöeiftfet, -*, — , chauge ; billüfex- 

change 
mtdcn, iv. Irans. ^ to awaken 
toebcr . • . noAr neither . . . nor 
tuen» arfy., away 
ber ffiea, -(e)«, -e, way 
toeoetlr prep. vrith gen,, beeause of, for 

the sake of 
tofffi' räumen, v>., to clear away 
Itfeo'reifienr *'r., to tear away 
toelben, w-, to wave ; blow 
bie 98efintnt» wistfulue»s, melaucboly 

meb'tun, *//•., tohurt 

tueidiem Str., to yield (fein) 

bie 9ütWth Vistula(river) 

bie SBeibe, -n, willow 

bie SSeibnailpt, -en, Christmas 

toeU, beeause 

bie IßJeilef time; whilo 

ber 9Beim -<e)^, -e, wiiie 

ivtlntn, w., to weep 

njelfe, wlse 

toci'fen, «/r., to show, point 

bie S8ei6bett, -en, wisdom 

tuelft, white 

meit, far, Wide 

bie SQeite. -n, distance 

tueiterr farther, ou 



ioetdier» wbich 

melteUf «'., to wither(fein) 

bie SOelt, -en, world 

hai 9SSeUfieivü!)(, tunuuilof tbe world 

bie Söeltftabt, H, metropolis 

tuenio, little, few 

toeniflftenlf, adv., at least 

nienn, when, if 

mer, wbo, he whö 

toerben, sir., tobecome 

ioerfen» »ir-, to throw, buii 

bie Söerfftatt. (-ftätte), "en, Workshop 

toert, worth 

ber SBert/ -(e)Ä, -e, value 

baÄ SBefen, -«, — being 

loeö^atb» why, wherefore 

IvefHiA» westward, west 

tolber, prep. with acc. , agaiust 

toibrio, disagreeabie 

luie, as ; than ; how 

mieber, agaln 

toiegen, «?., to rock 

bie $9tefe, -n, meadow 

ittiitt, wild 

ber SBine(u)» -ni, will, deterniinatiuu 

miQtfi, williug 

miQfom'men» welcome ! 

ber «ölnb, -(e)«, -e, wind 

ber SStnter» -S, — , winter 

toinita, tiny 

ber UQlPitU -4, —, tree-top 
toirbelnr w., to eddy, whirl 
toirfUlll, real, true 
ber SBlrt, -(e)«, -t, landlord, host 
tniffen, irr., to know 

bie SQttnie, -n, widow 

too, where 

Me 9EQodtt, -n, week 

ÜfOburift'» by means of which ; by 

what means ? 
toofür'f why ? for which 
bie SDoße, -n, wave 
ber SBooeniirall, -4, surf 
too^er^, whence 
mo^in^, whither 
tüoftU well; truly, probably, T d:.re 

say, I suppose 
tooblfiemut, cheerful 
mobnen, u., to dweii, live 
ber «öolf, He)«, -"e, wolf 
bie S3o(fe, -n, cloud 
ber SOoCtengrauÜ, -ed, black'clouda 



320 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



tuoQettf K'.f to wish, desire, wantto 
tuomit^ with which ; with wbat? 
tOOtiltt'» at which, at what ? 
tOOtfIttf / upoQ which : upoa what? 
toOtilttS'» from which ; from what? 
tOüVin'f in which ; in what, wherein? 
ba* SSoirt, -«*, -"er or-t, word, speech 
bie SöortfteOung» -en, word-order 
tOCXÜfbtX, at which ; about what? 
luotior'» before which ; before what? 
ttlO)U'# for which ; why ? 
totttt^erbaVr wonderful 
tQtttl^evHdir queer 
tOttttbentr to. refl., to wonder 
totutberf l^ött, wonderfully beautiful 
bcr 38unfdi, -e8, ^c, wish, desire 
toiültflliettr «?., to wish 
ber Söumtr -<<)*» ^«f/ vorm, serpent 
bie 98ur)cl, -n, root 
toütsett, t(7., to season, fill with scent 
baä SBÜnUittf -i, —, dim., iittle 

root 
tOttttn, «'.»torage 



bie 3Mf -e«» number 
Sollten, w., to co«nt 
ber S^^n, -i^ß, ^t, tooth 

ber 3öWf , -5/ quarrel 

iüVt, tender 

ber S^Uhtxtvanl, -<e)8, *e, magic po- 

tion 
Seifünettr w., to draw 
sriaett, w., to show 
bie 3eUe, -n, line 
bie Stli, -en, time 
bie Stitlano, stretch of time 
ItvfaVUn, str.f to fall to pieces; to 

decompose 
Srrflte'^ett» str., to melt away (fein) 



iitfitn, str.^ to draw, pull (l^aben); go, 

wauder (fein); in ©etvat^t —, take 

into consideratiou 
baä 3let, -S, -e, goal 
Siemlif^» pretty, rather, somewhat 
baS Bintmer, -8, — , room 
Sornio, angry 
}U, to ; too 

auifett» w.i to thrill, start 
}tterff r a<^v-f atfirst 
Stt'faaem «<r., to drop, close 
Sttfönio, «ccidentaKly) 
jufrte'brtt, contented 
bie Bufrie'benlieit, contentment 
ber 3ug, -<e)8, -"e, Impulse; feature, 

procession 
iUBe^gettr odt;., present 
ber Büfiflf -8, — , bridle 
ittgetattr favorably inclined 
3tt(el)t^ at last 
iu'madiett» «'•i to close, shut 
bie ^wx^t, -n, tongue 
taxuHtf, adv., back 
SUtüff OCÜettr »tr.f to go back (fein) 
lUtUttlitfitn, 9tr. refl., to withdraw 
SttfQm'mrnr together [join 

Sujam'mettfitgett, «>., to put together, 
Stt'f^ret^m, *<r., to encourage ; pro- 

nounce judgment 
Stt'trauett, «?., to entrust, belleve, to 

be capable of 
SttbOt'» adv., before 
jmet, two 

ber 3Mei0» -(«)8. -</ branch, twig 
Sioeifieit^ «f., to branch, grow 
Jlnelt, second 
SioeitrttS, secondly 
ber 3l9erg, -(e)8, -e, dwarf 
%Xii\\i^tXi, prqp, with acc and dai.^ be- 

tween 
StQÖtf» twelvo 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULAEY 



a, an^ ein, eine, ein* 

able, be able to, Idnnen, w, 

abont, ddv,, ungeföl^r, ettoa; prep. 
um (acc), t)on (dat.). 

aecording to, nad) (dat.). 

acoonnty on acoount of, tDegen 
(gen.); on that account, beiSl^alb, 
be^toegen; on which account, 
toe^^alb, iDcStoegcn; on my ac- 
count, meinctttjegcn. 

act, l^anbeln, w. ; tun, str. 

A.D., nad) (S:f)xx\io, n« (S:i^r* 

Adam, 3tbam, — g. 

address, an'reben, w. 

adyance^ Dor'f erretten, str. (fein); 
most advanced, t)orgefcl^rittenft. 

adTenture, bog Slbentcuer, —8, — . 

afraid, adj., bang; be afraid of, 
fi(^ fürci^ten bot, w. 

aftemoon, bcr Siod^mittag,— «,— e. 

agrain, toieber, nod^ einmal. 

agre, t)a^ HItcr, — «, — . 

all (=aU of), all; (=whole), 
ganj; all day, ben ganzen Sag; 
all sorts of, aUetlet (indecL); 
(= exclusively), lauter, 

nllowed, be allowed, bürfen, w. 

along, mit; entlang'. 

also, and). 

althongh, obgleich'. 

always, immer. 

America, baä Slme'rila, —8. 

American, ber Slmerüa'ner, — «, 
— ; bie Slmerif a ' nerin, — nen ; adj. 
amerila'nifd^. 



asi 



amnse oneself, ftcfi amüfie'ren- w, 
anclent, alt, altertüm'lic^. 
and, unb. 

anlmal, baS 2^ier, — (e)g, — e. 
answer, antworten, t(?. ; bie 2lnt»ort, 

— en. 
anTll, ber Slmboß, — jfe3, — ffe. 
anythlng, etUDai^; not anything, 

nid^ti». 
appear, erfd^ei'nen, str. (fein). 
appearance, bie ©rfd^ei'nung, — en; 

baS 5lugfc^en, — g. 
apple, ber ^|)fel, —3, — . 
archltectare, bie Jöaufunft, bie 

Slrdiiteftur'. 
area, ber giöd^enraum, — (e)3, — e. 
arlthmetlc, bag SRed^nen,— §; men- 
tal arithmetio, baS ^o^fred()nen, 

— S. 
arm, ber Slrm, — (e)8, — c. 
armer, ber ^anjer, —^, — . 
aronnd, um (acc). 
arrest, ber^af 'ten, w. 
art, bie Äunft, — e; art centre, 

bie ^unftftötte, — n. 
as, conj., a(g, ba, tt)ie; as, so. . .as, 

fo...ald, tt)ie; as if, ald ob; as 

many, fo biete. 
ask, fragen, w. 
at, an (acc. and dat.); ju (dat.); 

(of time), um (acc); with, at the 

house of, bei (dat.). 
Angsburgr, bag SlugSburg, —8. 
autnmn, ber §erbft, — (e)8, — ^ 
ayenge, röchen, w. 



322 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



awakeiiy extoe'den, w, 
aware, getua^r'. 
away^ fort, toeg. 

back, jurüd'. 

Baltic Sea, bie Oftfee; ba^ baltifd)e 

SKeer. 
bark, bellen, w. 
bathe, baben, w. 
battle, bie (Bdjlad)t, — en. 
be, fein, str. (fein) ; there is, are, eS 

ift, e^ finb, eS gibt. 
be, is to, foUen, w. 
bear, ber SBör, — en, — en. 
beautifiil(ly), fc^ön, reigenb. 
beaaty, bie ©d^önl^eit, — en. 
beeanse, n^eil. 
become, werben, str. (fein). 
bed, ha^ SBett, — (e)§, — en. 
before, aöv., ef)e; prep. öor (acc. 

and dat.); (=hitherto), biö^et'. 
begr (=request), bitten, sfr.; (for), 

um with acc. ; (= beg for alms), 

betteln, w. 
heggsiTy ber SBettler, — §, —. 
hegiuy an ' f angen,s^r. , begin ' nen,s^r. 
believe, glauben, w. 
bell, bie ©ereile, — n. 
belong (= be in the possession of ), 

gep ' ren, w. (dat. ) ; (= appertain 

to), ge^ö'ren gu (dat.)- 
bench, bie SSonf, — e. 
Berlin, S3erlin',—S. 
best, beft, ber befte, am beften; auf§ 

beftc, äußerft gut. 
better, beffer. 

between, 5n7ifd)en (acc. and dat.) 
bird, ber §8ogeI, —g, — . 
birdling, ba^ ^ögeld^en, — §, — . 
black, fd)n)ar5. 
blood, ba§ SBIut, — (e)S. 
bloom, blül^en, tv. 



blow, blafen, str. 

blue, btau. 

board (= blackboard), bie XafeC, 

— n; (= wooden board), baö 

SBrett, — eS, —er. 
boast of, fic^ rül^men, w., (gen.). 
bold(ly), bel^erjt', lül^n. 
book, ha^ SBuc^, — (e)§, -^-^-ex* 
bonndary, bie ®renje, — n. 
boy, ber Änabe, — n,— n; bergunge 

— n, — n; ber S3urfd^(e), — (e)n, 

(e)n. 
braye, ta^pfer, lül^n. 
bravery, bie Xa|)ferfeit. 
brew, brauen, w. 
brightness, ber ^lanj, — eS. 
bring, bringen, irr. cf. App. 88. 
brook, ber SBad^, — (e)g, — e. 
brooklet, ha^ SBac^Iein, — §, — . 
brother, ber 93ruber, — §, - . 
brother-in-law, ber ©d^lüager, — g, 

• 

brown, braun. 

busy, gefdjöftig. 

but, conj., aber; fonbern; aUein; 

adv. nur. 
buy, laufen, w, 
by, an (dat., acc); neben (dat., 

acc); bei (dat.); (=agency), öon 

(dat.); (=means), burc^ (acc.); 

by myself , für mid^. 

call, rufen, str. 
can, fönnen, w. 
can, bie Äanne, — n. 
canon, ber ^o^Itoeg, — (e)g, — e. 
capital, bie §au|)tftabt, — e. 
carriage, ber S93agen, — §, — . 
carry, tragen, str, 
Castle, ba^ (Sd)lo6, — ffcS, — ffet. 
cat, bie ^a^e, — n; tom-cat, bei 
Äater, — §, — 






ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



S23 



eatch, fangen, str, 

cause, laffen, str.; cause to fall. 

faßcn loffem 
centnry.5 bag gol^rl^un'bcrt, — g, 

— -c; Century old, ^unbert jährig. 
chair, ber ©tu^I, — (ß)^/ — c. 
change, fid^ t)erön'bcm, u?. 
Charles, ^axi, — S. 
Charles the Great, Äarl ber QJrogc 
charm, entjü'cfen, w, 
eharm, ber dtei^, — eS, —e, 
charmin^y liebenStDürbig, reijenb. 
chase, jagen, w, 
<liea|), biHig 

chlck, bag ^üä)Uin, — S, — . 
child, baS ^inb, — (e)g, —er. 
choose, h)a^Ien, u?. 
city, bie ©tabt, — e. 
climate, ha^ ^Ima, — 8, — tc. 
Ciiiiib, fteigen, str. (fein); flettern, 

w. (fein). 
cloek, bic Ul^t, — cn« 
close, öerfc^Iie'ßen, s^r., fd^Iic'ßen, 

str.y gu' machen, w. 
cloud, bie SSoüe, — n. 
coast, bie Äüfte, — n, 
coat, ber ^od, — (e)S, -^^. 
cock, ber ©al^n, — (e)iJ, — c. 
cold,!alt; catch cold, fit^ erlöl' ten; 

a cold, eine ©rfal'tnng. 
come, f ommen, str. (fein), 
comfort, tröften, w. 
command, befel^'Ien, str. 
eommercial city, bie $anbeli^ftabt. 

— c, 
compelled, be compelled to 

muffen, w. 
completely, gang, öoUftanbig. 
conqneror, ber @ro' berer, — g, — 
contain, entl^al'ten, str. 
Contents, ber Qn^alt, — (e)8, 
eonvict, überfü^'ren, w. 



Cook, ber ^oä^, — (e)g, — e; bie 

Äöd^in, — nen, 
cost, f often, w. 
conncilor, ber 9flatgeber, — §, — ; 

ber diät, — (e)8, — e. 
connt, ber ÖJraf, — en, — en. 
connt up, aufrechnen, w. 
conrage, ber SJiut, — (e)3. 
eoorse (of a stream), ber Sauf, — e8, 

— e; (at a school), ber Ä^urfuS. 
consin, ber SBetter, —8, — ; bie 

©oufi'ne, — n. 
covered, bebedt'* 
crow, frören, w. 
crown, bie Äronc, — n* 
crutch, bie Ärüdte, —tu 
cry, rufen, str. ; »einen, w. 
eure, furie'ren, w. 
cnstom, ber Sörauc^, — eS, — e; bie 

(Sitte, — n; bie (äJemol^n ' ^eit, — en. 

dame, bie Srou, — en. 

dark, bunlel. 

danghter, bie Xod^ter, — • 

dead, tot. 

de.ir, teuer. 

death, ber 3^ob, — c8, — c. 

declare, bel^aup'ten, w,; erlla'ren, 

w, 
deep, tief. 

defeat, befic'gen, w. ; fd^Iagen, str. 
defy, trogen, w. (dat.). 
demand, bie $lnf orberung, — en ; to 

make a demand, eine ^nforbe« 

rung fteHen, tr. 
departnre, ha^ fjortgel^en, — g; ber 

^uf brucfi, — «, — e. 
dervish, bec ®ertoif(j^, — cS, — c. 
desk, bag $ult, —{e)&, — e. 
destined, be destined, foHen, w. 
devour, f reffen, str. 
die, fterben, str., (fein). 



324 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



diffienlt, fd^toet, fc^toietig, 
diligent, fleigig. 
disobedienty ungel^orfam. 
disobey^ ungel^orf am \ein, 8tr. (dat.) 

(fein); trojcn, t«?. (dat.). 
distlngiiish^ aud'^eid^nen^ w. 
diTergence» bie SBerfdgie'benl^eit, 

— en. 
do, tun, 8tr,, maö^tn, w. ; how do 

you do? Wie gel^t eä 3^"^"* ^^^ 

bcfinbcn ©ie ftd^? that won*t do, 

bad ge^t nid^t 
doetor, ber S)oftor, —8, 2)ofto'ren; 

ber Slrgt, — (e)S, — e, 
dogr, ber ^unb, — (e)8, — e* 
domestie animal^ bad Landtier, 

— (e)8, — e. 
donkey, ber @fel, -^5, — . 
dot, ber ^nft, — (e)i5, — e, 
dove, bic Xaubc, — n, 
down, (=below), brunten, unten; 

(=dowiiwardn), nieber ; sit down, 

ftd^ fe^en, w, 
dragon, ber ^rad^e, — n, — n, 
dreadfnlly, furd^tbar* 
dream, tröunten, m; ber Sraum, 

drink, trinlen, 8tr,\ ber Xranf, 

Xrunt, — (c)^/ — c« 
drire^ fahren, str, (fein). 
drop, f aUen laffen, str. ; she drops 

it, fie lägt ed fallen« 

eaeh, jieber, Üebe, jebeS; each other, 

und, eud^, fid^, einan'ber* 
eagle^ ber Slar, —{t)&, — c. 
ear, ba8 D!^r, — ö, — en. 
early^ f rül^* 
easy, (eid^t 
eat; effen, atr, 

effort^ bie Slnftrengung, — en. 
eight^ ad^t 



eleetor, ber Änrfürft, — cn, — eu. 
elephant, ber ©lefant', — en, — em 
eleTen, elf* 

emerald, ber ©ntaragb', — (e)8, — c. 
emperor, ber Äaifer, —8, — . 
emphasis, ba8 (^xox6)V , — eS; bic 

SBeto'nung, — en. 
emptre, baS Äaiferreid^, — Ä, — e. 
eneonnter, befte'l^en, atr, 
enjoy oneself. fid^ omüfie'ren, w. 
ennmerate, auf 'jöl^ten, w, 
equally, ebenf fel^r; gleid^; tolove 

equally, gleid^ gern l^aben, ebenfo 

fel^r lieben tt)ie. 
error, ber ^rrtum, —8, —er. 
everybody, jebemiann. 
examination, bie Prüfung, — en. 
example, bag @jeni'|)el, — S, — ; 

ba8 83eif<)iel, —%, — e. 
exceedingly, aufi^ ]^5d^fte or äu« 

gerfte; l^öd^ft, öußerft. 
exeept, auger (dat.). 
exhanst, erfc^öp'fen, w, 
expend, aui^' geben, str» 
expensive, teuer 
explain, er!Iö ' ren, w, 
expose, aug'fejen,ii?. (dat.). 
extant, befte'l^enb. 
eye, baS 3(uge, — iJ, — n. 

face, ba8 OJeftd^t, — (e)^/ —ct. 
fact, bic Xatfac^e, — n. 
fair, ber ^al^miarf t, — (e)8, -=^. 
fall, fallen, str. (fein); fall asleep, 

ein'fd^Iafen, str, (fein), 
famons, berühmt'. 
farmer, ber SBauer, — n or— ö, — n. 
father, ber SSater,-H^, ~; fatherof 

gods and men, ber WiXiaitx, — 8. 
fear, fürd^ten, w, 
feather, bie Sf^ber, — n. 
feather-bed, baS gcberbett, — (c)«, 

— en. 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABÜLARY 



325 



feeble^ fd^n^ad^. 

fellow^ ber ^txl, —^, — e. 

fleld, bag gelb, — (e)g, —er. 

flght, Ump\en, w. ; fed^ten, str. 

find, ftnben, s^r. 

Ander, ber fjinber, —^, — . 

flr, bic Spanne, — n; ber Sannen* 

bäum, — g, — e. 
Are, baS geuer, — iJ, — . 
flrm(ly), feft. 
flrst, cudQ, , erft; odv. (= not until), 

etft; at first, juerft; in the first 

place. crftenS; (=next), junäd^ft. 
flve, fünf. 

flame, lobcm, w, ; bie giamme, — n. 
flat land, bie @bene, — n. 
flower, bic 83Iume, — n. 
flowret, ha^ SSIümlcin, — «, — , \>(x^ 

SBIümd^en, —^, — . 
fly, fliegen, sfr. (fein). 
fog, ber Siebel, — S, — . 
fond, be fond of, lieb l^aben, gern 

l^aben; adj,y liebenb. 
foolish, törid^t, buntm. 
for, jprep., für (acc); not for 

years, erft nad^ ^aifctxi'; for cen- 

turies, ^al^rl^un'berte lang; lock 

out for him, and ' f (^auen nad^ il^m, 

w.\ conj., benn. 
foreign, fremb. 
forest, ber SSalb, — (cÄ -«et. 
forge, fd^mieben, w. 
forget, öergef'fen, str, 
form, bilben, w. 
former, pron., jener, lexijd, Jeneg; 

ac^\, frül^er, borl^er'ge'^cnb. 
formerly, früher. 
four, t)ier. 

four-in-hand, üierfpännig. 
fox, ber fjud^g, — eS, — e. 
free (=set free), befrei 'en, iv.; 

ac(/., frei. 



feiend, ber gfreunb, — <c)S, — c. 
frightened, bong; be frightened, 

erfd^ro'den fein, 
from, t)on(dat.), aud (dat.); from 

that, babon' ; from (out of) what, 

tt)obon\ 
fall, boH 

garden, ber ©arten, —8, — . 
gay, bunt; fröl^lid^. 
gentle, ntilb, fanft, gütig. 
German, beutfd^; a German, ein 

3)eutfd^er, eine 35eutfd^e. 
Germania, bie ©erma'nia. 
Germany, bad ^eutfd^lanb, — d. 
get, helom'men, 8tr. ; get out of the 

way ! gel^ aui^ bent ^eg! 
girl, baS SJJöbd^en, — g, — . 
give, geben, str, 
glass, ha^ ©laS, — eiJ, —er; adj., 

gläfern. 
gloomy, büfter. 
go, gelten, str. (fein); go to sleep, 

ein'fd^Iafen, str. (fein), fd^lafen 

gelten; goout, aui^ ' gelten, s^r. 
God, ber ÖJott, — eS, -=-^r. 
gold, ba§ ÖJoIb, — (e)iJ; gold-piece, 

bag ©olbftüdt, — (e)«/ — c 
golden, goiben. 
goldsmith, ber ©olbfd^mieb, —9, 

— e. 
good, gut. 

gorgeons, präd^tig, iprad^tboH 
gown, bag Äleib, — (e)g, —er. 
grade, bie ©tuf e, — n. 
grandfather, ber ©rogbater, — g, 

grandmother, bie ©rogntutter, — . 
grass, baä ©raiJ, — eS, —er. 
gray, grau. 
great, groß. 
green, griUu 



326 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



^ow (s= beoome), tocrbcn, str. 

(fein); (=inorease), toat^fcn, «fr. 

(fein)* 
growth, ba8 SSad^Stum, — (c)3; baS 

SBadifcn, — ^; (== inorease), baS 

Slntoad^fen, — »♦ 
grnard, fd^ü^en, ti?. 
gueBS, raten, str,; guess riddles, 

Slatfel löfcn, w. 
gjmnasinm, bad (^Qtnna'fiunt, —^, 

— ficn» 

hair, baS ^aar, — (e)8, — e. 

half, bie ©äffte, — n; adj., ^alb. 

hammer, ber Jammer, —8, — • 

band, bie ©anb, -^ e* 

band, reid^en, w, 

happy, glüdCIid^« 

hard, l^art, fc^toer; work hard, 

fd^loer arbeiten; hard earned, 

faucr öerbient'. 
hare, ber ©afe, — ri, —tu 
hat, ber §ut, — (e)§^ — e. 
hate, l^affen, w, 
haye, l^aben, tt?. ; have a thing done, 

ettoag ntad^en (tnn) laffen. 
haye to, muffen, w. 
hawk, ber ©abidit, —9, — e, 
he, er; ber; biefer, 
head, ber ^opf, — (e)g, -^^. 
hear, l^ören, t/?. 
heart, ba^ |)erj, — en§, — en« 
heaTen, ber ©immcl, —5, — . 
heayy, fd^toer. 
help, l^elfen, str. (dat). 
hen, bie ©enne, —xl 
hence, barnm' ; beStoegen. 
her, il^r, il^re, i^r» 
herd, pten, w. 
Herman, ©ermann, —3. 
hero, ber ©elb, — en, — en, 
hers, il^rer, il^rc, i§r(e)g. 



high, l^d^ 

his, adj\, fein, feine^ fcte; pron . 

feiner^ feine, fein(e^; jjred. adj., 

fein* 
historical, l^ifto'rifd^« 
history, bie ©efd^id^'tc, ^n* 
hold, Italien, str. 
home, bie ©eimat, — en; adi\ 

(=homewards), nad^ ©aufc, ^eim ; 

<=at home), jn ©aufe, bal^eim'. 
homogeneous, einl^eittid^* 
hope, l^offen, w, 
horse, baS ^ferb, — (ßÄ — «; ba§ 

mt)% -ffeS, -ffe. 
hospital, t>a^ ©ofpital', — Ö, ^:^t. 
host, ber SBirt, — (e)«, — c. 
hour, bie ©tnnbc, — n. 
hoase, ba8 ©auiJ, — ci^, -s^r, 
how, tt)ie* 

howeyer, aber, bo(^. 
hnmillate, bemütigen, w, 
hanter, ber Säger, — S, —. 
hnrt, »el^ tnn, «fr. 
husband, ber S^lann, — (c)Ä, -=-^«r; 

ber @atte, — n, — n* 
hut, bie ©ütte, — n. 

I, i(^. 

if, n^enn; ob* 

ill, IranL 

impnlse, ber S^g, — (e)«, -"e. 

in, in (aoo. and dat.)» in the 
evening, am ^benb ; in order to, 
nm 5U (Inf.); in it, barin'; in 
what or which, toorin'. 

inclination, bie Sf^eigung, — en; ac- 
cording to his own inclination, 
nad^ feinem eignen Äopf* 

increase, baS SBergrößem, —8. 

indoors, brinnen, im ©an3* 

indnstrlons, fleißig. 

influenee, ber ©inflnß, — ffeS, — ffc 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



327 



Inspiration, bcr (gtnf aH, — (c)g, — c« 
insteadof, (an)ftatt' (gen.) 
instmetion, bet Unterricht, — *• 
interesting, tntcreffant'. 
tnteryention, ha^ ^infd^retten, —^* 
into, in (acc). 

Inynlnerable, unbertDunb'bar. 
It, c8; er, ftc. 

its, adj\, fein, feine, fein; pron., 
feiner, feine, fein(e)d» 

jo7ons(ly)9 tDOl^Igentut, freubig, 

frol^ 
jndge, ber Slid^ter, — i5, — . 
Jump, \pvxn^en str. (fein)» 
Jnst, cuäQ,, geredet; odv., gerabe, 

eben* 
keen(ly), fd^arf. 
keep, Be^arten, 8tr. 
kill, töten, w, 
kind, gütig, frennblic^. 
kindergarten, ber ^inbergarten, 

— », — • 

kindly, freunblidft. 

kingr, ber Äönig, — Ä, —e. 

kingdom,bai^ Äönigreid^, — (e)8,— e. 

kies, !üffen, w. 

knisrbt, ber 3litter, — «, — • 

know, (sbe acquainted with) 

lennen, irr,, cf. App. 88; (= 

be cognizant of) toiffen, trr., cf. 

App. 88; know a lesson, eine 

Sluf gäbe f önncn, w. 
known, belannt'; well known, 

moi^lbefannt* 

lady, bie S)ame, —tt; Me Stau, —ttu 
land, baiJ ßonb, — €Ä, -^^r or — e. 
languagre, bie @|)rad^e, — n; ancient 

languages, bie alten Sf^rac^en; 

modern languages, bie neueren 

®))rad^en. 



large, grog* 

last, Ie|t. 

last, bauem, to. 

late, f))gt. 

latter, biefer, biefe, biefei» (bieiS); 

ber le^tere* 
langii, lad^en, w. 
lazj, f auL 

leaf, baS SBIatt, — {^Ä —««• 
less, iDeniger. 
lesson, bie Seition',— en; to take 

a lesson, eine @tunbe nel^nten. 

8ir. 
let, lajfen, str. 
letter, ber 5Brief, — (c)«, — e. 
lie, liegen, str. 
life, baS Scben, —5, —. 
like, gern i^aben ; I like it, i(^ l^abe 

eS gern, ed gefallt mir; I like to 

do it, id^ tue t% genu 
linden tree, bie ßinbe, — n; linden 

leaf, ba« Sinbcnblatt, — (e)S, —er. 
listen, l^ören, w. ; l^ord^en, w. ; listen 

to the birds, auf bie ^ögell^ören, 

w, ; ben SBögeln gu'l^ören, w, 
little, f lein« 
live, leben, w, ; tool^nen, to. ; live 

oneself out, ftd^ auiJ ' leben, w. 
load, bie Saft, ~en« 
long, lang, 
look, feigen, 8tr,\ (=appear) auS'- 

fel^cn, 8tr, ; lookout, auS'fd^auen, 

w,\ look at, an 'flauen, w.i 

an 'feigen, str. 
loosen, Idfen, m ; lotfem, w, 
lord, ber §err, — n, — en. 
lose, berlie'ren, 8tr.\ lose one*8 

way, ftd^ berir'ren, w, 
lost, öerirrt'. 
Lonis, Subtoig, — Ä. 
love, lieben, w. ; bis first love, feine 

erfte Siebe. 



328 



ELEMENTS OF GEBMAN 



lOTer, bcr ßiebljabcr, — «, — . 
low, niebrig* 
Iowland, bie (Sbene,— tu 

maiden, bie ;3ungfrau, — eiu 
make, ntad^en, w. ; make one's way, 

fi(^ burd^'f dalagen, s^r. 
man, bcr Wtann, — cg, —er; ber 

äJlenfd^, —en, — en. 
mannfäctnrlngr citj, bie (S^etoerbd« 

ftabt, -=^e» 
many, biele* 
many, l^eiraten, u?. 
master, ber $err, — n, — en; ber 

a^eifter, —^, — . 
may, bürf cn, w. 
meadow, bie SBtefe, — n. 
means, by means of, mittete (gen.) 

burd^ (acc.) 
medicine, bie aJicbi^in', — eiu 
medieyal, ntittelalterlid^. 
meet, begeg ' nen, w. (dat. ), (fein) ; 

treffen, str, 
melt, fd^meljen «fr., (fein). 
merchant, ber Kaufmann, — (e)S, 

— leute« 
mlgrhty, ntäd^tig. 
nü^ation of races, bie SSöIIer- 

ttjonbemng, — en, 
mild, ntilb. 
millionaire, ber Wlimonav', — «, 

— e, 
mind, ber ©inn, — (e)S, — e. 
mlne, meiner, meine, mein(e)g 
mislead, öerfül^'ren, i/?. 
moan, äc^^en, w, 
modern, neuer; mobem', 
money, baS ®elb, — eS, —er. 
moon, ber SKonb, — (e)^, — e. 
mornin^, ber äJiorgen, — g, — ; 

mornings, morgend; this morn- 

ing, §eute morgen. 



mortaly bcr 2Sten\6^, — en, — cn. 

most, meift; a most difficult 
examination, eine 1^5c^ft (or 
öugcrft) fd^toierigc ^ßrufung; the 
most difiQcult examination, bie 
fd^toierigfte Prüfung. 

mother, bie SJiutter, — . 

monntidn, bcr ©crg, — (e)g, — c; 
themountain-range, ha& ©ebirgf, 

monntain top, ber ®ipf cl, — 8,—. 
monm, trauern, w, (um and acc); 

betrau' cm (acc.) 
monse, bie SD^aud, -^^^ 
mouth, ber EJJunb, — (c)i5, -^cr. , 
Mr., bcr $err, — n, — cn* 
much, biet; fcl^r. 
maltiplication table, ba§ @inmal> 

eing',— ,— ♦ 
Munich, ha^ SJ^ünd^en, — 8, 
musenm, bod äßufc'um, — 3, äßu- 

fe'cm 
mnst, muffen, w, ; you must not, 

bu barfft nid^t» 
my, mein, meine, mein« 

name, bcr fftame{n), — mend, — men. 
narrow, eng« 

national, national' ; national 

hynin, hit D^ationaD^^mne, — n. 

natiye land, t>a& ^cimatlanb, --{t)», 

natural, natür'Iid^; natural 
scienoe, bie Statur 'koiffenfc^aft, 

near, nal^. 
need, braud^en, w, 
neighborhood, hie ißä^e, — ^n. 
neither...nor, tt)eber...nod^. 
nephew, bcr Sßeffe,— n, — n. 
never, nie» 
new, neu* 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



329 



next, nöd^ft* 

ni^ht, bie ^a^t, -^ 

nine^ neuiu 

11O9 nein; !ein^ feine, lein. 

nor^ no4; nor I either, id) and; 

northeniy ndrblid^, notbifc^. 

not, nid^t 

110W5 nun, jie^t 

nnmber, bie ^a% — en; bie 9^um* 

tner, — n. 
nut, bie SRufc -s^ff e. 

oak, bie (Sid^e, —n. 
obedient, gel^or 'f am, fcigfanu 
obey, ge^or'd^en, t^. 
obliged, be obliged, muffen, w. 
obliging, geföriig, 
obserrant, beo'bad^tenb. 
obserye, bcmcr 'fen,«?. 
oecnr, ftatt'finben, str. 
o'clock, ]Xf)x; at six o'clock, um 

fed^g U^ 
ofy t>on (dat.); of oourse, natütlid^; 

of it, that, baDon'; of which, 

what, tt)Ot)on'. 
offer, bieten, str. 
officer, bcr Offizier', —i8, — e. 
often, oft 
old, alt 
on, auf, an (dat. and aoc), on ac- 

count of, toegen (gen.). 
one, einS; adj., ein, eine, ein; 

pron,, einer, eine, einei^; indef. 

pron., man. 
only, nur. 
open, adj., offen; open the door, 

mad^e bie %üx auf. 
or, ober. 

Order, in order, um (Inf.) 
orphan, bie Sßaife, — n. 
our, unfer, unfre, unfer. 



ours, unfrer, unfre, unfer§; unfer. 
out, jjrep. au^ (dat.) ; adv. , l^erouS ' , 

^inauS', brausen. 
own, eigen« 

pa^e, bie ©eite, — n. 
pair, ha^ $aar, — e8, — e. 
paper, baS $a^ier', — S, — e. 
past, nad^ (dat); borbci', borüber; 

half-past ten, l^alb elf. 
pastor, ber Pfarrer, — §, — . 
peace, bie fRu^e; ber fjrieben, —3. 
peasant, berSBauer, — gor— n,— n; 

bie ©äuerin, —neu. 
pennj, ber Pfennig, — S, — e. 
people, bicSeute; baS SJolI, — (e)§. 

—er. 
permitted, be permitted, bürf en, w. 
phenomenon, bie ^d^ei'nung, 

— en; ba3 ?ß^anomen', —8, — e. 
pick, :pidten, w. 
piece, bag ©tüdt, —ie% — c 
place, bie ©teHe, — n; ber PaJ, 

— e§, — e;ber Drt ~(e)8, —er. 
place, legen, t(?. ; fteflen,w?.; fejen,«?. 
plant, pflanzen, w. 
play, fpielen, w. 
play, ha^ ©pie^ — », — e. 
please, bitte; gefallen, str.; it 

pleases me, eS gefällt mir. 
pliable, gefd^mei'big. 
poet,ber3)id^ter,— 5,— ; ber$oet', 

— en, — en. 
poor, atttu 
Population^ bie ^intool^ner^al^I; 

— en. 
praise, loben, w, 
prefer, lieber l^öben, w. ; üor'jiel^en, 

str. 
prepare, ))or ' bereiten, k?. 
prescribe, berfdireiben, str. 
present, bag OJefd^enf, 



330 



ELEMENTS OP GERMAN 



pretty, l^übft^. 

priDce, ber gürft, — cn, — cn; ber 

princess, bie ^rinjcffin, —nett» 
probably^ tuol^I; toa^rfd^ein'Iic^* 
promise, berfprc'd(|en, «fr. 
protection, ber ©c^u^, — c^. 
proud, ftolj. 
Prusgian, f)reugifd^« 
panish, {trafen, w. 
pupil, ber ©d^üler, — <J, — ; bic 

©d^ülerin, — nen. 
purse, bie SBörfc, —tu 

qneen, bie Äönigin, — nen. 
qiieer, tuunberlid). 
quick(ly), fd^nelL 
quite, gan^* 

raise, f)then, str.; jur SBIütc öer- 

l^el'fen, str. 
rapid(ly), fd^nett. 
rather, bod^* 
rayen, ber Siabe, — n, — n. 
reach, errei'd^en, w. ; reid^en, w. 
read, lefcn, str. 

receiye^ helom'men, str, ; erl^arten. 
reckless, toagl^alft}). 
recover, fic^ er^o ' len, w. 
red, rot 
reformatlon^ bie 92eformation'/ 

— eiu 
rejoice, fid^ freu'cn, w. (über and 

auf with acc.) 
relate, erjöVIen, w. ; berid^'ten, w. 
release, erlö ' f en, i«?. ; befrei 'en, w. 
remain, bleiben, str, (fein). 
remember, fid^ erin'nem, w, 
remind, erin'nemm (anandacc). 
reply, antttj orten, w. ; entgeg 'nen, w, 
resemble, äl^nlid^ fe^en, str. (dat.); 

gleid^en (dat.) 



resound, crflin*' gen, s/r. 

return, bie gurücf' fünft. 

retnm, jurücf' fe^ren, w. (fein); 

jurüdt'fomnten, str, (fein). 
reTolntionize, um'ftürjen, w. 
reward, bie SBelol^'nung, — en; ber 

ßoi^n, — eS, — e. 
Rhine, ber Sll^ein, -4. 
rieh, reid^. 

riddle, ba§ ^ötfel, — «, — . 
ride, reiten, str. (fein). 
right, red^t, rid^tig; be right, rec^t 

l^aben« 
ripe, reif. 
rise (of the sun), auf'gel^en^ str. 

(fein); (of persons), auf'-ftc^en, 

str. (fein). 
river,.ber ging, — ffcS, — ffc. 
robe, ba8 QJctoanb'- — (e)8, —er* 
Roman, ber 9iöntcr, — g, — ; adif., 

römifd^. 
romantie, roman'tifd^ 
ragged, l^erb. 
run, laufen, str. (fein); run awaj, 

fort 'laufen, str, (fein). 
rasb, ftd^ ftürjen (auf and acc.) w. 
mstling, raufd^enb. 

gafe(ly), ft(^er. 

Sauerkraut, bad @auer!raut, — <e)d. 

saye, retten, w. 

say, fagen, w.; said to be, f ollen, 

to, 
scenery, bie (öjcneric', — eu; bie 

ßanbfd^aft, — en. 
school, bie ©^ule,— n; schoollife, 

baS (Sc^uUeben, — ö. 
school System, boiS ©d^ultoefen, 

science, bie SBiff enft^aft, — cn. 

scold, fd^elten, str. 

search, in search of, nad^ (dat.) 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



331 



See, feigen, atr. 

seek, fud^en, w, 

seil, t)er!au'fen, 10. 

Semester, baS ©eme'ftcr, — «, — • 

sentenee, ber ©aj, — cÄ, — c; bcr 

senrant, bcr S)icncr, — «, — ; bcr 

Äned^t, — (e)8, — c. 
set, un'tergcl^cn, sfr. (fein); ftcttcn, 

M?. ; legen, w, ; fc^cn, tu. 
seyen, ftcbcn« 
shake, fd^üttcbt, to. 
she, ftc* 

sheep, boS @d^af, — <c)», — c* 
shepherd, ber ©d^ftfer, — -'g, — . 
shoe, ber ©d^u^, (c)S, — e. 
shoemaker, ber @c^u]^mad)er, — i$, 
• — ; ber ©d^ufter, -hJ, — . 
shoot, fd^iegcn, str. 
shore, baiJ Ufer, — «, — . 
Shoulder, bie @d|ulter, — n. 
Show, feigen, w. 
Shuttle, bie ©pule, — lu 
silk, bie ©eibe, — n; acy., feiben. 
silver, baiJ ©Über, —4; adj., [il- 

benu 
simple, einfad^. 
simplicity, bie ^infad^^eit 
since, feit; bcu 
sing, fingen, str. 
sister, bie ©d^tocflcr, — n. 
sister-in-law, bie ©(^h)5gerin, 

— nen^ 
Sit, fi|en, Str. 
situated, gelegen; l)e situated, 

liegen, str. 
six, fed^S* 

sixteenth, fed^jc^nt 
sky, ber §immcl, —4, ^. 
slay, erf rfjla ' gen, str. 
sleep, ber ©d[|laf, — {e)3. 



sleep, fc^Iafen, str. ; go to sleep, 

ein'fddlafen, 8tr. (fein); fd^lafen 

ge^cn, str. (fein). 
smaU, Hein« 
smile, lächeln, w. 
smithy, bie ©d^imicbc, — n. 
snow, ber ©d^ncc, —8. 
soft, fanft , 

soldier, ber ©olbat%— cn, — cn. 
son, ber ©ol^n, — (c)8, — c. 
song, bag Sieb, — (e)8, —er. 
sorry, leib ; I am sorry, eg tnt mit 

leib ; I am sorry for you, bu tuft 

mir leib. 
sonth, ber ©üben, — ^J. 
southem, füblid^. 
Sonth Germany, ©übbcntfd^lanb, 

sparrow , ber ©^)erling, — Ä, — e. 
speak, f^ redten, str, 
speetacles, bie drille,— n« 
spin, f^innen, str. 
spirit, ber ©eift, — (e)8, —er; in 

good spirits, tDOl^lgemnt, bei guter 
•Saune, l^citcr. 
splendid(ly), |)räd^tig, ))ra(^tüon, 

großartig. 
splendor, bie ^rac^t. 
spring, ber grül^ling, —8, — e. 
spront, f^rießen, str. (fein). 
stand, ftel^en, str. 
Star, ber ©tem, —5, — e. 
statne, bie ©tatue, — n; baS 3)en!'« 

mal, —8, -=-^r. 
stay, bleiben, str. (fein), 
steal, ftel^len, str. 
Step, treten, sfr. (fein); step for- 

ward, öortreten, str, (fein). 
stepmother, bie ©tiefmutter, — • 
still, nod). 

stork, bcr ©tord^, —8, -=^ 
story, bie QJcfd^ic^te, — n. 



332 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



Strassbnrgy baS ©ttagburg, — Ä; 

adj., ftrogburger. 
stream, bcr fjlug, — ffciJ, — ffc; bcr 

Strom, — (e)g, -^^e. 
Street^ bie Straße, —iL 
stron^T; ftarl. 
stndent, ber ©tubcnt', — cn, — cn; 

bie ©tuben'tin, — neiu 
gtudy, fiubie'ren, m ; bod Stubium, 

— S, — bien» 
styie^ ber ©til, —{e'fi, — e; style o£ 

architecture. ber- ©auftiL 
snbject, ba» 2fad^, — <c)8, —er; ber 

Untertan, —8, — cn; oc?;., Unter- 
tan. 
subject; unterorbnen, tf^. 
8nddeii(ly), plö^lid^ 
snffer, leiben, str, 
snm, bie Summe, — n. 
sammer, ber Sommer, —8, — ♦ 
sun, bit Sonne, —n. 
Sunday, ber Sonntag, — S, — e. 
superior, überle'gen. 
Support, ftd^ ftil^en, w. 
snppose, be supposed to, fotten. 
surprised, überrafc&t; be surprised 

at, \iä) tounbem über. 
sweetly, füg. 

svford, baS Sd^tocrt, — {e)iJ, —er. 
System of Instruction, bad \Xn* 

terrirf)tgtoefen, *-8, — • 

table, ber %x\6), — (cÄ — «• 
Tacitus, ber Xacitu^, bed SacituS. 
tailor, bcr Scfjneiber, — 8, — . 
take, nel^mcn, str.y take to heart, 

ficf) gu ^ergen nel^men. 
take off, ab 'nehmen, s^r., ab 'legen, 

u>., ausgießen, str, 
tankard, bie 5tanne, — n. 
teacher, ber Sparer, — ö, — ; bie 

ßci^rcrin, — ncn. 



technieal, ted^nifci^; teohnical 

school, bicted^nif4e$ocJ^fc^ule,-n. 
teil, fagen, w., erjä^Ten, w. 
ten, ^etyx. 
than, aU* 
that, dem. pron., jener, jene, jenes ; 

ber, bie, baS; reZ., bcr, bie, bo§; 

cortj., baß. 
the, def, art, bcr, bie, bai^; the. . . 

the, jc.bcfto. 
their, il^r, il^re, il^r. 
theirs, i^rer, il^re, t]^r(e)8. 
there, ha, bort; there is, are, eS, 

ift, e§ finb, eg gibt. 
therefore, barum', beä^alb, beömc- 

gen. 
they, fte» 
thin^, bad ®ing, — (e)g, — e, thd 

second thing, ba^ 3^^^^^* 
tbink, beulen, irr., cf. App. 88; 

think of, geben 'fett (gen.). 
third, britt. 
thirty, breigig. 
this, biefer, biefc, bicfeS (bicS). 
thoronghly, tüd^tig. 
thonght, ber ©ebanlc, — n», — n. 
three, brei. 
throngh, hvLxd^ (aoo.), through 

it, baburd^'; through whicli, 

tooburd^'. 
time, bie geit, — en; the first time, 

baS erfte SUiuL 
tiresome, langtoeilig. 
to, 5U (dat.); nad^ (dat.); an 

(acc); toand fro, l^tn unb ^cr. 
too, 5u; aud^. 

tower, ber Xurm, — (c)iJ, -^e. 
trace back, ^urüdE'fül^rcn, w, 
treat, bel^an'beln, ti;. 
tree, ber S3aum, — (e)S, -^^^ 
tree top, ber SBtpfel, — Ä, — ^ 
trice, in a trioe, im ^xu 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



333 



trank (of a tree) bcr (Stamm, 

turn, feieren,«?. 
twelve, jtDölf. 

twenty-four, öicrunbätoaitäig. 
two, älocu 

nncle, ber Onfcl, — §, — . 

uniform^ einl^eitUci^. 

nnite, öetei'ncn, lo. 

nniYersity, bie Unibcrfität, — ciu 

nntil, big; not until, erft. 

npon, auf, (aco. and dat.); once 
upon a time, einmal' ; upon the 
whole, im ganzen; upon this, 
that, barauf; upon whioh, 
toorauf. 

use, gebrou^en, w. ; bcnü^en, w. 

nsnallj, getoöl^nlid^* 

TElkyrie, bie SSoIIü're, —tu 
yast, mäditig, riefig. 
yery, fe^r. 

village, ha^ ^orf, — (e)§, —er. 
visitor, ber SBcfw'cä^et, — 8, — . 
Tulnerable, t)ern)imb ' bar. 

wagon, ber SBagen, — g, — . 
wagoner, ber ^u\)vmann, — (e)8, 

— Icute. 
walk, gelten, fpajie'ren ge^cn, str. 

(fein). • 
walk, ber ®ang, — eS, — e. 
wall, bie aßauer, •— n; bie SBonb, 

~e. 
want, ttJoHen, w. 
war, ber ^rieg, — (e)3, — e. 
warrior, ber Krieger, — S, — . 
watch, bie SBa(^t, — en. 
wateh, lauten, w., toad^en, w., be- 

too'd^en, «?, 
water, baS SBaffer, —8, — . 
watershed, bie Sßafferfd^eibe, — n» 



way (=manner), bie SBeife, — n; 

(=road, path) ber SBeg, — (e)g, — e. 
we, loir. 

wear, tragen, str. 
week, bie SBod^e, — n. 
well, adj.y gefunb; adv., gut; fd^ön; 

n^ol^I; I am well, id^ befinbe mid^ 

tool^I; I do not feel well, mir ift 

nid^t tt)o]^L 
well, ber SBrunnen, — S, — . 
west, ber SBeften, —8. 
western, toeftlid^. 
what, mag. 
when, interr. adv., ttjonn; covj., 

toenn, afö. 
whence, ttjol^er'. 
where, too; where to, too^in'; 

where from, tt)o!^er'. 
whether, ob. 
whlch, rd,, toeld^er, toeld^e, »eld^eg; 

in whlch, toorin' ; upon whlch, 

toorauf ' ; interr., tt)er,»ag. 
while, bie SBeile; conj. or prep., 

h)ä]^renb. 
whither, wo^in'. 
why, loarum'; interj., ei, nun, 

ja. 
wicked, böfe (bö§), fd^Iec^t. 
Wide, toeit. 

widow, bie SBitme, — n. 
wife, bie fjrau, — en; bie ©attin, 

—neu. 
will (wish) tooHen, w. 
willow, bie SBeibe, — n. 
Window, bag genfter, — g, — . 
wine, ber Sßein, —^e)^, — e. 
Winter, ber SBinter, — g, — . 
wish, ttJünfd^en, w.; ber SBunfc^, 

— e8, — e. 
with, mit (dat.); with it, bamit', 

wlth whlch, what, toomit'. 
withdraw, [x6) jurüd'jicljen^ str. 



334 



ELEMENTS OP GERMAN 



wlthont, o^ne (acc); (^out-of- 

doors), braugcn. 
wolf, bet ©olf, --(e)g, ^e. 
woman, hie grau, — eiu 
wonderftil, tounbcrbar. 
^ood, bag ^olj, — c«, -^er. 
wood-nymph, bag Söalbtociblein, 

woodpecker, ber (S|)ed^t, — {e)i?, — e. 
Woods ber SBalb, --(c)g, -^cr. 
wood-sprIte, bag ©albtociblein, —g 

work. bte STrbeit, ^n; orbeiten, 

work of art, baS Äunfttoerf, — § 
— e. ' 

World, bie ©elt, — «u 



wonn, ber SBurm, — (e)g, ^et. 
write, fd^reiben, str. 
wrong, folfd^; unrid^tig. 

year, bag »a^r, - (e)g, ~e. 
yes, ja. 

yleld, m(i)'Qehen,str. (dat.); auS'* 

toeid^cn,s^r., (dat.) (fein). 
you, hu, (Sie, il^r. 
youiigr, jung. 
yonr,bein, betne, bein; 3§r, g^re, 

3^r; euer, eure, euer* 
yours, beiner, beine, bein(e)§ 

3^ter, S^rt, Qf^reg; eurer, eure' 

eures. 

youth,ber3üngIing,-ö,.-e. 
«ephyrs, bie ßüftc* 



INDEX 

The references are to sections. All numbers after "App." rtfer tosectlons ot 
the Appendix. 



a, pronunciation of , App. 4, 6 

ä, pronunciation of , App. 8 

al>ev, 65 

accent, in verbs, 78, 7; in nouns, 369, 

2, App. 23, e 
accusative, App. 148-164; with verbs 

(impersonal, reflexive), sole object, 

149-1S2, 249; two objects, 163-166, 

123; cognate, 167; adverbial (time, 

place, measnre, distribution) ,158-162 ; 

absolute, 163; withprepositions,164; 

Instead of gen., 121-122 
address, pron. of, App. 165 
a^e, 452, 5 
adJectiyes, formation of , 350, 7, 369, 4, 

374, 535, 2; used as noun, 300, 2, 377, 

6; uninflected, 394, 3 
Inflection of, App. 38-41; compar- 

ison, 50-56; with gen., 125; with 

dat., 145 
adverbs, App. 49; comparison, 50-56 
ai, pronunciation of, App. 6 
aU, 255 
aüein, 78, 5 
aUevl)and, App. 44 
allerlei, App. 43, 4, 44 
aUe», 118, 1 

alliterative pbrases, 229, 2, 308, 12 
Alphabet, German, pp. 224-25 
al§, use of , 403, note 
al\0, 68, 2 

ald 01} , with subj., App. 191 
am, with superl., App. 55-56 
antet, 388, 3 
anfiall, App. 217 
appositlon, 461 
article, see def . and indef . art. 
au, pronunciation of , App. 6 
äu, pronunciation of , App. 6 



auxillaries of tense, App. 61-66; use, 

67-70; modal, 81-82, 223-247 
auziliary, Omission of , 455, 7 



B 



^ianh, App. 16 
9»ant, pl. of, App. 25 
het, 78, 7 

beMivf en, App. 236 
bleibet!, 405, 6 
blühen, 489, 4 
Stttt^, App. 16 



cardinals, App. 45-47 

causatiyes, App. 85 

d), pronunciation of, App. 10, a 

sdieti, App. 13, a, 20, b 

^^, pronunciation of , App. 10, k 

d, pronunciation of, App. 10, a 

command, subjunctive of , App. 196 

comparison of adjectives and adverbs, 

App. 50-56 
Compound nouns, 523, l; inflection 

of , 208, 3 
Compound verbs,* App. 80 
concessive subjunctiye, App. 198 
condition, unreal, App. 185-188, 196, 

192; real, 189 
conditional for subjunctive, App. 187 
conjunctions, 403 
consonants, App. 9-10 
contraction of prep. and def. art., 

App. 102; prep. and Itio, ha, 171-174; 

and bed, tue«, 175 



ba (l)in, Mtt), App. 174 

ba{x), in Compounds, App. 171-175 

batnil, App. 173 



335 



336 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAl^ 



bad (neut. subj.)« Omission of, 341, 2 

^afi, Omission of , App. 182 

datiye. App. 130-147; with verbs 
(approach, similarity, appurtenance, 
etc.), 132-140; indirect object, 141; 
interest, 142; ethical, 143; posses- 
sive, 144; with adjectives, 146; with 
prepositions, 146-147; instead of 
gen., 118, 121, 123; in passive, 222; 
impersonal, 87, 219 

declension of articles, App. 11-12; 
nouns, 17-26; pronouns, 27-37; ad- 
jectives, 3^-44 

definite article, declension, App. 11; 
use, 99-104; diflerent from English, 
100; in phrases, 101; contractions, 
102-103; repetition, 104 

demonstratives, App. 11, 34; use, 
166-167; comi)Ounds, 171-170 

hex, art.,App. 11, use, 99-104; dem., 
34, use, 166; rel., 36, use, 168 

dependent clauses, word-order in, 
App. 90 

berienige, App. 35, 42; use, 167 

tetUi, App. 44 

betf elbe, App. 36; use, 167 

betmeil, 496, 8 

heütialb, App. 176 

desire, subj. of, App. 193-199 

befto, 386, 6 

be^\»e^en, App. 176 

beutf<^, 877, 6 

tu», App. 11, 34; use, 167 

diphthongs, App. 6 

hodi, 236, 299, 2 

doubt, subjunctive of , App. 191-192 

txei, App. 46 

tu, inflection, 233; capitalization, 276; 
use, 618, 4, App. 166 

bttvd), 370, 5 

bttvfcn, App. 81-82; use, 226, 236-237 

E 

e, pronunciation of, App. 4, 6 

:e in dat. sing., 192; fem. in, App. 14, 

b; masc. in, 28, c; neut. in, 20, b; as 

sign of pl., 19 
ti, pronunciation of, App. 6 
sei, App. 14, b 

ein, art., App. 12; pron., 44; num., 46 
eins, 394, 6 
tel, dim., 491, 7: nouns in, App. 20 



sen, adj. in, 360, 7; nouns in, App. 20 

as sign of pl., 23, 24; =ۤ in gen 

sing., 39, note 
sen», in gen., App. 26; inadv., 48 
tuU, 78, 7 
tts, 78, 7 
Set, adj. in, 369, 4; nouns in, App 1^ 

a, 20; as sign of pl., 19 
setn, adj. in, 360, 7 
e'tfts, 367, note 
€Vt»a49en, 360, It 
t», impersonal, 249, App. 222, 249 
tit»a», App. 43, 4 
ett, pronunciation of, App. 6 
ezclamatlon, gen. (nom., acc.) in, App. 

129; inf. in, 211 



factitive verbs, see causatlves 

flnlicit, with inf., App. 206 

foreign nouns, accent of, App. 23, e 

ftactlonals, 346 

fttlllcn, with inf., App. 206, 212 

future, formation of, 280; use, App. 

178; Substitute for, 179 
future perfect, formation of, 281; 

use, App. 179 



^, pronunciation of, App. 10, b 

® es, App. 16, c 

qes, Omission of, in perf. part., 78, 7; 
as augment, App. 68 

gellen, sing, of, 161; tfttlcten, 536,3 

qetibten, 369, l 

^emaOi, 491, 10 

gender, rules for, App. 16; determined 
by meaning, 13; by endings, 14; vari- 
able, 16 

genltive, App. 18; use, 112-129; at- 
tributive, 118-119; partitive, 120; 
with verbs, 122; with verbs, second- 
ary object, 123-124; with adjectives, 
126; with prepositions, 126; adverb- 
ial (place, time, manner, cause), 127- 
129; exclamatory, 129; Substitutes 
for, 118-119, 121 

^et»otten, App. 78, note 

0ibt, ed, 341, 4 

Olauben, App. 213 

fileid), 472, 8 

qui, App. 62, b; ha» »Uit, 217 



INDEX 



337 



ftahen, App. 61, l ; conjugation of, 62- 

66; use as aux., 67-68 
itialh, App. 176 
lial^ev, App. 33 
«aifte, 346 

lld^ett, withinf., App. 206; use, 248 
sf)cU, App. 14, b 
f^elUn, wlth Inf., App. 206: wlth dat., 

137 
rjcteitt, 171, 10 
S^ett, App. 23 
ftU, 313 
Dieftd, 374 
mnau», 171, 10 
f|od), App. 62, a 
Hjiten, wlth Inf., App. 206, 212 
t}un'^ext, App. 47 



l, pronunciatlon of , App. 4, 6 

id), Inflectlon of, 233; Omission, 452, 4 

=id|, App. 14, a 

sie, App. 14, b 

stete«, 78, 7 

=lö, adj. in, 374; nouns in, App. 14, a 

3l)ir, use of, 467, 4, 618, 4; Substitute 
for, 176 

sif, App. 14. b 

immev, 146, 4, 442, 4 

imperative, App. 64, 77; use, 200-204; 
Substitutes for, 203-204, 207, 217 ' 

Impersonal verbs, App. 87, 249; wlth 
dat., 139: with acc, 151 

sin, 215, App. 14, b 

indefinite article, App. 12 

indefinite pronouns, App. 34-36 

indem, App. 217 

indicative, App. 73-76; use, 176-179; 
= subj., 190; =lmper., 176, e 

Indirect discourse, App. 181-184 

indirect question, 443, note 

Infinitive, App. 65, 77; use, 205-213; 
without %u, 206; wlth sn, 208-211, 
213; passive meaning (after laffen, 
Utfen, etc.), 212; =imper., 207; as 
Substantive, 209, 216; Omission of, 
230, 232. 241 

inseparable prefixes, 78, 7 

inseparable verbs, App. 80 

interrogative pronouns, App. 37 

intransitive verbs, App. 68 



sioit,App. 14, b 
Irregulär verbs, App. 88 
sif dl, adj. in, 535, 2 
sium, 218 



i, pronunciatlon of, App. 10, c 
ie, 386, 6 
iebs, App. 34 
iebevmaitn, App. 35 
Uh\»eh:, App. 34 
ie0Ud)s,App. 34 
{emaitd, App. 86 
ien, App. 34; use, 167 



fein, App. 12 
sf elt, App. 14, b 

fennen, 331, note; irreg. verb, App. 88 
know, App. 231 

fdnnen, App. 81-82; use, 224, 230-231 
funut, 406, 13 



»anh, 405, 2 

iaffen, App. 84; with Inf., 206, 212; 

Substitute for passive, 221; use, 248 
lautet, 306, 7 
leisten, withiinf., App. 206 
üeih», 394, 9 
sleln, App. 13, a, 20, b 
letnen, with Inf., App. 206 
le^ts, 367, note 
sUttte, sing, of, 249, 4, 261, 2 
sllttö, App. 14, a 
(od, 422, 2 
üuUf 428, 2 



madi ett, with Inf., App. 2O6 

man, App. 35; use, 221 

mand), App. 34, 43, 2 

nt and) et I ei, App. 44 

aPlatt, 386, 8 

may, App. 234 

mized dedension of nouns, App. 24- 
25; adjectives, 41 

modal auxiliaries, App. 81-82; pas- 
sive wlth, 221; use, 223-247 

modes, App. 59, seeindic, subj., etc. 



338 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



mi^en, App. 81-82; meaning of, 225; 

use, 282-234 
mot^ett», 820 

möfTeit, App. 81-82; use, 238-239 
9luti€t, App. 20, e 

N 

:n, in dat. pl., 179, b 

nadi, 104 

itadj^etti, App. 217 

nafte, App. 52, a 

netumtn, 151 

110, pronunciation of, App. 10, i 

niOii», App. 43, 4 

niemand, App. 35 

nimmet, 357, 8 

sni^, App. 15, c 

n\i, 496, 1 

nod), 68, 4 

nominative, App. 105-111; apposltion, 

105; predicate, 109-110; absolute, 111 
non-personal verbs with toioUett, 

App. 246 
noims, in apposition, 461; gender of, 

App. 13-16; strong declension, 19- 

22; weak, 23; mlxed, 24-25; proper, 

26; see gen. , dat. , acc. 
number of nouns, see plur. 
numerals, App. 45-48 



0, pronunciation of, App. 4, 5 
d, pronunciation of, App. 8 
ol»0leid), Separation of, 311, 7 
fO^em, 491, 11 
ol)ne, App. 217 

:üt, 218 

ordinalB, App. 48 
ought, App. 243 



participial noun, App. 215-217 
participlo, uninflected, 484, App. 214- 

217; asadj., 214, 217; =imper., 217 
pasBiye, App. 78-79, 218; real, 219; 

Substitutes for, 220-222 
perfect participle = Eng. inf., 198, 1 ; 

formation of, App. 58; use, 214, 217 
perfect, formation of, 80; use, App. 

177; = future i)erfect, 179 
personal pronoun, Position of , 349, 1 ; 



agreement of , 47; inflectlon, App. 28; 

use, 165 
pluperfect, formation of, 230; use, 

App. 177 
Plural of strong nouns, App. 19; weak 

nouns, 23; mixed nouns, 24; double 

Plurals, 26 
poBBessive compoundB, App. 33 

POBBOBBiveB, App. 12, 31-32. 43, 44 

predicate, adj., 296; nom., App. 109- 

110 
prefixeB, inseparable, 78, 7, 516; separ- 

able, 516; doubtful, 516 
prepoBitlonB, with gen., App. 126; 

with dat., 146; with dat. and acc. 

147: with acc, 164; com pounded^ith 

pronouns, 171-173, 175; prep. with 

inf., 217; contracted with def. art, 

102 
preeent, umlaut in, 147, 5; use of, 

App. 176;= future, 179 
preterite, formation of , 142; use, App. 

177; pret.-pres. verbs, 81 
progresBiye form, 146, 4 
pronominal adJectiveB, App. 44 
pronounB, App. 27-37, 166-175; see 

personal, possessive, etc. 
pronunciation, App. i-io 
proper nounB, inflection of , App. 26 



B 

reflexive pronounB, App. 29. 
reflexive verbB, App. 86; with gen.. 

124; with dat., 140; with acc, 162; 

Substitute for passive, 221' 
relative pronoune. App. 36; use, 168- 

170; comix)unds, 171-175 



8 



}f pronunciation of , App. 10, g 

s\al, App. 16, c 

\äi, pronunciation^of, App. 10,/ 

s\dtaUf App. 14, b 

f<^tt>ai;men, 360, 10 

Bcript, German, pp. 224-26 

®ee, App. 16 

feilen, with int, 206, 212 

fein, conjugation of, App. 62-66; use 

as aux., 67, 69-70; with inf., 212 
f elbet, App. 34 



INDEX 



339 



separable preflxes. 515-516 

separ&ble verbs, App. 80 

sequence of tenses, App. 183-184 

fid) . App. 29 

®te, App. 28; use, 165; imper., 201 

fle, Substitute for e^, 306, 8 

fl^en, 458, 1 

f old>, App. 34, 43, 2 

^oldietUi, App. 44 

foUcn, App. 81-82; use, 240-243 

^onhetn, 65 

ftaii, 320, 9 

fietten, sing, of, 151 

Btrong conjugation, App. 74, 76-77; 

list of strong verbs, 89 
streng declenflloii of nouns, App. 17- 

22; adjectives, 39, 43, 2-4 
strong verbs, umlaut in pres., 149- 

153; listof, App. 89 
subjunctlve, App. 72; use, 180-199; 

indirect discourse, 181-184; unreal 

condition, 185-192; desire, 193-199; 

Substitutes for, 187, 190. 197, 199; 

=imper., 196 
Substantive adjective, 300, 2, 377, 6 
Superlative, App. 54-56 



tattfenb, App. 47 
a:eH, App.:i6 
'-iel, 346 

tenses App. 60; use, 176-179; se- 
quence, 183-184 
thematic vowel, 444 
time. reckoning of, 362 
'tion, 369,2 
Xoditet, App. 20, c 
transitive verbs, App. 68 
tttUn, 151 
'-tum, App. 22 



u, proflunclation of , App. 4, 6 

ü, pronunclation oU App. 8 

ttitt, App. 217 

Umlaut, App. 7-8; in nouns 19; in 

adj., 50, 52; in pres. indic. and pret. 

subj.,71, ö, 72 
um . . . miaeti, App. 83 
sttttg, App. 14, b 



tf, pronunciation of , App. 10, d 

^ets, 78, 7 

verbs, separable and inseparable, 516; 
Omission of verbs of motion, 227, 1; 
conjugation of, App. 57-89; conjuga- 
tion of strong and weak, 73-77; with 
gen., 122-124; with dat., 131-144; 
wlth acc, 149-157; with dat. in 
passive, 222; Omission with modal 
aux., 230, 232, 241; see tense, mode, 
etc. 

^etlotm ^tfien, 065, 3 

toevmdgen, App. 233 

^tx^ptedien, 397. 11 

Hlel, App. 52, b 

l»ieletf(i, App. 44 

tfoü, 308 

tfon, 370, 5 

vowels, quantity and quality of, App. 
1-3; long and short, App. 4-5 



W 

to, pronunciation of , App. 10. e 

t0aäien, 360, 11 

matten, 394. 5 

\»a^, Substitutes for, 127; inflection of, 

App. 36, 37; use, 170 
\»a^ fttv ein, App. 87 
weak conjugation, App. 73, 75, 77 
weak declension of nouns, App. 23; 

adjectives, 40 
weak verbs, connecting vowel in, 155, 

note, 171, 2; conjugation of, App. 73, 

75,77 
slvefien, App. 33, 175 
mell^, App. 36, 37, 43, 2; use. 168 
t»enn, use of, 408, note; Omission of, 

App. 188, 194 
\»ex, App. 36, 37; use. 169 
inethtn, App. 61, 2; conjugation of, 

62-66; use as aux., 67, II;=will, 246; 

perf. part., 78, note 
medl^alf», App. 175 
t0e»\»e^en, App. 175 
wish, subj. of, App. 197 
loiffen, 331; irreg. verb, App. 83 
t»0^et, tt)Ol)in, Separation of, 130, 2; 

App. 174 
\»0üen, App. 81-82; use, 244-247 
\»oit), in compoimds, App. 171-175 



340 



ELEMENTS OF GERMAN 



word-order in poetry, 406, 9, lo, 618, 
7; in Compound tenses of modal aux., 
426; in sentence, App. 90-98; Omis- 
sion of hat, 182, of tueitfi, 188, 194 

^0ti, pl. of, App. 26 

tȟn\dien, App. 213 

tvttvde, su1>stitute for \»tth€, 464. 3 



Z 

i, pronimciation of , App. IQ, h 

jets, 78, 7 

Stt, 104, 433. 2; with Inf.. A^^. 208- 

211, 213; Omission, 206-206 
it»$i, App. 46 



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